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FORENSIC MEDICINE AND MEDICOLEGAL PAPER

PRESIPITINE TEST

Clilical Internship Forensic Medicine and Medicolegal Medical Faculty Diponegoro University / RSUP Dr. KARIADI SEMARANG NOVEMBER 7th- DECEMBER 3rd, 2011

CHAPTER ONE

In the most physical criminal case such as murder, persecution, rape, et cetera, may be found blood, semen, saliva, urine, hair and other body tissues in the crime scene

victim

perpetrator

Both of them

can be very useful to reveal the crime scientifically

Among the various body fluids, blood is the most important because it is a biological fluid with more specific potential characteristic for certain human groups

The main purpose of forensic blood test is actually to help identify the owner of the blood, by comparing the blood spots found at the crime scene or clothes from the victim or the crime suspect

In this case, the investigator must obtain clarity on the three main things, namely:
If it really blood, define if it is human or animal blood If it human blood, what is the blood type

Is the spot really blood?


Benzidine or luminol test

Precipitine test

Agglutination test

Based on the description above, the problem identification is

Whether there is precipitate ring on human blood that reacted with rabbit serum?

Research Purpose
To determine the blood spot in crime scene is human or animal (rabbits) blood

To determine how long anti-human serum in rabbit is created

To determine whether precipitate ring in Precipitine Test will be formed in all human blood or will only formed in control blood

Research Benefit
Researcher
Forensic Department Investigator
Improve researchers knowledge about the difference of human and animal blood through Precipitine Test

To help getting an anti-human serum from rabbits in order to help the investigation process
To help the authentication about the difference between the human and animal blood through Precipitine Test

CHAPTER TWO

BLOOD
Blood is the fluid that found in all living things (except plants) that serves to send a high level of substances and oxygen to the body tissues, carrying chemical products of metabolism, as well as the body's defense against viruses or bacteria.

BLOOD COMPOSITION
corpuscula plasma

Antibodies
Antibodies or immunoglobulin (Ig) is a class of proteins that formed plasma cells (B cell proliferation) due to contact with antigen. Antibodies bind to specific antigens that create them.

Forensic Laboratory Examination


Blood spots examination is one of the most common examinations in forensic laboratories
PREPARATION : Patches attached to an object can be scraped off and then soaked in physiological soluti on,or directly soaked with physiological sa line solution when attach ed to clothing

Because blood is easy once scattered in almost all forms of violence the investigation of blood stains is ver y useful to reveal a criminal action

Screening
examination

Benzidine test Fenoftalin test

Confirmation test

Precipitine test : after obtained the result that a red stain is blood, it can be done further testing is convincing examination of the blood pigment or crystals based on the presence of hematin(hemin) and hemokhromogen

Presipitine test
Presipitin test is one of antibodies in quantitative assessments with a simple centrifugation method between the two fluids within the tube.

This test is based on the reaction of antigens and antibodies that would form the antigenantibodycomplexes. In this precipitates a reaction, a number of antigens that have been reacted with serum containing antibodies
Anti-human blood serum (human anti-serum globulin) may be prepared by the injection of a human blood in animals. Human blood will sensitizied animal immunological system to produce antibodie s that serve to identify the composition of human blood as a defense mechanism itself.

CHAPTER THREE

Theoretical Framework
Animal (Rabbit)

Treated group (injected with human blood )

Control group

Presipitine Test

Hypothesis

There is precipitate ring on human blood that is given anti-human serum from rabbit

CHAPTER FOUR

The Study Design The Samples Source

This study is an experimental research. The sample will be intervened in a specific time period

The data that used is a primary data which is taken from rabbit

Population and Samples

Population : vertebrates and warm-blooded animals Samples : rabbit that has a weight of 1 kg 1.5 kg and not disabled Total samples : 6 rabbits (4 rabbits were used as treated group and 2 rabbits were used as controls)

The Study Variables


Independent variables : Human blood Dependent variables : Human antigen from rabbit blood Place and Time of The study at the Installation of Forensic Medicine at RSUP Dr. Kariadi Semarang Tools and Materials of The Study Materials : 1 cc of rabbits blood which is taken from 4 treated groups and 2 control groups, 3cc of Human blood, NaCl 0,9%, Antigen ABO, Alcohol 70% Tools : Syringe 1 cc, Syringe 3 cc , Cotton, Test tube, Pipette, Centrifuge, Scissor , Torniquet

CHAPTER FIVE

Human Blood Identification

Purpose

Determine human blood


Method : Presipitin Test (specific test to define to determine species) Expected Result : Precipitate ring is formed between anti-human serum and the extract, the ring is muddy

Materials : Human and animal (rabbit) blood 3cc and 1cc syringe, and 27 gauge needle Alcohol cotton 70% Test tube Centrifuge NaCl

Research Procedure
Take the blood 1 cc from each rabbit, put into the test tube that already filled by 1 cc NaCl, shake it well.
Centrifuge the test tube with 5000 rpm for 15 minutes until the precipitate and blood serum perfectly separated.

Take 3 cc human blood, put each 0,5 cc into 6 test tubes, then shake it well.
Drop anti-human serum from centrifuged rabbit to every human blood tube test and keep it on room temperature.

Examine whether precipitate ring is formed in the tube test.

Forming anti-human serum

Human blood is injected to rabbit in amount of 10 IU, then in few days rabbit will form antibody

Then take the rabbit blood and isolate the serum that contain antibody for examination

This serum is antihuman serum

CHAPTER SIX

Serum Kelinci 1 2 1 3 -

Hari ke5 7 + + 9 + + 11 -

3
4 5 6

+
+ -

+
+ -

CHAPTER SEVEN

SUMMARY
Blood forensic laboratory examination can be a valuable information or certain criminal case in the court All blood sample in this research showas that precipitate ring is formed in day 7

SUGGESTION
Put more attention to confusing variable of the research in order to get more accurate result Put more detail literature about physiology condition of the rabbit

THANK YOU