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Regulating the Internal

Environment
Water Balance &
Nitrogenous Waste
Removal

AP Biology 2006-2007
Mammalian System blood filtrate

 Key functions
 filtration
 fluids from blood collected
 includes water & solutes
 reabsorption
 selectively reabsorb needed
substances back to blood
 secretion
 pump out unwanted substances to
urine
 excretion
 remove excess substances & toxins
from body
AP Biology urine
Mammalian Kidney
inferior aorta
vena cava adrenal gland

kidney
nephron
ureter renal vein
& artery
epithelial
cells
bladder
urethra

AP Biology
Nephron
 Functional units of kidney
 1 million nephrons
per kidney
 Function
 filter out urea & other
solutes (salt, sugar…)
 Process
 blood plasma filtered
into nephron why
selective reabsorption
 selective reabsorption of & not selective
valuable solutes & H2O filtration?
 greater flexibility & control “counter current
AP Biology exchange system”
How can
different sections
Mammalian kidney allow the diffusion
of different
 Interaction of circulatory molecules?
& excretory systems
 Circulatory system Bowman’s
Proximal
tubule
Distal
capsule tubule
 glomerulus = Glomerulus
ball of capillaries
 Excretory system
 nephron Glucose H2O Na+ Cl-
 Bowman’s capsule Amino
acids H2O
H2O

Na+ Cl-
H2O
 loop of Henle Mg++ Ca++ H2O

 descending limb
H2O
 ascending limb
 collecting duct Loop of Henle
Collecting
duct

AP Biology
Nephron: Filtration
 At glomerulus
 filtered out of blood
 H2O
 glucose
 salts / ions
 urea
 not filtered out
 cells high blood pressure in kidneys
force to push H2O & solutes out of
 proteins blood vessel
BIG problems when you start out
with high blood pressure in system
AP Biology
hypertension = kidney damage
Nephron: Re-absorption
 Proximal tubule
 reabsorbed
 NaCl
 active transport Na+
 Cl- follows by
diffusion
 H2O
 glucose
 HCO3- Descending
limb
Ascending
limb

 bicarbonate
 buffer for
blood pH

AP Biology
Nephron: Re-absorption
structure fits
 Loop of Henle function!
 descending limb
 high permeability to
H2O
 many aquaporins in
cell membranes
 low permeability to Descending Ascending
limb limb
salt
 reabsorbed
 H2O

AP Biology
Nephron: Re-absorption
structure fits
 Loop of Henle function!
 ascending limb
 low permeability
to H2O
 Cl- pump
 Na+ follows by
diffusion
Descending Ascending
 different membrane limb limb

proteins
 reabsorbed
 salts
 maintains osmotic
AP Biology
gradient
Nephron: Re-absorption
 Distal tubule
 reabsorbed
 salts
 H2O
 HCO3-
 bicarbonate

AP Biology
Nephron: Reabsorption & Excretion
 Collecting duct
 reabsorbed
 H2O
 excretion
 urea passed
through to bladder
Descending Ascending
limb limb

AP Biology
Osmotic control in nephron
 How is all this re-absorption achieved?
 tight osmotic
control to reduce
the energy cost
of excretion
 use diffusion

instead of
active transport
wherever possible

the value of a
counter current
exchange system
AP Biology
why
Summary selective reabsorption
& not selective
filtration?
 Not filtered out
 remain in blood (too big)
 cells ◆ proteins

 Reabsorbed: active transport


 Na+ ◆ amino acids
 Cl- ◆ glucose
 Reabsorbed: diffusion
 Na+ ◆ Cl-
 H2O
 Excreted
 urea (highly concentrated)
 excess H2O ◆ excess solutes (glucose, salts)
AP Biology
toxins, drugs, “unknowns”