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Introduction of Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Materials

John Busel
American Composites Manufacturers Association
January 9, 2007 Orlando Towers, Poles & Conductors Meeting

Outline

What is FRP ? FRP benefits Current Status of FRP Utility



Structures Installations FRP performance Changes to 2007 NESC code

What is FRP ?

Compared to other engineering materials composites have different properties

What is FRP ?
The Difference Between Composites and Other Materials

Composites Inhomogeneous & Anisotropic

Metals Homogeneous & Isotropic

What is FRP ?
Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP) Composites

Definition: Composites are a combination of a reinforcement fiber in a polymer resin matrix, where the reinforcement has an aspect ratio that enables the transfer of loads between fibers, and the fibers are chemically bonded to the resin matrix.
Creates a material with attributes superior to either component alone!

What is FRP ?
Products made for utility structures are manufactured several ways
Pultrusion Filament Winding

What is FRP ?

Pultrusion Process
Heated Die

Cured Profile

Resin
Bridge decks, rebar, structural profiles, concrete & masonry structural strengthening, sheet piling, dowel bars, utility poles, grating

What is FRP ?
Filament Winding

Resin
Utility poles, columns, bridge girders, pipe, missiles, aircraft fuselage

FRP Benefits
Lightweight easy to handle and transport High Strength to weight ratio Corrosion resistant will not rot or corrode Non-conductive (essentially a large hot stick) Non-magnetic Impervious to pests and woodpecker attack Design Tailor material properties, some systems are
modular

Compatible use standard hardware Environmentally safe no leaching of toxic chemicals into soil

Current Status of FRP Utility Structures


FRP utility structures include poles, crossarms, stand-offs and now conductor reinforcement Composite, or fiberglass poles, were installed in West Oahu in 1962 and were only recently taken out of service Composite lighting poles have an extensive history of use dating back more than 40 years The use of FRP utility structures throughout the U.S. is widespread and still growing The use of FRP utility structures in Canada is growing Some larger installations...
8,000+ FRP poles at large California utilities starting 1995 1,500+ FRP poles at Rural Coops since 2000 300+ FRP poles at Northwest Territories since 2003 100,000+ FRP crossarms across virtually every state

Installations

Residential Backyard Installations

Remote Installations

Deadend Crossarms

Joint Use with Transformers

FRP Performance
Claim by ManufacturersSince FRP structures are engineered like steel and prestressed concrete, and manufactured, they result in good initial strength consistency Question: Is this true?

FRP Performance
Answer: Yes EDM has performed numerous proprietary bending strength tests on FRP utility poles and crossarms for several manufacturers. Conclusion: the poles and crossarms yielded very consistent (low COV) as manufactured strength properties

FRP Performance
Actual 40' Filament Wound Pole Bending Strengths (Tested by EDM)
4,000 3,500 3,500 3,100 3,000
Load at Failure (lb)

3,300 3,000 3,150

COV = 6.1 %

2,500 2,000 1,500 1,000 500 0 Pole 1 Pole 2 Pole 3 Pole 4 Pole 5

FRP Performance
Actual 40' Pultruded Pole Bending Strengths (Tested by Manufacturer)

COV = 3.4%
Load-Deflection very nearly linear

FRP Performance
The first FRP poles for overhead line application were designed using a net overload factor (Application Safety Factor) of 4.0, the same as required for (Grade B) wood construction Question: What factors are now being employed for FRP Utility Poles and Crossarms?

FRP Performance
The use of overload factors as applied to FRP utility poles is all over the map

Some utilities using a factor of 2.5

Some using 3.0 Some using 3.85 Some still using 4.0

FRP Performance

The use of overload factors as applied to FRP crossarms is more consistent

Most utilities use a factor of 2.5

FRP Performance Failure Mechanisms of FRP Poles


Cantilever Loading

Load-deflection curve very nearly linear Typical break is due to local stress rupture on the
compression face and is most often associated with local buckling

Kinematics of pole deflection cause loss of cross-section inertia as the pole begins to oval which means EI decreases Failure in area where applied stress first exceeds allowable stress Typical allowable stresses in the range of 25,000 psi to 45,000 psi

FRP Performance Failure Mechanisms of FRP Crossarms


Tangent and Deadend Loading

Load-deflection curve very nearly linear Typical break is due to local stress rupture on the

compression face and typically propagates from the attachment to the pole Crossarm breaks can also be snap breaks, or crushing breaks if crossarm mounted directly to pole without a bracket Failure in area where applied stress first exceeds allowable stress Typical allowable stresses in the range of 25,000 psi to 45,000 psi. FRP crossarms are typically pultruded and perform like pultruded poles

Changes to 2007 NESC


Subcommittee 5: Strength & Loading
Sections 24, 25, 26, 27

Taskforce 5.1.7: FRP Structures


Change Proposal accepted in 2005 Reduced Application Safety Factor Material Strength Factors same as STEEL
provided that FRP pole and crossarm strengths are published as 5% LEL values (5th percentile strength)

Changes to 2007 NESC Added NOTE References


ASCE-104, Recommended Practice For FiberReinforced Polymer Products For Overhead Utility Line Structures

ASCE-111, Reliability-Based

Design of Utility Pole Structures .. (provides 5% LEL) Manual of Practice

ASCE/SEI Task Committee develop FRP

Changes to 2007 NESC


Table 253-1 -- Load factors for structures,1 crossarms, support hardware, guys, foundations, and anchors to be used with the strength factors of Table 261-1A
Load Factors Grade C Grade B At crossings 6 Rule 250B Loads Vertical Loads 3 Transverse Loads Wind Wire Tension Longitudinal Loads In general At dead-ends Rule 250C Loads Rule 250D Loads
...........................................
5

Elsewhere 1.90 5 1.75 1.30 4 No requirement 1.30 4 0.87 7 1.00

1.50 2.50 1.65 2 1.10 1.65 2 1.00 1.00

1.90 5 2.20 1.30 4 No requirement 1.30 4 0.87 7 1.00

For metal prestressed concrete, or fiber-reinforced polymer portions of structures and crossarms, guys, foundations and anchors, use a value of 1.50.

Changes to 2007 NESC


Table 261-1A Strength Factors for Structures
Grade B Strength factors for use with loads of Rule 250B Metal and Prestressed-Concrete Structures 6 Wood and Reinforced-Concrete Structures 2,4 1.0 0.65 1.0 0.85 Grade C

Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Structures 6


Support Hardware Guy Wire 5,6 Guy Anchor and Foundation 6 Strength factors for use with loads of Rule 250C Metal and Prestressed-Concrete Structures 6 Wood and Reinforced-Concrete Structures 3,4

1.0
1.0 0.9 1.0

1.0
1.0 0.9 1.0

1.0 0.75

1.0 0.75

Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Structures 6


Support Hardware
Guy Wire 5,6 Guy Anchor and Foundation
6

1.0
1.0
0.9 1.0

1.0
1.0
0.9 1.0