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BIOMOLECULES

Building Block Carbohydrat e Simple sugars Uses


Ready source of energy

Examples
Glucose Glycogen Cellulose Starch

Test
STARCH turns purple in iodine SUGARS react with Benedicts Solution Reacts with Biuret Solution

Protein

Amino acids

Transport Speed up reactions Immunity Cell communication

Enzymes (ase) Hemoglobin Antibodies Protein hormones (insulin) Fats, oils

Lipid

Fatty Acids

Back up energy source In membrane

Leaves oily spot on brown paper bag DNA stains (methylene blue)

Nucleic Acid

Nucleotide

Store and transmit genetic info

DNA, RNA

CELLS
PRO KARYO TI C
Prokaryotic cells have DNA and ribosomes, but they have no internal membranes! (They don't have a nucleus) They have ribosomes to make proteins These are the simplest cells Examples are bacteria, like those that cause strep throat.

EUKARYO TI C
Eukaryotic cells have their DNA surrounded by a membrane. (They have a nucleus). Two examples shown are plant cells and animal cells, but fungi and protists are also eukaryotic Notice, plants have chloroplasts (for photosynthesis) and cell walls made of cellulose. Animal cells don't have these parts. Also, plant cells have a larger vacuole for storage. Both plants and animals have mitochondria to make ATP. All eukaryotic cells have ribosomes to make protein These cells are more complex than prokaryotic cells.

CELL MEMBRANE

The plasma membrane surrounds EVERY cell. It is made of lipid and protein It controls what goes in and out of a cell. Associated with HOMEOSTASIS

CELL TRANSPORT

Diffusion
Movement from high to low concentration

Osmosis
Movement of water from high to low WATER concentration across a membrane

Active Transport
Movement from LOW concentration to HIGH concentration

No energy required

No energy required

USES ATP

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND RESPIRATION


CONVERTS SUNLIGHT TO CHEMICAL ENERGY CONVERTS ENERGY IN FOOD (GLUCOSE) TO AT P

Cellular Respiration

Takes place in mitochondrion


Releases the energy stored in glucose AKA aerobic respiration (NEEDS oxygen)

AEROBIC VS ANAEROBIC RESPIRATION


A E R O B I C R E S P I R AT I O N ANAEROBIC R E S P I R AT I O N

Requires oxygen Makes A LOT of ATP

Does not use oxygen Makes only 2 ATP


Small amount of ATP

Also called fermentation


YEASTS make ethyl alcohol BACTERIA and MUSCLE CELLS (w/o O2) make LACTIC ACID

Produces carbon dioxide and water


Happens in mitochondrion

Happens in cytoplasm (cytosol)

ATP CYCLE

CLICK THE ICON FOR SOUND

ASEXUAL VS SEXUAL REPRODUCTION


ASEXUAL REPRODUCTION SEXUAL REPRODUCTION

Creates identical copies (clones) Only involves MITOSIS ONE parent involved Common in bacteria and unicellular protists

Adds genetic variation Involves meiosis and fertilization TWO parents involved Diploid and haploid cells

MITOSIS AND MEIOSIS


MITOSIS MEIOSIS

One division 2n 2n
(same number of chromosomes)

Two divisions 2n n
Half the number of chromosomes

Results in 2 genetically identical cells

Results in 4 DIFFERENT haploid cells Forms gametes (egg and sperm)

DNA
DNA is a polymer of nucleotides. A nucleotide is made up of three parts: a sugar, a phosphate and one of four bases In DNA, the bases are A, T, C, and G DNAs shape is a double helix The two strands are held together by HYDROGEN bonds A binds to T C binds with G

DNA REPLICATION
Process of DNA copying itself Steps DNA Unzips (Hydrogen bonds break) Each side acts as a template New DNA nucleotides are added according to base-pairing rules Two new molecules of DNA result each with one old and one new strand. Happens in INTERPHASE (before mitosis or meiosis)

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
Remember, genes are made of DNA and are in the nucleus Genes (DNA) contain the instruction for making a protein In transcription, DNA is used to make mRNA in the nucleus mRNA then leaves the nucleus and goes to the ribosome In translation, tRNA then brings amino acids in the proper order to make the protein on the ribosome.

DNA mRNA protein


Made of amino acids

PROTEIN SYNTHESIS
DNA is in nucleus GENES (made of DNA) hold code for protein

DNA

RNA

mRNA is made in nucleus TRANSCRIPTION Remember base pairing rules

PROTEIN

mRNA goes to ribosome 3 bases on mRNA is a codon each codon codes for one amino acid tRNA brings the right amino acid to the mRNA Anticodon on tRNA base pairs with codon on mRNA

CAN YOU IDENTIFY THE PARTS?


1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. DNA mRNA Nucleus Cytoplasm Ribosome Codon Anticodon tRNA Amino acid Protein (polypeptide)

READING THE CODON CHART


Be sure to use mRNA

You wont have to memorize this! What amino acid is coded for by the DNA
ATA GAG
First convert DNA to mRNA ATA GAG UAU CUC UAU = tyr CUC = Leu

GENETICS
We have two genes for each trait this is our GENOTYPE One gene came from mom, one from dad If the genes are alike, the individual is homozygous (RR, rr) If the genes are different , they are heterozygous (Rr) Some genes are dominant and others are recessive We only show a recessive trait if we have no dominant gene RR and Rr would look dominant rr would look recessive This diagram shows the cross between 2 heterozygous purple flowers Cross is: Bb x Bb Notice that 75% are purple and 25% white

SEX LINKAGE
Females are XX Males are XY Sex-linked traits are on X chromosome Trait is more common in MALES Examples are colorblindness and hemophilia (blood fails to clot)

Males give X chromosomes to their daughters and Ys to their sons Moms give Xs to both daughters and sons

CODOMINANCE BLOOD TYPE Four blood types


A, B, AB, O

Three different alleles: A, B or neither

A = AA or AO B = BB or BO AB = AB O = OO

Agglutinogen = protein

PEDIGREES
Tracing traits through generations Males are squares Females are circles Horizontal line means married Vertical line means children Filled in circle means the individual HAS the condition Can you identify the genotypes of individuals 4, 7, 12?

4 = Ee (parent 2 had to give an e) 7 = Ee (child is ee, so they had to have one e) 12 = ee (affected with recessive condition)

XY = male

3 21s = Down Syndrome

In humans, 22 pair of autosomes 1 pair of sex chromosomes XX = female XY = male Extra chromosomes a result of non-disjunction
Chromosome pairs fail to separate in meiosis One example is DOWN SYNDROME (extra 21) Another example is KLINEFELTERS (XXY)

GENETIC TECHNOLOGY
TRANSGENIC ORGANISMS DNA FINGERPRINTING

Organisms that have 2 different kinds of DNA Gene cloning Uses bacteria to make human proteins like insulin

Use gel electrophoresis to compare DNA fragments IF DNA matches, its from the same individual
Evidence points to suspect 2

EVOLUTION CHANGE OVER TIME


EVIDENCE N AT U R A L S E L E C T I O N

Fossil evidence
Fossils found in sedimentary rock Lower level fossils are older and more PRIMITIVE We can compare fossils to modern organisms Similar structure suggests common ancestor

Credited to Charles Darwin


Organisms in populations have variations that can be passed from generation to generation More organisms born that environment can support Organisms compete for resources Those organisms with favorable variations have more babies and the population evolves

Biochemical evidence
DNA and protein similarities suggest common ancestor