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is any set of coherent answers to the dilemmas of human existence that makes the world meaningful. is a system of beliefs and rituals that serves as bind people together through shared worship, thereby creating social group. is a set of beliefs and practices that pertain to sacred or supernatural realm that guides human behavior and gives meaning to life among community of believers.


Travers and Rebore Define religion as 1. a belief about the meaning of life. 2. a commitment by individual and the group to this belief. 3. a system of moral practices resulting from a commitment to his belief. 4. a recognition by proponents of his belief that is supreme or absolute.


Characteristic of Religion
1. Belief in a deity. 2. A doctrine of salvation.

3. A code of conduct.
4. The use of sacred stories. 5. Religious rituals


Functions of Religion

1. It serves as a means of social control. 2. It exerts a great influence upon personality development.
3. It allays fear of the unknown. 4. It explains events or situations which are beyond the comprehension of man. 5. It gives man comfort, strength and hope in times of crisis and despair.


Functions of Religion

6. It preserves and transmits knowledge, skills, spiritual and cultural values and practices. 7. It serves as an instrument of change. 8. It promotes closeness, love, cooperation, friendliness and helpfulness.
9. It alleviates sufferings from major calamities. 10. It provides hope for a blissful life after death.


Difference among churches 1. Church tends to be large, with inclusive membership, in low tension with surroundings society.
2. Sect

has a small, exclusive membership, high tension with society.

3. Cults more innovative and are formed when people create new religious beliefs and practices.


Elements of Religion 1. Sacred.

2. Legitimation of norms.
3. Rituals. 4. Religious Community.


Economic Institutions

Microeconomics vs. Macroeconomics Microeconomics concerned with the specific economic units of parts that makes an economic system and relationship between those parts. Macroeconomics concerned with the economy as a whole, or large segment of it.

Basic Economic Problems 1. What goods and services to produce? How much? 2. How to produce goods and services? 3. For whom are the goods and services?

Government As A Social Institution

resolves conflicts that are public in nature and involve more than few people. institution by which an independent society makes and carries out those rules of action which are necessary to enable men to live in social state, or which are imposed upon the people for that society by those who possess the power or authority of prescribing them.

The three branches of Philippine Government

The Executive Branch propose and enforce rules and laws.

The Legislative Branch

makes rules and laws. The Judicial Branch

adjudicates rules and laws.

Functions of Government 1. The constituent functions.

contribute to the very bonds of society and are therefore




compulsory. The keeping of order and providing for the protection of persons property from violence and robbery. The fixing of the legal relations between husband and wife, and between parents and children. the regulation of the holding, transmission , and interchange of property, and the determination of its liabilities for the debt or for crime. the determination of contractual rights between individuals.

e. The definition and punishment for crimes. f. The administration of justice in civil cases. g. The administration of political duties, privileges, and relations citizens. h. the dealings of State with foreign growers, the preservation of the state from external dander or encroachment and the advancement of its international affairs interest.

2. The ministrant functions

undertaken to advance the general interest of society, such as public works, public charity, and regulation of trade and industry. These function are merely optional.