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compute the rate at which a dependent output y changes with respect to the change in the independent input x. This rate of change is called the derivative of y with respect to x. In more precise language, the dependence of y upon x means that y is a function of x. This functional relationship is often denoted y = (x), where denotes the function. If x and y are real numbers, and if the graph of y is plotted against x, the derivative measures the slope of this graph at each point.

The simplest case is when y is a linear function of x, meaning that the graph of y against x is a straight line. In this case, y = (x) = m x + b, for real numbers m and b, and the slope m is given by m/Slope where the symbol (the uppercase form of the Greek letter Delta) is an abbreviation for "change in." This formula is true because y + y = (x+ x) = m (x + x) + b = m x + b + m x = y + m x. It follows that y = m x.

Tangent

This gives an exact value for the slope of a straight line. If the function is not linear (i.e. its graph is not a straight line), however, then the change in y divided by the change in x varies: differentiation is a method to find an exact value for this rate of change at any given value of x.

The idea, illustrated by Figures, is to compute the rate of change as the limiting value of the ratio of the differences y / x as x becomes infinitely small. In Leibniz's notation, such an infinitesimal change in x is denoted by dx, and the derivative of y with respect to x is written

Let be a real valued function. In classical geometry, the tangent line to the graph of the function at a real number a was the unique line through the point (a, (a)) that did not meet the graph of transversally, meaning that the line did not pass straight through the graph. The derivative of y with respect to x at a is, geometrically, the slope of the tangent line to the graph of at a. The slope of the tangent line is very close to the slope of the line through (a, (a)) and a nearby point on the graph, for example (a + h, (a + h)). These lines are called secant lines. A value of h close to zero gives a good approximation to the slope of the tangent line, and smaller values (in absolute value) of h will, in general, give better approximations. The slope m of the secant line is the difference between the y values of these points divided by the difference between the x values, that is,

This expression is Newton's difference quotient. The derivative is the value of the difference quotient as the secant lines approach the tangent line. Formally, the derivative of the function at a is the limit

of the difference quotient as h approaches zero, if this limit exists. If the limit exists, then is differentiable at a. Here (a) is one of several common notations for the derivative Equivalently, the derivative satisfies the property that

which has the intuitive interpretation that the tangent line to at a gives the best linear approximation

to near a (i.e., for small h). This interpretation is the easiest to generalize to other settings.

Substituting 0 for h in the difference quotient causes division by zero, so the slope of the tangent line cannot be found directly using this method. Instead, define Q(h) to be the difference quotient as a function of h:

Q(h) is the slope of the secant line between (a, (a)) and (a + h, (a + h)). If is a continuous function, meaning that its graph is an unbroken curve with no gaps, then Q is a continuous function away from h = 0. If the limit exists, meaning that there is a way of choosing a value for Q(0) that makes the graph of Q a continuous function, then the function is differentiable at a, and its derivative at a equals Q(0). In practice, the existence of a continuous extension of the difference quotient Q(h) to h = 0 is shown by modifying the numerator to cancel h in the denominator. This process can be long and tedious for complicated functions, and many shortcuts are commonly used to simplify the process.

The squaring function (x) = x is differentiable at x = 3, and its derivative there is 6. This result is established by calculating the limit as h approaches zero of the difference quotient of (3):

The last expression shows that the difference quotient equals 6 + h when h 0 and is undefined when h = 0, because of the definition of the difference quotient. However, the definition of the limit says the difference quotient does not need to be defined when h = 0. The limit is the result of letting h go to zero, meaning it is the value that 6 + h tends to as h becomes very small:

Hence the slope of the graph of the squaring function at the point (3, 9) is 6, and so its derivative at x = 3 is '(3) = 6. More generally, a similar computation shows that the derivative of the squaring function at x = a is '(a) = 2a.

1.

2.

Where

is any constant.

3.

4. 5. 6. 7. Power Rule for Function.

8.

9.

10.

3.

4.

1.

2. Where log is denoted by ln.

3.

4.

5.

LOGARITHMIC DIFFERENTIATION

Differentiate the following function with respect to x: (log x)X Solution: Let y=(logx)X ,Then Lets us take log on both sides, log y=x.log(logx) Differentiating both the sides,

1/

[logeaX =xlogea]

.dy/dx = x(1/logx .1/x) + log(log x).1 1/ .dy/ = 1/ y dx logx + log(log x) dy/ = y{1/ dx logx + log(log x)}

y

Therefore,

dy/ dx

The maximum and minimum of a function, known collectively as extrema, are the largest and smallest value that the function takes at a point either within a given neighborhood or on the function domain in its entirety. More generally, the maximum and minimum of a set (as defined in set theory) are the greatest and least element in the set. Unbounded infinite sets such as the set of real numbers have no minimum and maximum. A real-valued function f defined on a real line is said to have a maximum point at the point x, if there exists some > 0 such that f(x) f(x) when |x x| < . The value of the function at this point is called maximum of the function. Similarly, a function has a minimum point at x, if f(x) f(x) when |x x| < . The value of the function at this point is called minimum of the function.

Finding global maxima and minima is the goal of mathematical optimization. If a function is continuous on a closed interval, then by the extreme value theorem global maxima and minima exist. Furthermore, a global maximum (or minimum) either must be a local maximum (or minimum) in the interior of the domain, or must lie on the boundary of the domain. So a method of finding a global maximum (or minimum) is to look at all the local maxima (or minima) in the interior, and also look at the maxima (or minima) of the points on the boundary; and take the biggest (or smallest) one. Local extrema can be found by Fermat's theorem, which states that they must occur at critical points. One can distinguish whether a critical point is a local maximum or local minimum by using the first derivative test or second derivative test. For any function that is defined piecewise, one finds a maxima (or minima) by finding the maximum (or minimum) of each piece separately; and then seeing which one is biggest (or smallest).

The extreme value theorem states that if a real-valued function f is continuous in the closed and bounded interval [a,b], then f must attain its maximum and minimum value, each at least once. That is, there exist numbers c and d in [a,b] such that: A related theorem is the boundedness theorem which states that a continuous function f in the closed interval [a,b] is bounded on that interval. That is, there exist real numbers m and M such that: The extreme value theorem enriches the boundedness theorem by saying that not only is the function bounded, but it also attains its least upper bound as its maximum and its greatest lower bound as its minimum.

occurs at x= e.

The function x2 has a unique global minimum at x = 0. The function x3 has no global minima or maxima. Although the first derivative (3x2) is 0 at x = 0, this is an inflection point. The function has a unique global maximum at x = e. The function x-x has a unique global maximum over the positive real numbers at x = 1/e.

The function x3/3 x has first derivative x2 1 and second derivative 2x. Setting the first derivative to 0 and solving for x gives stationary points at 1 and +1. From the sign of the second derivative we can see that 1 is a local maximum and +1 is a local minimum. Note that this function has no global maximum or minimum. The function |x| has a global minimum at x = 0 that cannot be found by taking derivatives, because the derivative does not exist at x = 0. The function cos(x) has infinitely many global maxima at 0, 2, 4, , and infinitely many global minima at , 3, . The function 2 cos(x) x has infinitely many local maxima and minima, but no global maximum or minimum. The function cos(3x)/x with 0.1 x 1.1 has a global maximum at x = 0.1 (a boundary), a global minimum near x = 0.3, a local maximum near x = 0.6, and a local minimum near x = 1.0. (See figure at top of page.) The function x3 + 3x2 2x + 1 defined over the closed interval (segment) *4,2+ has two extrema: one local maximum at x = 1153, one local minimum at x = 1+153, a global maximum at x = 2 and a global minimum at x = 4.

For functions of more than one variable, similar conditions apply. For example, in the (enlargeable) figure at the right, the necessary conditions for a local maximum are similar to those of a function with only one variable. The first partial derivatives as to z (the variable to be maximized) are zero at the maximum (the glowing dot on top in the figure). The second partial derivatives are negative. These are only necessary, not sufficient, conditions for a local maximum because of the possibility of a saddle point. For use of these conditions to solve for a maximum, the function z must also be differentiable throughout. The second partial derivative test can help classify the point as a relative maximum or relative minimum.

In contrast, there are substantial differences between functions of one variable and functions of more than one variable in the identification of global extrema. For example, if a bounded differentiable function f defined on a closed interval in the real line has a single critical point, which is a local minimum, then it is also a global minimum (use the intermediate value theorem and Rolle's theorem to prove this by reductio ad absurdum). In two and more dimensions, this argument fails, as the function

shows. Its only critical point is at (0,0), which is a local minimum with (0,0) = 0. However, it cannot be a global one, because (4,1) = 11.

Maxima and minima are more generally defined for sets. In general, if an ordered set S has a greatest element m, m is a maximal element. Furthermore, if S is a subset of an ordered setT and m is the greatest element of S with respect to order induced by T, m is a least upper bound of S in T. The similar result holds for least element, minimal element and greatest lower bound. In the case of a general partial order, the least element (smaller than all other) should not be confused with a minimal element (nothing is smaller). Likewise, a greatest element of apartially ordered set (poset) is an upper bound of the set which is contained within the set, whereas a maximal element m of a poset A is an element of A such that if m b (for any bin A) then m = b. Any least element or greatest element of a poset is unique, but a poset can have several minimal or maximal elements. If a poset has more than one maximal element, then these elements will not be mutually comparable.

In a totally ordered set, or chain, all elements are mutually comparable, so such a set can have at most one minimal element and at most one maximal element. Then, due to mutual comparability, the minimal element will also be the least element and the maximal element will also be the greatest element. Thus in a totally ordered set we can simply use the terms minimum and maximum. If a chain is finite then it will always have a maximum and a minimum. If a chain is infinite then it need not have a maximum or a minimum. For example, the set of natural numbers has no maximum, though it has a minimum. If an infinite chain S is bounded, then the closure Cl(S) of the set occasionally has a minimum and a maximum, in such case they are called the greatest lower bound and the least upper bound of the set S, respectively.. The extreme value theorem states that if a real-valued function f is continuous in the closed and bounded interval [a,b], then f must attain its maximum and minimum value, each at least once. That is, there exist numbers c and d in [a,b] such that: A related theorem is the boundedness theorem which states that a continuous function f in the closed interval [a,b] is boundedon that interval. That is, there exist real numbers m and M such that: The extreme value theorem enriches the boundedness theorem by saying that not only is the function bounded, but it also attains its least upper bound as its maximum and its greatest lower bound as its minimum.

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