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This is not the entire population of a given geographical area, but the pre-defined set of potential respondents (elements) in a geographical area. Population may be : Study on Branded baby foods in Bangalore : All mothers who buy branded baby food in Bangalore" Perception of MTV among teens in India : All teens who watch MTV in the country Preferred Celebrities among Alliance students All the students of Alliance University

Sample vs. Census

Census -- every population member included. collecting data from every mother who use branded baby food (ex: 10,000) Sample is part of the Population. With sampling, researcher infers population characteristics from a sample. Colleting data from defined set of mothers who use branded baby food (ex:100)

Why sample?
Saves money Saves time Inevitable

Sampling element
Element: Unit about which information is sought Most common units in marketing: Individuals/households

Sampling terms
Sample Frame: A list of population members Telephone directory of Mumbai as a sampling frame to represent the target population defined as "the adult residents of Mumbai". List of students (from the office of the dean) in alliance university

Sample Types
Two broad categories: Probability Sampling: each population element has a known, and equal chance of being included in the sample Known Population Non-probability sampling: cannot mathematically estimate the probability of a population element being included in the sample Unknown Population

Known Population
Analysis of specializations preferences among alliance university students Known Population : you can use any one of the probability sampling methods. Measuring dealers satisfaction for Ultratech cement

unknown population
Consumers preference in Potato chips unknown Population : you can use any one of the non-probability sampling methods. Measuring customers satisfaction for Pepsi

Classification of Sampling Techniques

Sampling Techniques

Nonprobability Sampling Techniques

Probability Sampling Techniques

Convenience Sampling

Judgmental Sampling

Quota Sampling

Snowball Sampling

Simple Random Sampling

Systematic Sampling

Stratified Sampling

Cluster Sampling

Other Sampling Techniques

Convenience Sampling
Convenience sampling attempts to obtain a sample of convenient elements. Often, respondents are selected because they happen to be in the right place at the right time.

Use of students, and members of social organizations Mall intercept interviews without qualifying the respondents People on the street interviews

Judgmental Sampling
Judgmental sampling is a form of convenience sampling in which the population elements are selected based on the judgment of the researcher.

-Test markets

Snowball Sampling
In snowball sampling, an initial group of respondents is selected, usually at random.

After being interviewed, these respondents are asked to identify others who belong to the target population of interest. Subsequent respondents are selected based on the referrals.

Quota Sampling
Attempt to be representative by selecting sample elements in proportion to their known incidence in the population Determine the stratum or quota based on some criteria: age, sex, education etc

Quota Sampling
Example: Surveying undergraduate students about campus food services Step 1: Identify attributes researcher believes is important, e. g. sex and class level Class level First Year Final year Sex Male Female

Probability Sampling

Simple Random Sampling

Each element in the population has a known and equal probability of selection. Each possible sample of a given size (n) has a known and equal probability of being the sample actually selected. Generate random number through MS-excel Rand between (1,10) : give the random no between 1 and 10.

Systematic Sampling
Systematically spreads sample through a list of population members Example: If a population contained 10,000 people, and need a size of 1000, select every 10th list name In nearly all practical examples, the procedure results in a sample equivalent to SRS

Stratified Sampling

A two-step process in which the population is partitioned into subpopulations, or strata.

The strata should be mutually exclusive and collectively exhaustive in that every population element should be assigned to one and only one stratum and no population elements should be omitted.
Next, elements are selected from each stratum by a random procedure, usually SRS. A major objective of stratified sampling is to increase precision without increasing cost.

Stratified Sampling
For example, a consumer population may be divided into age brackets of below 25 and above 25 years sex male or female. Then, a sample is taken from each of the strata defined earlier. Male below 25 Female below 25 Male above 25 Female above 25

How is this different from quota sampling?

Sample is taken from known Population. It has known and equal probability of being selected.

Area (or Cluster) Sampling

Elements are geographically grouped into relatively homogenous clusters (e.g. a city is divided into 40 areas) From these areas, 10 are randomly selected From these larger areas, blocks within areas will be randomly selected Within each block, attempt to survey each household

Determining Sample Size in a Non-statistical way

Ad Hoc Methods (non-statistical)

Rules of thumb: Collect sample size large enough so that when divided into groups, each group will have a minimum sample of 100 . Comparable studies: Find similar studies which are successful and getting sufficiently reliable results Budget constraints: calculate the cost of interview and data analysis per respondent. Divide total budget by this amount to get maximum sample size.

Drinking Tea Prevents Cancer in Women Having 2 cups of tea every day reduces the chances of being affected by cancer. A research study in the University of Washington and in the National Institute of Environmental Medicine in Stockholm has just proved the fact. ECGC an oxidant present in the tea (mainly in black and green tea) prevents the production of HSP90, therefore this will reduce the chances of getting effected by the protein.


Definition: Scaling

The Generation of continuum upon which measured objects are located.


DESCRIPTION : Refers to the use of a unique descriptor or label, to stand for each designation in the scale. Yes or no, agree and disagree ORDER : refers to the relative sizes of the descriptors. Greater than or lesser than. DISTANCE: when absolute difference between the descriptors are known and may be expressed in units. ORIGIN: A scale is said to have the characteristics of origin if there is a unique beginning or true zero point for the scale.


Nominal Scale : are defined as those that use only labels; that is they possess only the characteristic of description. Ordinal Scale : Permit the researcher to rank order the respondents or their responses. Interval Scale :are those in which the distance between each descriptor is known. For adjacent descriptors, the distance is normally defined as one scale unit. Ratio scale : are ones in which a true zero origin existssuch as an actual number of purchases in certain period, Rs spent, miles travelled and year of experience


Nominal Scale : The numbers serve only as labels or tags for identifying and classifying objects. Ordinal Scale : A ranking scale in which numbers are assigned to objects to indicate the relative extent to which the objects possess some characteristic. Interval Scale :Numerically equal distances on the scale represent equal values in the characteristic being measured. Ratio scale : Possesses all the properties of the nominal, ordinal, and interval scales. It has an absolute zero point.

Primary Scales of Measurement

Scale Nominal
Numbers Assigned to Runners Rank Order of Winners
Third place Second place


First place


Performance Rating on a 1 to 10 Scale Time to Finish in Seconds





Find out the scale

Please indicate your gender: Male female Which brands do you prefer : Nokia, Samsung ,apple Please rank the above brands based on your preference. Please rate above three brands on following parameters Style very good 5 4 3 2 1 very poor Colors Price How much do you think Apple phone valuable? What is the probability that you will buy apple next time?

Primary Scales of Measurement

Scale Nominal Basic Characteristics Numbers identify & classify objects Common Examples Social Security nos., numbering of football players Nos. indicate the Quality rankings, relative positions rankings of teams of objects but not in a tournament the magnitude of differences between them Differences Temperature between objects (Fahrenheit) Zero point is fixed, Length, weight ratios of scale values can be compared Marketing Permissible Statistics Examples Descriptive Inferential Brand nos., store Percentages, Chi-square, types mode binomial test Preference Percentile, rankings, market median position, social class Rank-order correlation, Friedman ANOVA


Interval Ratio

Attitudes, opinions, index sales, income, costs

Range, mean, standard Geometric mean, harmonic mean

Productmoment Coefficient of variation