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Group 9


Gender Discrimination Sexual Harassment at workplace Job Evaluation Combating Job Hopping Building Teams
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References to gender discrimination in the constitution


Article 14 Guarantees equality and equal protection of law to any person in India. It forbids state discrimination and does not apply to private persons. Under Article 14 reasonable classification is permissible when based upon some real and substantial distinction bearing a reasonable and just relation to the object sought to be attained. Thus, sex discrimination is permissible when reasonable. Article 15 Guarantees to citizens that the state shall not discriminate on the basis of sex. To take action under Article 15, two conditions must be satisfied. First, proof must be offered that an unwarranted differentiation has been made by the state, and, second, the differentiation adversely affects the plaintiff. Clause 3 of Article 15 provides that the state can enact laws protecting women and children. Underlying the clause is the notion that inherent differences between the sexes place women at a disadvantage and that legislation favouring women is necessary. Article 16 Guarantees to every citizen equal opportunity in matters relating to government employment. It provides that a citizen shall not be ineligible for or discriminated against in government employment because of religion, race, caste, sex, descent, place of birth or residence.

Of the five Articles 14 to 18 in part III of the Constitution, dealing with the right to equality, only Article 16 speaks of equality of opportunity.



Some of the earlier cases


State of Kerala vs. Kunhipacky

The question of preferring female lecturers in State colleges exclusively for women came under review. A male lecturer claimed that a female lecturer junior to him in experience had been promoted to a professorship in the same department, violating Article 16. Verdict : The Court held that females can be given preferences over males in women's colleges a conventional practice but, once appointed, senior male and female

Radha Patnaik v. State of Orissa The issue was whether a government rule disqualifying married women from being selected as district judges violates Article 16. The defendants argued that women were excluded from posts because marriage creates disabilities and obligations which adversely affect efficiency in government service. Verdict : The Court, held that while the maintenance of efficiency must be considered, disqualification of married women from eligibility amounted to sex discrimination violating rights guaranteed in Article 16.
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Shamsher Singh Hukam Singh v. State of Punjab A male state employee attacked the practice of paying special allowances to female employees, claiming that this practice violated his rights guaranteed in Article 16. Before 1963, the Punjab Educational Service had two branches and female school inspectors were paid a special allowance not paid to male inspectors. After 1963, a unified system was established merging the male and female branches, and both sexes performed identical duties but women continued to receive special pay. The State argued that Article 15(3) justified the allowance. Verdict : The Court upheld the practice of paying special allowances to female inspectors over and above the pay given to male inspectors doing the same work. One of the dissenting judges felt that what is specifically invalid under Article 16 cannot be upheld constitutionally by reference to that which is specifically restricted to Article 15. His view was that Article 16 does not provide for any exceptions favouring female employees and special allowance to female government employees is sex

Walter Alfred Baid v. Union of India A male junior nursing tutor unsuccessfully sought employment as senior nursing tutor in the government school of nursing. The nursing school defended its action by referring to a recruitment rule which makes a male junior nursing tutor ineligible for the post of senior tutor. The junior tutor's job involves teaching only, while the senior tutor's job requires, in addition, administrative responsibility such as periodic visits to the rooms of students who are mostly women. The state claimed that the selection rule has a clear nexus with the goal of selecting only suitable persons for the job. The petitioner challenged this rule as being unconstitutional on the ground that it is based on sex and therefore violates Article 16. Verdict : The Court held that if discrimination is based on "other considerations", which has its genesis in sex, there is sex discrimination and so the rule disqualifying men for the senior tutor post is unconstitutional under Article 16. Baid is significant because the High Court for DMS, IITD 5/8/2012 the first time questioned the preference of one sex in

Maternity Benefit Act, 1961


The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 regulates the employment of women in factories, mines, the circus industry, plantations and shops or establishments employing 10 or more persons except the employees who are covered under the Employees' State Insurance (ESI) for certain periods before and after child-birth and provides for maternity and other benefits. Under the Maternity Benefit Act, 1961, women employees are entitled to maternity benefit at the rate of average daily wage for the period of their actual absence up to 12 weeks due to the delivery. In cases of illness arising due to pregnancy, etc., they are entitled to additional leave with wages for a period of one month. They are also entitled to six weeks maternity benefit in case of miscarriage. The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961 also makes certain other provisions to safeguard the interest of pregnant women workers.
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Equal Remuneration Act, 1976


The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976 aims to provide for the payment of equal remuneration to men and women workers and for the prevention of discrimination, on the ground of sex, against women in the matter of employment and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto. According to the Act, the term 'remuneration' means "the basic wage or salary and any additional emoluments whatsoever payable, either in cash or in kind, to a person employed in respect of employment or work done in such employment, if the terms of the contract of employment, express or implied, were fulfilled". Nothing in this Act shall apply:- (i) to cases affecting the terms and conditions of a woman's employment in complying with the requirements of any law giving special treatment to women; or (ii) to any special treatment accorded to women in connection with the birth or expected birth of a child, or the terms and conditions relating to retirement, marriage or death or to any provision made in connection with the retirement, marriage or death. This act is a significant legislation in that, for the first time, equal pay for equal work was provided. The prohibition of sex discrimination in hiring, although limited, DMS, IITD 5/8/2012 recognized the wrong and provided, for the first time, an administrative procedure to adjudicate complaints.

Some Specific Cases


Air India vs. Nargesh Mirza & C.B. Muthamma vs. Union of India (1979) Supreme Court struck down discriminatory employment policies compelling female employees to obtain government permission before marriage and termination of service if she gets married or

Maya Devi vs. State of Maharashtra (1986) Here the requirement of husbands consent for wifes application for public employment was struck down as an obstacle to womens equality and economic justice.

Makinnon Machenzie and Co. Ltd. vs. Audrey D'Costa (1987) - it was held that lady stenographers were paid consideration at a lower rate than what was paid to their male counterparts. which was violation of the Equal Remuneration Act, 1976. 5/8/2012

Landmark Judgment of Vishaka v. Union of India (AIR 1997 SC 3011)


A 50-something social worker, Bhanwari Devi was gang raped by a group of upper class, influential men, because she had tried to stop practice of child marriage. Bhanwari Devi was determined to get justice and lodged a case The Apparelthe offenders. This injustice, A.K. Chopra: AIR 1999 SC 625. This against Export Promotion Council v/s coupled with Bhanwari Devis grit, case is the first one womens groups and NGOs toas laidpetitionunder the inspired several where the SC applied the law file a down in the Supreme Vishaka Guidelines. In this case, the SC of Vishakha (Vishakha and others V. Court under the collective platform recognised an important fact. It ruled that 'an attempt to molest' is equally an infringement of a woman's right to State of Rajasthan and others, 1997). They demanded justice for Bhanwari dignity at theurged action against sexual attempt of molestation'. The SC also Devi and workplace as a 'successful harassment at work place. recognised that in such cases, evidence and witnesses may not always be As a result, the Supreme court issued guidelines for protection of women forthcoming. Hence, reliance has to be placed on the circumstantial evidence from sexual harassment at inspires the confidence of Court defined sexual and whether it, in overall terms,work place. The Supreme the judges. harassment as any unwelcome gesture, behavior, words or advances that are sexual in nature. The court had, for the first time, drawn upon an international human rights law instrument,DMS,Convention on the Elimination the IITD 5/8/2012 of All forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), to pass a set of



The sexual harassment bill was introduced in Lok Sabha on December 7, 2010 and was referred to the standing committee on December 30, 2010. The Bill defines sexual harassment at the work place and creates a mechanism for redressal of complaints. It also provides safeguards against false or malicious charges. Every employer is required to constitute an Internal Complaints Committee at each office or branch with 10 or more employees. The District Officer is required to constitute a Local Complaints Committee at each district, and if required at the block level. The Complaints Committees have the powers of civil courts for gathering evidence. The Complaints Committees are required to provide for conciliation before initiating an inquiry, if requested by the complainant. Penalties have been prescribed for employers. Non-compliance with the provisions of the Act shall be punishable with a fine of up to Rs 50,000. Repeated violations may lead to higher penalties and cancellation of licence or registration to conduct DMS, IITD 5/8/2012 business.

Shortcomings of the Bill


The definition of employee in the bill specifically excludes domestic workers working at home. Unlike sexual harassment legislation in most of the other developed countries, the bill is not gender neutral. This Bill provides protection only to women, and not to


The Bill provides that in case a committee arrives at a conclusion that the allegation was false or malicious, it may recommend that action be taken against the woman who made the complaint. The jurisdiction and functions of the local complaints committees have not been delineated.
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Timeline Women Employment Protective Legal Provisions


The Factories Act, 1948 (Creches)

The Maternity Benefit Act, 1961

The Building & Other Construction Workers Act, 1996

Sexual Harassment Bill, 2010

The Employees State Insurance Regulation, 1950

The Equal Remuneration Act, 1976

Vishakha Judgement of the Supreme Court, 1997







What is Sexual Harassment at Workplace ?


The term "sexual harassment" first came into use in the late 1970s in the United States. The term's origins are generally traced to a course on women and work taught by Lin Farley at Cornell University. In 1979, Catherine MacKinnon, a legal scholar from the United States, made the first argument that sexual harassment is a form of sex discrimination prohibited by the constitution and civil rights laws of the United States. Since then many international bodies, national legislatures and courts have prohibited sexual harassment but have not agreed on a universal definition of the term. There are a few common elements in definitions of sexual harassment worldwide. Generally speaking, behavior constituting sexual harassment in the workplace must:
1. 2. 3. 4.

occur in the place of work or in a work related environment; occur because of the person's sex and/or it is related to or about sex; be unwelcome, unwanted, uninvited, not returned, not mutual; and affect the terms or conditions of employment (quid pro quo sexual harassment) or the work environment itself (hostile work environment sexual harassment). DMS, IITD 5/8/2012

What is Sexual Harassment at Workplace ?


The United Nations General Recommendation 19 defines sexual harassment to include unwelcome sexually determined behavior as physical contact and advances, sexually colored remarks, showing pornography and sexual demands, whether by words or actions. Such conduct can be humiliating and may constitute a health and safety problem; it is discriminatory when the woman has reasonable ground to believe that her objection would disadvantage her in connection with her employment, including recruitment or promotion, or when it creates a hostile working environment.
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Sex of the Harassed and the Harasser


Many laws prohibiting sexual harassment recognize that both men and women may be harassers or victims of sexual harassment. It is important to note, however, that most victims of sexual harassment are women and most claims of sexual harassment are made by women. The European Foundation for the Improvement of Living and Working Conditions concludes that, "while there is evidence that men may also experience unwanted sexual attention and harassment, [sexual harassment] is still a problem that particularly affects women." In addition, approximately 85% of sexual harassment claims made in the United States in 2006 were made by women. A 2005 report by the International Labor Organization also indicates that sexual harassment is more prevalent against women who are more vulnerable, such as young women, separated, widowed or divorced women, women employed in non-traditional or male-dominated DMS, IITD 5/8/2012 professions, women working in informal sectors of the economy, or migrant workers.

Based on Sex or of a Sexual Nature


Conduct of a Sexual Nature

The most commonly reported form of sexual harassment is "conduct of a sexual nature." This term is generally thought to mean actions, language or visual materials which specifically refer to, portray or involve sexual activity or language. Conduct of a sexual nature may include overt sexual solicitations, inappropriate touching, sexual jokes and inquiries about a person's sex life. Sexual harassment involving conduct of a sexual nature is the subject of most sexual harassment laws. It is actionable in the United States, Canada, Australia, many Member States of the European Union, Japan and many other countries in Europe, Africa, Asia and South America. It is conduct that occurs because of the sex of the intended victim but is not necessarily sexual in nature. Examples of this kind of behavior are an offensive joke that does not refer to sex, but the joke is told to embarrass a person because she is a woman, a statement that a female employee belongs at home or is not suited for a particular job because she is a woman and conduct referring to pregnancy, childbirth or related medical conditions. Sex-based harassment, i.e. harassment not involving sexual activity or language, is or will soon be actionable in, among other countries, the United States and Member States of the European Union. In the United States, this form of sexual harassment is actionable under Title VII if it is "sufficiently DMS, IITD 5/8/2012 patterned or pervasive" and directed at employees because of their sex.

Conduct Based on Sex

Quid Pro Quo Sexual Harassment


Quid pro quo harassment is the most commonly recognized form of sexual harassment. It occurs when (1) job benefits, including employment, promotion, salary increases, shift or work assignments, performance expectations and other conditions of employment, are made contingent on the provision of sexual favors, usually to an employer, supervisor or agent of the employer who has the authority to make decisions about employment actions, or (2) the rejection of a sexual advance or request for sexual favors results in a tangible employment detriment, a loss of a job benefit of the kind described above. This form of harassment is often prohibited as a matter of criminal law (the crime in some cases is labeled "abuse of power"), as a form of sex discrimination or as a violation of labor or tort law. Employers are generally held strictly liable for quid pro quo sexual harassment because supervisors, managers and agents who perpetrate quid pro quo harassment are deemed to be acting directly on behalf of their employer. Remedies for victims of quid pro quo sexual harassment may include recovery of compensatory damages such as medical expenses, future economic loss, loss of enjoyment of life, and back pay. DMS, IITD 5/8/2012

Sexual Harassment that Creates a Hostile Work Environment


Sexual harassment that creates a hostile or abusive work environment is another form of harassment that is prohibited by law in some countries. What distinguishes hostile work environment harassment from quid pro quo harassment is that a tangible employment action or economic injury, such as a discharge, demotion or a change in terms of employment, need not occur for a victim to make a claim of hostile work environment harassment. Examples of harassing behavior that can create a hostile or abusive work environment are the display of pornographic pictures or cartoons, touching and grabbing, sexual remarks or jokes and the physical interference with movement. Courts have held employers and harassers liable for damages in cases of harassment that creates an abusive work environment in part because women can suffer psychological harm from harassment whether or not it results in the loss of a job benefit.
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TATA Sexual Harassment Policy: Examples of Sexual Harassment


Same-sex and/or opposite-sex conduct that COMPANY considers unacceptable and often a part of harassment includes, but is not limited to, the following: Unwelcome sexual invitations or requests for sexual activity or a date in exchange for promotions, preferences, favors, selection for special projects, job assignments etc. Unwelcome and offensive public sexual displays of affection including groping, fondling, petting, inappropriate touching of ones self or others, sexually suggestive body language. Any unwelcome communication that is sexually suggestive, sexually degrading or implies sexual motives or intentions such as sexual remarks about an individuals clothing, appearance or activities, sexual jokes, sexual gestures, public conversations about sexual activities or exploits, sexual rumors and rating lists, howling, catcalls and whistles, sexually graphic computer images or files or e-mail messages or games etc. Unwelcome and offensive name calling or profanity that is sexually suggestive, sexually degrading, implies sexual intentions, or that is based on gender stereotypes or sexual orientation
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TATA Sexual Harassment Policy: Examples of Sexual Harassment


Unwelcome physical contact or closeness that is sexually suggestive, degrading, or intimidating such as the unwelcome touching of anothers body parts, cornering or blocking an individual, standing too close, spanking, pinching, following, stalking, frontalbody hugs, etc. Unwelcome and offensive physical pranks or touching of an individuals clothing based on gender and/or other protected class status. Rape, attempted rape, sexual assault, attempted sexual assault, forcible sexual abuse, sexual and gender-based activity of a criminal nature as defined under the criminal code. Unwelcome leers, stares, gestures, or slang that are sexually suggestive, sexually degrading or imply sexual motives or intentions. Clothing with sexually obscene or sexually explicit slogans or messages Unwelcome written or pictorial display or distribution of pornographic or other sexually explicit materials such as magazines, videos, films, Internet material, etc.
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Case Study : Mark Hurd & Jodie Fisher


It's only been a little over a year since former HP CEO Mark Hurd resigned in a hailstorm of innuendo and disgrace. Hurds decision was made following an investigation by outside legal counsel and the General Counsels Office, overseen by the Board, of the facts and circumstances surrounding a claim of sexual harassment against Hurd and HP by a former contractor to HP. The investigation determined there was no violation of HPs sexual harassment policy, but did find violations of HPs Standards of Business Conduct. Hurd failed to tell the board about a personal relationship with a female marketing contractor Jodie Fisher who was hired by his office. Additionally, he filed inaccurate expense account reports in order to keep the relationship secret.
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Case Study : Mark Hurd & Jodie Fisher


Fisher secured the services of legal eagle Gloria Allred, who assisted her in filing a sexual harassment claim against the executive leader at HP. Hurd & HP, resolved the claim privately with Fisher. Few of the actual allegations made were

AWKWARD FOREPLAY: "[Ms. Fischer] was worried when you came over and sat directly next to her and put your arm on the back of the love seat. The first time, Ms. Fischer thought it was a mistake." DIRECT APPROACH: "You tried to persuade her to spend the night with you. This went on painfully for another hour." CELEBRITY ENDORSEMENTS: "You had been telling her about many different women that were crazy about you... including Sheryl Crow." DESPERATE TIMES: "One of your last dinners was at Craft in Century City where you confessed you felt like you could spend the rest of your life with her. You said you would haveDMS, IITD to see how the chemistry in bed was but that would not be a problem


CASE STUDY Sexual Harassment in Export Processing Zones


Export processing zones (EPZs) are special industrial centers that are set up in many developing nations. Often these special rules circumvent national labor laws and prohibit trade unions from participating in negotiation and oversight. The vast majority of workers in EPZs are women. In Honduras and Jamaica, for example, 90% of EPZ workers are female. Sexual exploitation of women and girl workers has been documented in EPZs around the world. In Kenyas EPZs, for example sexual exploitation has been extensively documented, often in the form of sex-for-jobs arrangements. In a survey of female EPZ workers in Kenya, 90% reported that they had experienced some form of DMS, IITD sexual harassment.


CASE STUDY Sexual Harassment in Export Processing Zones


Discrimination against women workers who become pregnant is also a common practice in EPZs. One example is in Mexico, where employers at EPZs require female workers to take pregnancy tests. Many pregnant workers are dismissed outright, while others are given leave but never allowed to return to work. Union involvement is often prohibited in EPZs but in the Philippines, unionization at the Mitsumi corporations EPZ factory made a significant difference for women workers. Not only are working conditions in the plant reportedly better than at other EPZ companies, but when there was a case of sexual harassment at the factory, the union went to management and asked that the manager be punished. The company took the unions advice and incidents of sexual harassment have been largely unknown since the companys action. DMS, IITD 5/8/2012

Sexual Harassment even against an IAS Woman Officer: No Difference with Power & Might for a Woman Leader

Mr. Gill, while being the Punjab police chief, was convicted of molesting a Punjab cadre IAS officer, Rupan Deol Bajaj, at an official reception in Chandigarh. He pleaded drunkenness and said Ms. Bajaj was blowing things out of proportion. It took 18 years in court to win that case. But they had to fight against the might of the Punjab Government which pitted itself against an ordinary woman. In January 1998, the court found him guilty, charged and sentenced him to three months rigorous imprisonment and imposed a fine of Rs. 2 lakhs. Yet, this has not made a dent in his acceptability to the chattering classes, the political establishment or the media. She was referred to as anti-national for filing a sexual DMS, IITD 5/8/2012 harassment suit against a `national hero'

Case Study : Sexual Harassment at Infosys


The case examines the controversy surrounding the charges of sexual harassment and unlawful termination made by an employee against Infosys, leading Indian software company, during 2001-03. Phaneesh Murthy, a top level executive and a director on the company board, was accused of sexually harassing and unlawfully firing his subordinate, Reka Maximovitch. This is a story of blackmail, sex, stalking, threats, oppression, hurt feelings and revenge. Interestingly, all this happened in and around the US offices of Infosys,one of India's most well-known and respected software companies, between October 1999 and December 2000. As a result, Infosys became entangled in a scandal, that dented its reputation as a company that had the best corporate governance structure in the country. The events that took place during October 1999 and December 2000 became public knowledge in India only when Phaneesh Murthy , the head of the sales and marketing, and communication and product services division of Infosys (and a director on the board), resigned from his post in June 2002. DMS, IITD 5/8/2012

Case Study : Sexual Harassment at Infosys


The lawsuit, filed by his former secretary, Reka Maximovitch (Reka) alleged that Phaneesh had sexually harassed her and unlawfully terminated her employment. The company's share price declined by 6.6% soon after Phaneesh left. The case attracted a lot of media coverage since a sexual harassment lawsuit implicating such a senior official had never been heard of in the Indian corporate world. It was also being seen as an event that could make Indian companies stop ignoring the sensitive issue of sexual harassment at the workplace. The stance adopted by Infosys in this case seemed to go against its image of a company considered to be a model of good corporate governance. Analysts claimed that the company had kept the issue under wraps for a long time. Media reports blamed Infosys for neglecting to formulate/implement a structured policy regarding sexual harassment and for compromising on moral values for an 'economically-valuable' person like Phaneesh. At the press conference, Narayana Murthy, Nilekani and Mohandas Pai (among others), made public the entire sequence of events in the case. Also, Infosys had reserved the right to proceed against him for his conduct and for the fact that he did not contribute financially to the settlement. DMS, IITD 5/8/2012

Case : Struggle of Saudi Airline Woman employee against advances made by Male Station Manager

The station manager Abdul Ellah Bahrani continued harassing the woman for four years. He allegedly made indecent personal remarks and pursued asking her out for lunch or dinner despite of her disagreements. When the lady refused his advances, Mr. Bahrani allegedly started harassing her by issuing memos and assigning heavy loads of typing work, which affected her health. Apart from memos and heavy assignments, she was denied promotions despite of receiving letter of appreciation and awarded merit salary in the earlier days. On reporting to Bahranis superior, she was told that action will be taken against him but warned her not to make the issue official, as that would harm job and reputation and that airline. Instead of taking actions against him, her services were terminated in October 1987. With the help of lawyer, she finally took the case to labour court and after prolonged trials, she finally won the case.
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Lessons to be learnt

Adopt a clear policy on sexual harassment Educate all employees on the various forms sexual harassment can take and on the harm it can cause Have an organized procedure for quickly and effectively dealing with such complaints and ensure that everyone knows about it Follow not only the sexual harassment policy, but also the disciplinary policy - if conflicts exist between the two policies, be careful how you resolve them Set the example for the employees - the best policy in the world will be useless if management lets employees see through its actions that it does not take the problems seriously, or worse, as in the cases mentioned(HP, Infosys, IAS), if management is part of the problem. DMS, IITD 5/8/2012







Job Evaluation

Systematic process for comparing different jobs systematically to access their relative worth, so providing a basis of grading and reward structure on fair and sound judgments Technique for comparing and evaluating Jobs rather employees It is basically about the internal relativity of jobs DMS, IITD 5/8/2012

Aims & Objectives of job evaluation


Establishes fair relative value of jobs based on fair judgment Give more information to design equitable and sound pay and grade structure Enable sound market comparison Provide transparency Build right track for career path and succession planning Boosts the emotional ties between the job and the DMS, IITD 5/8/2012 incumbent

Job Evaluation Process


Job Analysis: This information is recorded in the precise consistent language of a job description Compensable factors: Yardsticks used to determine the relative position of jobs Developing the method Job Structure Wage structure Result acceptance from senior manager communication Introduction and application Anomalies and grievance committee updating and revising
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Methods of Job Evaluation




Non-analytical Method(Ex. Ranking, grading, paired comparison and classification) Comparing whole jobs to place them in grades. They are not analyzed by reference to their element factors Analytical Method: (Ex. Points Method, factor comparison, HAYs method) analyzing the level at which various defined factors or elements are presented DMS, the job in IITD 5/8/2012




HAYs Method

The three universal factors are said to be: Know how:

1. 2. 3.

what kind of knowledge, skills & experience is required? What kind of planning organizing & controlling is done in that job? what kinds of HR qualities are required?

Problem Solving: Tries to measure the span, complexity & level of analytical, evaluative & innovative thoughts required for the job
1. 2.

Thinking environment: Degree of freedom Thinking challenge: Degree of creativity

Accountability: Scope given to the job holder to direct resources of all kind & to influence or determine the course of events
1. 2.

Freedom to act The magnitude & nature of the jobs impacts to the bottomline of organization DMS, IITD 5/8/2012

The Point Method


Example: Software Engineer Job Description Job Specification Develop a list of compensable factors A set of standards the organization uses to distinguish among jobs for pay purposes Examples of commonly used compensable factors: Degree of responsibility, supervision Knowledge needed to perform the job Discretion in performing the job, independent judgment Job conditions Effort Hazard Consequence of error



The Point Method


Define the degrees of each factor Judgment and Decision Making: This factor identifies the extent to which the job requires judgment and responsibility in the making of decisions. The importance of the decisions and the extent to which standard policies and procedures provide guidance in decision making will be considered. 1st Degree: Work requires decision making involving the analysis of the facts of a situation and the determination of what actions should be taken within the limits of standard procedures; only unusual or seldom recurring situations require referral. Judgment could affect the work of others or cause minor inconvenience. Typical errors are generally confined to a single team or phase of operations.
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The Point Method


3rd Degree: In consultation with team members decide specific work projects to perform, and proceed to plan, coordinate, and commit resources required to accomplish work; associates develop or establish procedures or policies. Judgment requires accuracy because errors could potentially result in inaccurate reports, incomplete or misleading information, unsound recommendations, or incorrect decisions. Consequences could adversely affect operations or services causing significant losses of time, resources and potentially have a long term impact on a team. 6th Degree: Assists board in the development of policies, general procedures and corporate goals. Errors in judgment could jeopardize the viability of the company.
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The Point Method


Create a matrix of points for the degrees of each factor

Judgment and Decision Making:

1st degree = 50 points 2nd degree = 100 points 3rd degree = 225 points 4th degree = 350 points 5th degree = 500 points 6th degree = 700 points

Communication, Work Environment, Coaching, Innovation, Knowledge Education - Experience

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The Point Method


Factors - Degrees
Job Knowledge Judgment & Decision Making Independent judgment Accountability Working conditions Mental

25 10 25 20 5 15

100 33 100 65 20 42

175 55 175 110 35 69

250 78 250 155 50 96



100 200 123 150



The Point Method


Evaluate benchmark jobs to determine Job Evaluation Point Totals

Benefits supervisor = 700 Training material development specialist = 650 Job evaluation specialist = 460 Compensation manager = 920

Collect salary survey data on benchmark jobs

Benefits supervisor = $60,393 Training material development specialist = $58,403 Job evaluation specialist = $43,155 Compensation manager = $79,958
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The Point Method


Do a regression analysis to find the pay line for the benchmark jobs
Dependent variable is salary survey data Independent variable is job evaluation point total Calculate salaries for benchmark and other jobs using the regression equation

Salary = 79.67*JETotal + 6101.09 Example: Compensation Director = 79.67*1120 + 6101.09 = $95,333

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Stannah Stairlifts

About Stannah Stairlifts: Stannah Stairlifts is the world's largest supplier of stairlifts and has supplied over 400,000 units worldwide. The company is part of the Stannah Group, which manufactures a variety of equipment, from the Microlift (Europe's most popular dumb waiter) to a range of goods lifts, escalators and moving walkways. The situation: Stannah decided to carry out a review of the pay rates for 320 hourly paid employees from its manufacturing, warehousing and distribution areas. It was felt that since the last review a decade earlier, the pay structure had become outdated. This was due to a number of reasons, but in particular the way that the skills required to perform many roles had changed in that time.
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Stannah Stairlifts

The solution:

external reward specialists was brought in to deliver a job evaluation process The process and the reason for Job evaluation was explained to the employees and managers

Various roles were indentified

Discussions were then held with one employee from each role and their managers, with the information gathered informing the evaluation itself. The evaluation was completed using Hays Job Evaluation scheme. Once all the roles had been consistently evaluated they were arranged in an order which reflected the skills required to complete them. A suitable pay structure was then developed. Proposal for steps to be taken is presented to top management for approval Anomalies and grievance committee

Result: The new structure now provides Stannah with a job and pay structure which more accurately reflects the work people are doing. It is also competitive within the local job market, which is beneficial in terms of recruitment and retention.



Fawcett Society

About Fawcett Society: The Fawcett Society is a charity campaigning for sexual equality. It traces its roots to the 19th century and Millicent Fawcett's agitation for votes for women. Case: Prompted by high staff turnover, which had in part been caused by erratic funding, Fawcett decided to review all its HR practices and made a commitment to all ten employees to evaluate their posts. The society called in Dorothy Telfer, an HR consultant who takes part in Cranfield's free management consulting programme for small and DMS, IITD 5/8/2012 medium-sized charities.

Job Evaluation

How it worked: Telfer began with a staff lesson to explain the concept of job evaluation Staff members were asked to write their own job descriptions to an agreed format A committee that included staff and trustees evaluated every job Jobs were then graded according to the skills and competencies needed to do them Five factors were assessed: knowledge and expertise; decision-making; thinking; leadership; and responsibility for resources Results: Member of staff to understand what they needed if they were to do their jobs well clearer internal structure ways to improve skills of the members of staff DMS, IITD 5/8/2012 transparent framework for evaluating new posts




Job Hopping

Job Hopping - The practice of changing jobs frequently, especially as a means of quick financial gain or career advancement. Reasons for Job Hopping:

Increased Salary Accelerated Promotion More Responsibility Quality or Type of Work Structural Changes With the Employer Location Work Was Not Well Received Unable To Get Along With Others Asked To Leave
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Facts & Figures


In the past, men have tended to have longer job tenures. But the gap is narrowing. Men now stay with the same employer an average of 3.8 years, while women stay in the same job 3.3 years. Age is a factor in employment tenure. Workers 45-54 years old worked for the same employer three times longer than those between 25-34. More than half of all 20-24 year olds had been with their employer less than 12 months. Managers and professionals have the highest tenure rate, an average of 4.8 years. The least stable segment was food service workers, with an average of just 1.5 years at the same job. Public employees stay at their government jobs more than twice as long as do employees of private sector companies.
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Factors contributing to Job Hopping


Career experts say that today's trend of shorter job tenure has its roots in the downsizing wave of the late 1980s and early 1990s, which shattered many people's expectations of lifetime employment. But other factors have contributed as well:

The current strong economy makes workers more confident that if a job change doesn't work out, they can find something else. Many firms have replaced traditional pension plans with more portable retirement plans, reducing some of the financial risk of frequent job changes. The Internet -- with hundreds of job listings just a keystroke away -- makes it easier than ever before to find out about other job options. The executive recruiter industry has also mushroomed in recent years, so professional-level employees are more likely than before to have someone dangling attractive new jobs in front of them.
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How to retain key employees


Create diverse opportunities

Everyone wants to grow. Somehow if they find that growth is not happening, they leave Boredom could cause the best of the talent to seep out. No one wants to hang around with companies that do not give their key employees enough opportunities to work on diverse projects. While it is believed that learning and training are only meant for employees at the junior and middle level, it is not so. Those at the senior level within an organization also look for opportunities to learn in the areas they operate in, and beyond. Thus it becomes imperative for any company to provide the environment that promotes learning. This is an absolute must. Not only does it affect the IITD environment within the work 5/8/2012 DMS, organization, but it also contributes significantly to how a company is perceived in the

Offer scope for learning

Values and ethics

How to retain key employees


Intrapreneurship and empowerment

Management consultant Gifford Pinchot coined the word intrapreneur back in 1978. Pinchot elaborated on the importance of freedom to think and act within a corporation. He also showed how companies could stay on the leading edge by fostering intrapreneurship at all levels of corporate hierarchy. No organization can prosper if its employees feel shackled. Empowering them by giving them the freedom to experiment and take calculated risks can help retain talent. This could also develop a culture of innovation, where every employee can pitch innovative ideas for products or services or business processes. Much of the problem with sudden exits of key people can be resolved by having a second-run lineup of leadership. It involves mentoring, training and giving the right environment and opportunity for middle and junior level employees to grow.
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Create second-rung leadership

Case Study : GE Healthcare


The Challenge

GE Healthcare hospital system was facing a challenge with employee turnover. Statistics showed that almost 50 percent of terminations were employees in the first year of their employment with the organization, a number that was more than 20 percent higher than the national average. The hospital system estimated that terminations cost as much as $2.2MM annually, and that reducing terminations could have significant impact on its bottom line by eliminating re-work inside the human resources department. A Six Sigma team was brought together to examine the situation. After deciding this was a top priority for the organization, the team began work on a DMAIC project to see how they could save the company time, money and effort by reducing employee turnover.
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The GE Way :

Case Study : GE Healthcare


The Process & Findings

The study identified that human resources recruiters often considered applicants they would have otherwise considered unqualified due to a low applicant flow. Also, managers were often selecting candidates against HRs recommendation because they felt pressure to get the jobs filled rather than to find the most qualified person. Lastly, the team found a number of hidden factors such as recruiters keeping the best applicants in their office for future openings rather than filling them immediately. Analysis work indicated a number of key statistical differences in the retention rate between different types of jobs and even between different recruiters. Surveys and interviews indicated to the project team that job shadowing was a practice. Some departments used to give candidates a realistic picture of the job, and that this practice had a significant impact on reducing job turnover.
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Case Study : GE Healthcare



Modifying HR recruiter performance evaluations to include ratings related to prescreening, learning more about the jobs for which they were recruiting and turnover. An applicant screening sheet be created to minimize the number of unqualified applicants and to more clearly define each candidates qualifications. An interactive workshop for managers to show them how to use proper interviewing guidelines and screening criteria for all vacancies. A standardized list of cultural fit questions. After an initial five month adjustment period, the team found that first year employee turnover rates decreased from 50 to 35 percent as a result of the organizational changes. Financial savings were calculated to be upwards of $42,000 after just a few months, and a projected $300,000 annually DMS, IITDyear thereafter. for each 5/8/2012

Results :

Case : Zions Bank Employee Turnover


Zions National Bank, manages more than $15 billion in assets and employs more than 2,300 people at 135 full-service branches and 185 ATMs throughout Utah and Idaho. What was the issue?

Employee turnover is extremely costly to companies with large numbers of employees. In the banking industry, employee turnover can also mean the loss of valuable customer relationships. Understanding this, Zions Bank traditionally monitored employee satisfaction using periodic paper-based surveys and by encouraging employees to manually submit comments and suggestions. Unfortunately, by the time the surveys were collected and analyzed, the results were often outdated. This made it difficult to gauge employee satisfaction or address issues in a timely manner.
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Case : Zions Bank Employee Turnover


The Allegiance Solution

To solve this problem, Zions Bank selected EmployeeVoice and EmployeePulse from Allegiance, Inc., the premier provider of Enterprise Feedback Management solutions that link feedback to profits. An on-demand, open communication system, EmployeeVoice facilitates continual input from employees. EmployeePulse surveys employees regularly to measure their stress levels and passion for their work. Together, these tools provide information to help improve workplace culture, create greater employee loyalty, and reduce employee turnover. For Zions, the end result is lower employee turnover. With the average voluntary turnover rate in the U.S. near 23 percent, and the average cost of turnover in the U.S. roughly 25 percent of a person's salary, the benefits of reducing turnover are substantial. "By matching demographics and satisfaction levels with EmployeeVoice's 'turnover intent scores, it became clear that employees with 1 to 5 years of service were more likely to be looking for a new job than any other category. - George Myers, Senior Vice President of Human Resources for Zions Bank DMS, IITD 5/8/2012

The Result :




Why Teams?

Completing a complex/huge projects are often time consuming and intellectually challenging. When several people use their skills and knowledge together and work as a team, the outcome is the desired result People working together can sustain the enthusiasm and lend support needed to complete the project successfully
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How do Teams Work Best?


Teams succeed when members have: Commitment to common objectives Defined roles and responsibilities Effective decision systems, communication and work procedures Good personal relationships
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Stages in Team Building


Forming Stormin g Normin g Performin g



Stage 1: FORMING

Team Building

team Determine individual roles Develop trust and communication Develop norms


problem and strategy Identify information needed

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Team Roles

Leader- Encourage and maintain open communication.

Help the team develop and follow team norms. Help the team focus on the task. Deal constructively with conflict

Recorder- Keep a record of team meetings. Maintain a

record of team assignments. Maintain a record of the team's work

PR Person- Contact resource people outside of the

team. Correspond with the team's mentor. Work to maintain good communication among team members
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During the Storming stage team members:


that the task is more difficult than they imagined have fluctuations in attitude about chances of success may be resistant to the task have poor collaboration
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Storming Diagnosis

Do we have common goals and objectives? Do we agree on roles and responsibilities? Do our task, communication, and decision systems work? Do we have adequate interpersonal skills?



Negotiating Conflict

Separate problem issues from people issues Be soft on people, hard on problem Look for underlying needs, goals of each party rather than specific solutions
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Addressing the Problem


State your views in clear non-judgmental language

Clarify the core issues

Listen carefully to each persons point of view Check understanding by restating the core issues
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Stage 3: Norming

During this stage members accept:

their team team rules and procedures their roles in the team the individuality of fellow members.

Team members realize that they are not going to crash-and-burn and start helping each other.
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Competitive relationships become more cooperative There is a willingness to confront issues and solve problems Teams develop the ability to express criticism constructively There is a sense of team spirit

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Team members have:


insight into personal and team processes A better understanding of each others strengths and weaknesses Gained the ability to prevent or work through group conflict and resolve differences Developed a close attachment to the team
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Recipe for Successful Team


Commitment to shared goals and objectives Clearly define roles and responsibilities

Use best skills of each Allows each to develop in all areas Clear communication Beneficial team behaviors; well-defined decision procedures and ground rules Balanced participation Awareness of the group process Good personal relationships
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Effective systems and processes

Different Types of Teams


Problem-solving teams

Employees from same department, area of expertise and level of hierarchy Meet to share information and discuss ways to improve processes and procedures in specific functional areas Highly autonomous groups that manage themselves Set goals, plan and schedule work activities, select team members, evaluate team performance Employees of same hierarchical level but different functional areas of the organization Allows people with various areas of expertise to pool resources, develop new ideas, solve problems, coordinate complex projects Employees from different geographic or organizational locations that use a combination of telecommunications and information technologies to come DMS, IITD 5/8/2012 together

Self-managed work teams

Cross-functional teams

Virtual team

Case Study on Self managed Teams: Xel communications


In the mid 1980s company managers developed Self Managed Teams to cope with high costs and slow responses to customers needs. The teams were organized as cellular production groups that build whole families of circuit boards To support the team process, banners are hung in the manufacturing facilities to mark each teams work area. The company displays team performance on wall charts that track attendance, on time deliveries, and other variables Teams meet daily, without a supervisor, to plan their work to meet production requirements. The teams meet with management once a quarter to make a formal presentation on group accomplishments and setbacks
This Self Managed Team Concept worked well at XEL and it recorded sales of approximately $125 million in 1993, up from $117 million in 1992
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Difficulties faced by Xel Communications


The team process has made staffing and hiring decisions very difficult The company tried to hire temporaries, but the temps could not fit into the team process Determining compensation is also more difficult than in a traditional compensation system that rewards individual performance
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on Performance evaluation in a self managed group

It introduced a peer performance review process. They developed a form, the first portion of which was to be completed by the team member being reviewed Then the form was passed to the other team members, who jointly answered the remaining questions concerning the team members performance After completing the form, the team members forwarded it to head of the group, who included key points in the team members performance appraisal. In addition, the head of the group met with each team members oneto-one to deliver the reviews
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