You are on page 1of 23

DMAIC project template

Franck Strub Equable 6 September 2004

Project name

6 sigma steps (DMAIC)


Define Measure Analyze Improve Control Define your business problem Measure your process (Y) performance Find the root causes (Xs) of the problem Improve, implement new solution Deliver Y performance over time

Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.

Six Sigma Consulting

Define

Project name Business Problem

1 Pb Statement

Description of the problem (what? where? since when? based on which data? Based on which facts?) Voice Of Customer (Customer perception) Internal perception Competitors benchmark

2 Goal Statement

Develop Goal statement/opportunity or objective in clear, concise, measurable terms Demonstrate alignment of the project with the company/business strategy

Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.

Six Sigma Consulting

Define

Project name Business Case

3 Business Case
Why to do the project? What if project not done? Financial Business Case
What Comment Cost

K Project Labor Project Materials Project Contractors Equipment investment Yearly operation cost TOTAL Costs Incremental Revenues Labor Savings Material Savings TOTAL Benefits (1 year)

ROI

Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.

Six Sigma Consulting

Define

Project name Project charter

4 Project scope
Project: in scope Project: out of scope

5 Team

Green Belt/Black Belt role: Team members/role:

Manager: Key stakeholders from Business team:

Customers: Others: Black Belt: Master Black Belt: VP Quality / Quality Manager:

6 Planning
Dates: Gantt

Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.

Six Sigma Consulting

Define
7 (SIPOC)

Project name Process map & CTQs

process as felt by the customer

Supplier = My Company

Input

Step 1

Step 2

Step 3

Output

My Customer

measurement
CTQ*
Definition Specification limit Performance targets

*Critical To Quality

Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.

Six Sigma Consulting

Measure
Selected Project CTQ(s):

Project name CTQ details

M-step 1: Selected CTQs

Discrete/continuous CTQ?

CTQ Operational Definition(s): What is it (measurement starting point and end point) ?

How to measure it?

M-step 2: Define Performance standard

What is a defect?

If applicable to your CTQ, LSL* contractual value or limit defined by customer:

If applicable to your CTQ USL* contractual value or limit defined by customer:

*LSL Lower Specification Limit *USL Upper Specification Limit

Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.

Six Sigma Consulting

Measure
Measurement system analysis

Project name Gage R&R


Data Collection plan for Repeatability & Reproductibility study: Data sample size = Date of data collection: Where data have been collected? How data have been collected? How many operators? How many repeats per operator? Gage R&R study Continuous data: -Tolerance (USL-LSL): -Short method (yes/no): -Gage R&R as %contribution: Gage R&R as %tolerance: Nb of distinct categories:

M-step 3: Measurement System Analysis

Gage R&R study discrete data: If we have a Known sample (a reference), then how was built the known sample?

Conclusion/decision taken (evidence that the measurement of our CTQ is reliable):

Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.

Six Sigma Consulting

Measure
CTQ data collection plan Data sample size = Date of data collection: Where data have been collected? How data have been collected?

Project name CTQ data collection plan

M-step 4: Baseline current (As Is) process capability

Will you take the opportunity to collect obvious Xs when collecting your CTQ measurements? If yes, which Xs: Display an extract of the data collected:

Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.

Six Sigma Consulting

Measure

Project name Photography of current performance


Continuous CTQ Sample size= Short term data or Long term data? Histogram with Normality test result and descriptive statistics:

M-step 4: Baseline current (As Is) process capability

Type of the distribution (normal, other): Variability represented by its (s,

Trend represented by its (m, median, Q1, Q3, other):

P95, Q1/Q3, other):


Non NORMAL Distribution Observed DPMO= Equivalent ZLT= Equivalent ZST (ZLT+1.5)=

PROCESS CAPABILITY MEASURE: NORMAL Distribution Observed DPMO= Potential DPMO= ZLT = ZST (ZLT+1.5)= Conclusion Problem with trend, variability or both?
Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.
10

Six Sigma Consulting

Measure
Discrete CTQ Sample size: Short term data or Long term data? Process capability Yield (%)= %defects= DPMO= Opportunities per unit= DPU= Equivalent ZLT= Equivalent ZST (ZLT+1.5)= 95% confidence interval on DPMO:

Project name Photography of current performance

M-step 4: Baseline current (As Is) process capability

Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.

11

Six Sigma Consulting

Analyze
Continuous CTQ Normal probability plot:

Project name Graph analysis

A-step 5: As Is process Graph Analysis

Conclusion (can we detect a true process and an unstable process?): All type of CTQ Stability over time/Run chart:

Conclusion: Pb of technology (short term common causes)? Pb of control (long term shift due to special causes)? Both pbs?
Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.
12

Six Sigma Consulting

Analyze
Improvement Goal Target (from benchmark) for: Trend: Variability: LT DPMO or LT %defects= Yield (%)= ZLT= ZST=(ZLT+1.5)=

Project name Set expected performance

A-step 6: Define Performance Objectives of To Be process

Gap (Improvement Actual) DPMO gap or Defect reduction factor: Z gap=

6 Sigma tools necessary to meet performance objectives: Ground fruit: Logic and Intuition Low hanging fruit: Basic tools (Process Map, CE/CNX fishbone diagram, SOP, FMEA, Pareto, Histogram, Box plot) Bulk of Fruit Process Characterization and Optimization Sweet Fruit: Transform the project into a DFSS project

Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.

13

Six Sigma Consulting

Analyze
Process (AS IS) detail analysis: Detailed process map

Project name Process analysis

A-step 7: Identify Xs (root causes)

Conclusion CTQ Intermediate distribution plot (continuous CTQ only)

Conclusion Standard Operation Procedures analysis: Exist: Are applied: Incitation to apply them exist: Training has been given to operators: Policy analysis: Exist Are applied
Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.
14

Six Sigma Consulting

Analyze
List of potential significant Xs

Project name Potential root causes

A-step 7: Identify Xs (root causes)

Label C/N/X on your fishbone, then rate every X impact vs implementation (table below)

Fishbone diagram of my Y
Measurements Materials Men

Y/CTQ Output

Environment

Methods

Machines

Impact High Implementation Easy Low

1 3

2 4

Hard
Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.
15

Six Sigma Consulting

Analyze
Results of segmentation (continuous CTQ only) : (Box plots, Scatter plots, Distributions per X)

Project name Segmentation analysis

A-step 7: Identify Xs (root causes)

Conclusion:

Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.

16

Six Sigma Consulting

Analyze
Pareto chart of the CTQ categories:

Project name Pareto analysis

A-step 7: Identify Xs (root causes)

Conclusion: Pareto chart of the defect categories:

Conclusion: FMEA:

Conclusion:
Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.
17

Six Sigma Consulting

Analyze
Statistical Tests Performed
Test one sample or two sample T-test Annova one way Homogeneity of variance Chi square test Simple regression Non parametric data test ANOVA 2 ways GLM DOE screening Conclusion/Prioritized list of significant Xs: X Factors p value

Project name Hypothesis testing

A-step 7: Identify Xs (root causes)

%contribution

conclusion

Financial benefits confirmation (Update your Business case):

Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.

18

Six Sigma Consulting

Improve
List of Vital few Xs (screening DOE):

Project name Improvement actions


Improvement action plan (Who What When):

I-step 8: Screen potential causes. List improvement actions/projects

Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.

19

Six Sigma Consulting

Improve

Project name Improved performance


Transfer function:

I-step 9: Discover Variable relationships (if necessary)

Proposed Solution: Optimal Settings

Confirmation runs capability:

I13

I-step 10: Establish Operating Tolerances (if necessary)

X tolerance settings:

Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.

20

Six Sigma Consulting

Control
C-step 11: Define and Validate Measurement System on Xs (if necessary)
Control on one X (yes/no): If yes, X measurement system analysis:

Project name Gage R&R on Xs

Data Collection plan for Repeatability & Reproductibility study: Data sample size = Date of data collection: Where data have been collected? How data have been collected? How many operators? How many repeats per operator? Gage R&R study Continuous data: -Tolerance (USL-LSL): -Short method (yes/no):

-Gage R&R as %contribution:

Gage R&R as %tolerance:

Nb of distinct categories:

Gage R&R study discrete data: If we have a Known sample (a reference), then how was built the known sample?

Conclusion/decision taken (evidence that the measurement of our X is reliable):


Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable. Six Sigma Consulting

21

Control
C-step 12: Determine new Process Capability
Process or Product new capability: Continuous CTQ: NORMAL Distribution Observed DPMO= Potential DPMO= ZLT = ZST (ZLT+1.5)=

Project name Confirmation of improved performance

Non NORMAL Distribution Observed DPMO= Equivalent ZLT= Equivalent ZST (ZLT+1.5)=

Discrete CTQ: Sample size:= Short term data or Long term data? Process capability Yield (%)= %defects= DPMO= Opportunities per unit= DPU= Equivalent ZLT= Equivalent ZST (ZLT+1.5)= 95% confidence interval on DPMO

Statistical Confirmation of Improvement (by statistical test):

Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.

22

Six Sigma Consulting

Control
C-step 13: Implement Process Control
Control Charts (SPC) in place/review mechanisms:

Project name Process controls

Mistake Proofing action taken:

FMEA control actions in place:

Equable tous droits rservs. Copyrights Equable.

23

Six Sigma Consulting