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# TUTORIAL ON GENERATOR:

CAPABILITY
Z
1
=Z
2
=0.098, Z
0
=0.36
Z
1
=Z
2
=0.19, Z
0
=0.608
Z
1
=Z
2
=0.082, Z
0
=0.26
Z
1
=Z
2
=0.505, Z
0
=1.893
GEN: X"d=0.17,
Xd=2.1, X2=0.21
GT:21/765KV
Z=0.147
ICT: Z=0.082
Seoni
Raipur
Z1bu=0.0212
Korba
Z1bu=0.0212
Ranchi, Z1bu=0.0212
Z=0.055
IBT

132 / 400 KV
ST

11 / 132 KV
UT: 21/11KV
Z=1.503
SIPAT SAMPLE SYSTEM: p.u. on Gen Base
Z1bu=0.0111
System Impedance at gen terminal= GSU+Grid {Seoni lines [ICTs+400 kV lines]}
Zsys (normal)= 0.182
Zsys (Both Seoni line out)= 0.231
THE SAMPLE SYSTEM
Tutorial Objectives:
Develop understanding of the parameters that define normal operation of the
generator
Analyze the various malfunctions that can befall a generator

Operation Scenario:
The variation in system configuration and voltage have a significant effect on
the operation of the generator and associated auxiliary equipment

Variation in system configuration:
Impact of change in system configuration is shown in sample system diagram

Variation in system voltage:
Impact of change in system voltage is discussed in next slide
THE SAMPLE SYSTEM
Variation in system voltage:
Voltage drop through system components such as lines and transformers is
minimal
Generators may be required to operate with reduced field current,
consuming excess Vars from the system
The increased voltage drop caused by flow of Watts and Vars through
highly inductive components, causes system voltage to fall
The voltage drop caused by an amp of reactive current is greater than that
caused by an amp of real current
The system voltage regulation is amplified by the reactive characteristic of
the long high voltage (HV) transmission lines
At peak system load, generators operate near full field current, supplying
Vars to support system voltage
When the system is in normal configuration, a portion of the generators
reactive capability should be held in reserve to boost voltage in the event
of a forced outage of a major tie line or generator
GENERATOR CAPABILITY
Nameplate rating of sample generator:
500 MW at 0.85 power factor, 21 kV

Generator capability curve:
Nameplate rating defines only one limiting point of operation for the
machine
A reduction in MVAR output would allow some increase in MW output
and a reduction in MW would allow higher MVAR output
These allowable variations are defined by the generator capability curve
which defines the Watt/Var (P/Q) operating limit as a function of
coolant pressure. The actual coolant pressure for an operating unit is
often less than the design maximum pressure
Capability curve is normally plotted at the rated terminal voltage for the
generator
Capability curve is a composite of three distinct limits as shown in the
next slide
GENERATOR CAPABILITY
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
Sample Generator Capability Curve
MW (PU)
L
e
a
d
i
n
g
(
U
n
d
e
r
e
x
c
i
t
e
d
)

M
V
A
R
(
P
U
)

L
a
g
g
i
n
g
(
O
v
e
r
e
x
c
i
t
e
d
)
Terminal Voltage= 1.0PU
0.9PF
A
C
B
D
0.85PF
GENERATOR CAPABILITY
Three distinct sections of the capability curve:
Right hand section (B-C):
It represents the limit imposed by the ampere rating of the stator winding
Top section (A-B):
The ampere rating of the field winding limits the output of Vars into the
power system termed as lagging Vars
Bottom section (C-D):
It defines the maximum Vars the generator can consume from the power
This limit is the result of heating in the end laminations of the stator core
which is caused by the flux that flares from the end of the stator when the
generator is operating at low field current

Capability curve for a hydro unit:
Hydro units are of salient pole construction and do not have end core
regions
The leading Var limit is determined by the current rating of the stator
winding
GENERATOR CAPABILITY
0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
Generator Capability Curve: Steam, Gas and Hydro Units
MW (PU)
U
n
d
e
r
e
x
c
i
t
e
d

M
V
A
R
(
P
U
)

O
v
e
r
e
x
c
i
t
e
d
Terminal Voltage= 1.0PU
0.9PF
A
C
B
D
0.85PF
Gas
Turbine
Steam
Hydro
VOLTAGE LIMITATIONS
GSU limits:
Voltage limit at no load= 110% rated voltage for any tap position
GSU is operating on 784.125 kV tap with impedance of 14.7%
I= kVA/Esec= 1.0/1.05= 0.952 -36.9
0
= 0.76-j0.57
Ep=1.05+j0.147(0.76-j0.57)= 1.13 + j 0.11 = 1.135 <5.1
Therefore max allowable continuous voltage on GSU primary (LV)
winding is 13.5% as defined by requirement of 0.8 pf, rated load with
105% rated voltage at secondary terminals

Generator limit:
ANSI/ IEEE C50.12 and C50.13 define permissible operating range of
cylindrical rotor or salient pole machines to be 5% rated voltage
SYSTEM LIMITATIONS
-Q
+Q
P
(P,Q)
Center = Et
2
/Zs
Et
Zsys
Esys
The MW output of generator is limited by driving torque available from turbine.
The Var output is function of Et, Esys and Zsys. It is common to encounter voltage
limitation before generator Var limit is reached.
The relationship between P and Q, Esys and Zsys is often represented by power circle
diagram
Power circle diagram
Centre= Et
2
/Zsys
If resistance is neglected, the center is
located on Var out axis as shown in
figure
SYSTEM LIMITATIONS
Practical operating limits: System normal
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Power (pu)
U
/
E

R
e
a
c
t
i
v
e

(
p
u
)

O
/
E
0.85
0.9
Turbine Limit
Field Limit
Et= 1.05
Et= 0.95
Stator Limit
End core Limit
Esys= 1.0
Zsys= 18.2% (Gen Base)
The MW output
of generator is
limited by driving
torque available
from turbine.
The Var output is
function of Et,
Esys and Zsys. It
is common to
encounter voltage
limitation before
generator Var
limit is reached.
The relationship
between P and Q,
Esys and Zsys is
often represented
by power circle
diagram
Centre= Et
2
/Zsys
SYSTEM LIMITATIONS
Practical operating limits: Seoni Bus outaged
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Power (pu)
U
/
E

R
e
a
c
t
i
v
e

(
p
u
)

O
/
E
0.85
0.9
Normal System
Seoni Lines Out
SYSTEM LIMITATIONS
Practical operating limits: All lines in, vary grid voltage
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
Power (pu)
U
/
E

R
e
a
c
t
i
v
e

(
p
u
)

O
/
E
0.85
0.9
Esys = 1.0
Esys = 0.96
Esys = 1.055
Esys = 0.96
Esys = 1.0
Esys = 1.055
GENERATOR CAPABILITY VARIATIONS WITH VOLTAGE
Generator Terminal voltage is provided operating range of
95-105 % but capability curves are only available for rated
voltage (100%).
It is possible to estimate portions of the capability curve for
voltages other than rated voltage.
STATOR CAPABILITY VARIATIONS WITH VOLTAGE
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
MW (pu)
L
e
a
d
(
U
/
E
)

M
V
A
R
(
p
u
)

L
a
g
(
O
/
E
)
0.85 PF
0.9 PF
Ra
0.95 Ra
1.05 Ra
The Length of Ra in MVA =
Rated KA x Rated KV x 3
- Et = 0.95
- Et = 1.0
- Et = 1.05

FIELD LIMIT VARIATIONS WITH VOLTAGE
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
MW (pu)
L
e
a
d
(
U
/
E
)

M
V
A
R
(
p
u
)

L
a
g
(
O
/
E
)
0.85 PF
0.9 PF
1.05 Rf
1.05
2
C
1.0 Rf
C
0.95 Rf
0.95
2
C
C = -Et
2
/ Xd

R = Et x EI / Xd
LEADING VAR LIMIT VARIATIONS WITH VOLTAGE
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
MW (pu)
L
e
a
d
(
U
/
E
)

M
V
A
R
(
p
u
)

L
a
g
(
O
/
E
)
0.85 PF
0.9 PF
Et= 1.05
Et= 1.0
Et= 0.95
Centre (P,Q) =
(0 , K1 x Et
2
/ Xd)
K2 x Et / Xd
K1 and K2 are
derived from
published curves.
capability is
markedly reduced
as Et increases.
TUTORIAL ON GENERATOR:
STABILITY LIMITS
CLASSICAL VIEW OF STEADY STATE STABILITY
Classical View:

o
o o
Sin
Xs Xd
Es E
P
Xq Xd For
Xs Xq Xs Xd
Xq Xd E
Sin
Xs Xd
Es E
P
I
E
S I
E
+
=
=
+ +

+
+
=
*
2 sin
) )( ( 2
) ( *
2
Es
I(Xd+Xs)
E
I

Generator is operating at fixed excitation on manual regulator
Stability limit is found by changing system parameters very slowly to eliminate
oscillatory parameters and need for damping.
Stability limit occurs when =90 for salient machines and <90 for non-salient
machines.
CLASSICAL VIEW OF STEADY STATE STABILITY
Power Angle Curve

0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
1.4
1.6
1.8
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Degrees
P
o
w
e
r

(
P
U
)
E=100%
Reduced E
Pe=Electrical Power
Pm=Mechanical Power
Operating point
MANUAL REGULATOR STEADY STATE STABILITY LIMITS

Ir Et
Ir * Xs
Ix * Xq
I
Ix
Ix * Xs
Ir * Xq
Eq

Es
Generator current Voltage Vector Diagram defines Es and Eq in terms of Et, Ir and Ix.
MANUAL REGULATOR STEADY STATE STABILITY LIMITS
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
=
+
(
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
=
(
(

|
.
|

\
|
+
+
+
+ =
+
=

=
+
=
= =

+
= +
= + =
= =
Xs Xd
t
E
R
Xd Xs
t
E
C
P Q
Xd Xs
t
E
Xs Xd
t
E
P
XdXs
t
QE Xs Xd
Q
t
E
XdXs
t
E
IxXq Et
IrXq
IxXs Et
IrXs
IxXs Et
IrXs
IxXq Et
IrXq
when occurs Limit Stability the Xq Xd With
Et
Q
Ix
Et
P
Ir
1 1
2
2
1 1
2
2
, 0
2
2
1 1
2
2
2
1 1
2
2
2
2
) (
2 2
2
1 0
tan , tan
0 tan tan 1 ,
tan tan 1
tan tan
) tan(
0
90 ,
,
o |
| o
| o
| o
| o
| o
MANUAL REGULATOR STEADY STATE STABILITY LIMITS
Circle Diagram of Manual Regulator Steady State Limit

|
.
|

\
|
+ =
|
.
|

\
|
=
Xd Xe
Et
R
Xd Xe
Et
j C
1 1
2
1 1
2
2
2
Weak System
Strong System
Above circle defines stability criterion against which MEL limit is usually evaluated
AVR rapidly varies field voltage in response to system
condition.
The change in field voltage for a given change in terminal
voltage defines the gain of regulator (ke)
The regulator time constant (Te) and generator field time
constant defined the speed of field current response which
ultimately determines the response at generator output
terminal.
AVR sharply increases synchronizing power.
But, the gain and speed of AVR reduce system damping
torque.
In the absence of adequate damping torque, minor system
oscillations may grow in magnitude until connected
generators and tie lines trip.
AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS
AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS
(Simplified Block diagram)
e o
e o
e
o
o e
e
o
o
* 1
) (
314
) (
1
* ) ( ) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
90
) ( * ) (
) ( 1
0
D K Tm Ta
s
s
s
Ms
s Ta s
s Td s Ts s Tm s Ta
s D s Td
with phase in is Tsyn
s K Ts
A A = A
= A
=
A A A = A
A
A
= A
A
A = A
The Synchronizing and damping
torque produced as a result of the
interaction of the generator and
system determine the stability of the
power system.
The boundary of steady state stability
occurs when Tsync=0
The boundary of dynamic stability
occurs when Td=0
Tm

=
AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS
1 628
,
1 314
,
2
1 sin
2
1
1
2
2
1
1
1 314
1 314
1
) (
) (
) (
314 / ) ( ) (
) ( ) (
* 1
2
1
2
k
n D
Factor Damping
M
k
n Frequency Natural
t n
nt
e
n
n
n
s
L
s
k
D
s
k
M
k
s Tm
s
s for solving And
s s s And
s sM s Ta ng Substituti
D K Tm Ta
e

e
e
e

e
e

e
o
o
o e
e
e o
=
=
|
.
|

\
|

=
|
|
.
|

\
|
+ +
|
.
|

\
|
+
A
= A
A
A =
=
A A = A

+
AUTOMATIC REGULATOR
STABILITY LIMITS
The Rotor Angle varies as an exponentially
decreasing sinusoidal function.
Damping factor, , controls rate of decay and
frequency of oscillation.
If = 0, oscillation is sustained at a fixed
magnitude at natural frequency.
If = -ve, oscillation grows without bound and
instability occurs
AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS
(Including generator flux linkages but no AVR)
) ' 1 (
))] ( 4 ) ( ( 3 2 ) ' 3 1 )( ( 1 )[ ' 3 1 (
' 3 1
)] ( 4 ) ( [ 3 2 ) ' 3 1 )( ( 1
) ( ) ( ) (
) (
314
) (
) ( ) ( ) ( ) (
) ( 4 ) ( ) (
) (
' 3 1
3
2 ) (
) ( 1 ) (
2 2
3
2
2
do
T k s
s k S Ef d k k do T sk s k do T sk
Te
do T sk
s k S Ef d k k do T sk s k
Te
s Tb s Ta s Te Torque Electrical
s Tc
Ms
s
s Tb s Ta s Tm s Tc
s k S Ef d s Ee
s Ee
do T sk
k
k s Tb
s k s Ta

A A + + A
= A
+
A A + + A
= A
A + A = A
A = A
A A A = A
A A =
+
= A
A = A
o o
o o
o
o
o
Tm

Efd
*
* =
den(s)=1 +sK3Tdo
AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS
M k dok T
M
k
k k dok jMT
damp s T
M
k
n stability dynamic of Limit the For
P Q
Xd Xs
E
Xs Xd
E
sync s Te
stability static of Limit the For
s k k k k sync s Te
k T
s k k k do T
j damp s T
k T
s k k T k k k k
sync s T
k T
s k k T k k k k s k k k do T j
s Te
j s ng substituti and Ef d regulator Manual With
t t
do do
do
do
do
+
A
= = A
= =
+
(

+
|
.
|

\
|
+ =
(

|
.
|

\
|
+ = A
A = A
=
+
A
= A
+
A +
= A
+
A + + A
= A
= = A
2
3 1
2
3 2
2
2
2
2
2
2
3
2 2
2
3 2
2
3
2 2
2
3
2 2
2
3
2 2
2
3
2 2 2
3 2
' 314
1 314
4 '
0 ) (
1 314
,
1 1
2
1 1
2
, 0 ) (
,
) ( ) 4 3 2 1 ( ) (
0
1 '
) ( ) 4 ' (
) ( ,
1 '
) ( ) 1 ' 4 3 2 1 (
) (
1 '
) ( ) 1 ' 4 3 2 1 ( ) ( ) 4 ' (
) (
0 ,
o
e e
o
e
e
o e
e
o e
e
o e o e
e
AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS
2 2 2 2
2
2
) ' 3 ( ] 1 ) 6 ' ( 3 [
} 0 ' 3 ) 5 4 (
] ) 3 4 6 5 ( ' 3 4 [ { 2 3
0 ) (
0 ) (
,
) 1 6 3 (
2 3 ]} 3 6 ) 5 4 ( 5 [ 4 {
) (
0 ) (
0
e e
e
e
e e
e
do T k Te ke k do TeT k
d T k ke k k
ke k k k k do TeT k k Te k jk
damp s T
damp s T
n
stability dynamic of Limit the For
ke k k
k k k k ke k k k ke k
sync s T
sync s T and
+ + + +
c A +
+ +
= = A
= A
=
+
c A + + +
= A
= A
=
The torque equations for the system under AVR control are derived from the expanded
Block Diagram

Tm
Eq
Efd
Ee
et

et ref
*
* =
AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS
) )( ' (
2
) ( '
1 6
sin ) ( cos
'
cos ) ' ( sin
5
] cos sin ) [(
) ' (
4
1
) )( ' (
1 3
) )( ' (
1 2
] cos ) ' ( sin ) )( ' [(
cos ) ' ( sin [ 1 ]
Xe Xq d X Xe
e
r A
A
e
r
Xq
eto
edo
A
Xq Xe d X
eto
eqo
k
A
o Eo Xq Xe o Eo
e
r
d X
eto
eqo
A
o Eo d X Xe o Eo
e
r
Xq
eto
edo
k
o
e
r o Xq Xe
A
d X Xd Eo
k
A
Xq Xe d X Xd
k
A
Xq Xe d X Xq
A
Eo
e
r
k
o d X Xq
e
r o Xq Xe d X Xq
A
iqoEo
o d X Xe o
e
r
A
EqoEo
k
+ + + =
+
(

+
=
(

+
+
(

+ +
=
+

+
+ =
(

+
+ =
+ +
+ + =
o o
o o
o o
o o
o o
All k factors except
AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS
Besides specialized computer based study programs,
electronic spread sheets and iterative solvers can be used to
determine stability limits.
provided in the program content.
The parameters including system voltage Eo, generator
terminal voltage Eto and real and reactive current
components are used to calculate K factors. These
parameters are calculated from standard generator vector
diagram and applicable equations are given in next slide
Steady state and dynamic stability limits are found using
Excels Goal Seek tool to find the value of Q&P
necessary to produce Zero Tsync or Tdamp.

AUTOMATIC REGULATOR STABILITY LIMITS
( )
( )
iqoXq edo
Eqo IqoXq eto eto eqo
Eqo
IqoXq eto Iqo Xq
po
I
ido
Eqo
IqoIpoXq IqoXq eto Ipo
iqo
EqoEo
qo
I
po
I XeXq
e
Ipor Xe Xq Iqo eto
eto o
EqoEo
e
etoIqor
qo
I
po
I Xq
e
r Xe Xq etoIpo
o
e
r Iqo IpoXe IqoXe
e
r Ipo eto Eo
IpoXq IqoXq eto Eqo
eto
Q
Igo
eto
p
Ipo
=
+ + =
+ +
=
+
=
+
=
+
=
+ =
+ + =
= =
+
+

] / ) [(
)] ( [
] ) ( [
) ( [
cos
) (
sin
) ( ) (
) ( ) (
,
2
2 2
]
2 2
2 2
2 2
o
o
STABILITY LIMIT PLOTS
Manual-SS
AVR-Dyn
AVR Gain Ke = 10
AVR-SS
STABILITY LIMIT PLOTS
AVR-SS
Manual-SS
AVR-Dyn Ke =30
AVR-Dyn Ke = 10
AVR-SS
Ke = 10 or 30
TRANSIENT STABILITY
Ability of system to remain synchronized following an abrupt change such as a
fault or switch of a key line

Power Angle Equation:

Xd value is typically used in power angle equation to construct swing loci
because lower impedances produce a smaller swing diameter
Zs X d X Z
Sin
Z
Es Eg
Pe
TR T
T
+ + =
=
'
*
o
Slip (S, %) Generator Impedance (Xg) Remark
0 Xd
0.33 2Xd Range of slip for a typical
event of loss of synchronism
50 Xd
100 Xd
TRANSIENT STABILITY
Power Angle Plot
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Degrees
P
o
w
e
r

(
P
U
)
Pe Both Lines In
Pe One Line Out
Pm
1 2
TRANSIENT STABILITY
Power Angle with line switching
Pe Both Lines In
Pe One Line Out
A
A1
A2
B
C D
Pm
TRANSIENT STABILITY: Power Angle Plot for Fault Condition
Initial Operating point
Open CB1
Open CB2
Both Lines In
Bkr 1 tripped
Line B Out
Fault Both Lines In
A
B
C
D
E
F
J O
Pm Pm
A1
A2
A3
Line A
E
g
Es
Line B
1 2
Stability exists when
A3 > (A1+A2)
TRANSIENT STABILITY
Classical Swing Impedance Characteristic:
Graphical representation for the system impedance trajectory as seen at
generator terminal

Xg Cot j
Zs X Xg
Z
n Es Eg For
Xg
Sin n
Sin j n
n Zs X Xg
I
V
Z
Sin j and Es Eg n Letting
Xg
Zs X Xg
Es Eg
Eg V
IXg Eg V
Zs X Xg
Es Eg
I
TR
R
TR
R
R
TR
R
R
TR

|
.
|

\
|

+ +
=
= =

+
Z
+ + = =
Z + = Z =
+ +
Z
Z =
Z =
+ +
Z
=
2
1
2
) 1 (
) cos (
) cos (
) (
cos 1 /
2 2
o
o o
o o
o o o
o
o
o
o
TRANSIENT STABILITY
Eg
Es
Xd Xsys
Xtr
X
- R
R
B
A Eg
Swing Impedance Path
P
Xd
Xtr
Zsys
Es
=120 =90
=60
TRANSIENT STABILITY
At =180, pole slip occurs. There exists a critical swing
angle for any system from which the system cannot
recover. As a thumb rule, critical swing angle c is
considered to be 120.
The plots consider variation of but, all other system
parameters are held constant.
In reality, swing locus shows the effect of rotor oscillation
and changes in Eg.
Eg is controlled by generator constants and type of
excitation (manual or automatic), governor action,
mechanical damping of nearby units, shunt loads, shunt
capacitance effect and generator saliency.
Computer simulations are required to obtain accurate
impedance (swing) plots.
If a system has one or two generators isolated from other
machines, impedance plot can be derived using Excel
Workbook provided in the program.
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
(Stable Swing With Manual Regulator)
"-0"
0.29
0.39
0.49
0.59
0.69
0.79
0.89
0.99
1.09
1.19
1.29
1.39
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
R
X
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
(Stable Swing With Auto Regulator)
1.19
1.09
0.99
0.89
0.69
0.59
0.49
0.39
0.29
"-0"
-3.5
-3
-2.5
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
-0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5
R
X
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
(Unstable Swing With Manual Regulator)
1.39
1.29
1.19
1.09
0.99
0.89
0.79
0.69
0.59
0.49
0.39
0.29
-1.2
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
-0.7 -0.5 -0.3 -0.1 0.1 0.3 0.5 0.7
R
X
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
(Unstable Swing With Auto Regulator)
"-0"
0.29
0.39
0.49
0.59
0.69
0.79
0.89
1.09
1.19
1.29
1.39
-1
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
-1 -0.5 0 0.5 1
R
X
TUTORIAL ON GENERATOR:
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
Event:
Normally, all generators within an interconnected power system operate at like
frequency with their magnetic poles coupled through interaction with the
network
Interconnecting force is elastic allowing some angular play between generators
in response to system disturbances
A loss of synchronism occurs when the bonding force is insufficient to hold a
generator or group of generators in step with rest of the power system

Causes:
Loss of synchronism can occur when
Equipment outages or low voltage weaken the system or
The force is inadequate to restrain extreme rotor excursions following a system
fault or switching
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
Mechanism:
A loss of synchronism results from some form of system instability
When the manual regulator is in service, the systems can be vulnerable to the
loss of steady state or dynamic stability. When AVR is in service, minimum
excitation limiter (MEL) is provided to prevent these types of instability
However, a generator is most likely to loose transient stability. This is the ability
of the system to remain synchronized following an abrupt change such as a fault
or switch of a key line
Out of step generator or generators operate at slightly different frequencies. A
generator that pulls out of step ahead of the system with a slip frequency of 4
Hz, will be operating at a speed of 1+slip/50= 1.08 pu or 8% over speed.
The system and generator voltage vectors sweep past one another at slip
frequency, producing a pulsating current with peak magnitude potentially
greater than a 3 phase fault at the generator terminal
I= (Eg Es)/ (Xg+Xtr+Zs)
If Eg=Es, no current will flow when =0. System will appear as an open circuit
with infinite impedance. As increases, so will the current untill the system
reaches a separation of 180
0
. At this point, the driving voltage will be twice
normal, the sum of Eg and Es, and the current will be at a maximum.
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
Electrically, this condition is identical to that produced by a 3 phase fault located
one half the electrical distance to the remote terminal or at Z= 0.5(Xg+Xtr+Zs).
This imaginary fault location is called the electrical center of the system
The location of electrical center denotes the severity of the event with respect to
the generator. When it is located in the GSU transformer or generator itself, it
represents an event equivalent to a GSU fault or generator fault with severe
stress to local equipment
The location of the system electrical center is not fixed. The center will move
away from the generator as the system impedance increases due to equipment
outages.
The center is also slip dependent because Xg varies slip frequency.
Electrical center also varies with system and generator voltages.
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
Turbine Generator Damage:
As the electrical center moves from the system into generator, the current
magnitude increases and with it thermal and mechanical stress on the generator
and GSU transformer.
On a strong system, Xtr+Xs can be less than Xg: the electrical centre will lie
within generator and current at 180
0
exceeds that of a 3 phase fault at the
generator terminals.
During out of step event, Xg=Xd but with low Xtr and Xs, the out of step
current can exceed the designed machine withstand limit (sub transient fault
current at the generator terminal). The absence of DC offset current does lessen
the stress from that of the fault case
The point is that as the location of electrical center moves towards the neutral
end of generator, current induced thermal and mechanical stress can approach
design limit. The generator is exposed to these conditions each slip cycle. After
a severe event, restacking of the stator core may be required. Local hot spots
may also damage stator windings

LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
Generator rotor:
Slip frequency will induce currents in the rotor. Prolonged exposure to these
currents will cause thermal damage to damper windings, rotor teeth, wedges and
rotor body.

Torque pulsations:
The current pulsations associated with each slip cycle causes severe torque
transients in the turbine generator shaft. The stress is at a maximum during
initial period of each torque pulsation. This is the period when shaft damage
normally occurs.
The fatigue life of the shaft can be used up after a few pole slip events.
If slip cycle frequency coincides with a normal frequency of one of the shaft
sections, shaft failure can result
LOSS OF SYNCHRONISM
Excitation System:
Prolonged asynchronous operation can also cause diode failures within the
excitation system. During each pole slip, these diodes will experience high
voltage as they block reversed rotor current. The over voltage stresses insulation
and can result in breakdown

Power System:
A loss of synchronism by one or more units will result in cyclic voltage
fluctuations as generators slip poles
These voltage dips can cause disruption to customers served from the grid.
Induction motors may stall and synchronous motors may loose synchronism.
Other processes would be disrupted when the voltage dips cause the motor
contactors to drop out
TUTORIAL ON GENERATOR:
LOSS OF FIELD
LOSS OF FIELD
Event:
Excitation to the generator field winding fails

Causes:
Equipment failure, inadvertent opening of the field breaker, an open or short
circuit in the excitation system, or slip ring flashover

Mechanism:
I
f
and Eg decay at a rate determined by the field circuit time constant
Var output decreases and becomes negative as generator draws increasing
reactive from power system to replace excitation formerly provided by the field
circuit. Var consumption can exceed the generator MVA rating
The reduction in Eg also weakens the magnetic coupling between rotor and
stator. At some point during the decay, the coupling will become too weak to
transmit prime mover output power to the electrical system i.e. loss of steady
state stability occurs

LOSS OF FIELD
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180
Degrees
P
o
w
e
r

(
P
U
)
Field Current = 100% FL
80% FL
40% FL
60% FL
Pm
at FL
LOSS OF FIELD
The effect of decaying Eg is to reduce amplitude of power angle curve with time
The intersection of Pe and Pm define the operating angle () of the generator
rotor with respect to the system voltage
increases to maintain power equilibrium
When reaches 90
0
electrical, power output is at maximum. I
f
decay beyond this
point renders the generator incapable of transmitting all the mechanical power to
the electrical system
The excess mechanical power is dissipated by acceleration of the generator rotor.
As speed increases beyond synchronous speed, synchronism is lost
As speed increases, turbine output decreases as dictated by droop setting of the
governor and electrical power increases as dictated by the slip torque
characteristic of the power system.
Eventually, Pm and Pe will reach a new equilibrium, with generator operating
above synchronous speed as an induction generator drawing excitation from the
power system in the form of Vars
ce reac generator effective Xg Xsyst Xtr Xg impedance transfer X
XT
EgEs
Pe Equation Swing Power
T
tan ,
sin :
= + + = =
= o
LOSS OF FIELD
A loss of synchronism following a field failure is not a high speed phenomenon
Typically, it will take a fully loaded steam turbine generator several seconds to
loose synchronism
Final slip is affected by the droop setting of the governor, system impedance and
typically in the 2 to 5% range.
The power output of the induction generator is less than the pre failure power
output

Impact of LOF operation:
The final or steady state slip of the induction generator is important because it
determines Xg which in turn defines the impact of post LOF operation
A LOF event can be represented by X
T
, a series circuit including Xg, Xtr and
Xsyst. Xg decreases with increasing slip and slip increases with initial generator
Thus, the higher the initial load, the greater the asynchronous current and more
severe the consequences to both the generator and the connected system
LOSS OF FIELD
Other factors affecting LOF severity:
The initial load is the major factor in determining the potential damage from a
LOF event.
At first glance, a strong power system would appear to offer high post fault
currents. This is not necessarily true. A reduction in Zs will reduce the final slip
frequency and increase the power output from the induction generator. Because
of lower final slip, Xg will increase thereby reducing the stator current. Thus, a
failure on a strong system may actually be less damaging than a failure on a
weak system
A LOF event is more likely to be initiated by a shorted field circuit than an open
field circuit. The former will produce higher stator current, larger reactive intake
and generally more severe consequences than would be experienced with an
open field circuit.
LOSS OF FIELD
When machines are connected directly to a common bus, the potential for
damage increases. As I
f
decays on the unit with failed excitation, AVR on
healthy machines will initiate full field forcing to support the falling bus voltage.
This increases the Var supply to the faulted machine. The situation is aggravated
when the units are connected to a strong system. An IEEE study documents a
study of 2 generators connected to a common bus and a moderate strength power
system. The unit with failed excitation saw a peak MVA loading in excess of 2
pu and peak stator current in excess of 2.5 pu. The healthy unit was also severely
stressed with a peak MVA of 1.5 pu and peak current of 2 pu
A LOF on a hydro unit at light load may not result in a loss of synchronism
since salient pole machines can carry up to 25% rated load following a loss of
field without loss of synchronism. However, once a salient pole machine looses
synchronism, it accelerates rapidly to a high slip. The slower acting hydro
governor and the fact that a salient pole machine makes an inefficient induction
generator causes this response. If the hydro generators field is lost near full load,
the effects are the same as for steam turbine units.
LOSS OF FIELD
System Impact:
A generator operating asynchronously without excitation can consume Vars in
the range of 0.4 to 1.9 times the unit name plate rating as slip increases from
near zero to 4%
The impact of LOF on the system is determined by its ability to withstand not
only the loss of real and reactive output, but to supply the large Var demand
imposed by the faulted generator after LOF.
Inability of system to meet VAR demand of failed unit can result in a
Initially, excitation on nearby generators will go to full boost to supply reactive
to the generator with failed excitation and support the grid voltage, The large
Var influx can overload and trip the area transmission lines.
If the failed generator is not disconnected, field current limiters on the adjacent
units will time out, initiating an immediate reduction in field current to
continuous rated value? The resulting reduction in area Var support is likely to
produce severe voltage degradation. System voltage collapse or multi machine
instability can result causing a regional system outage
LOSS OF FIELD
System Impact:
Dynamic studies similar to those used in transient stability analysis are required
to determine accurately system response to a LOF event. These studies are time
consuming and expansive.
A screening technique using a standard load flow can determine where full
dynamic studies are required.
At the generator of interest, a worst case LOF event is simulated in load flow by
setting the reactive flow into the machine at (-)1.5 times the name plate MW
rating.
If a Load flow solves with reasonable system voltages, the system is considered
capable of withstanding the LOF event
However, if the solution fails to converge or severely depressed voltage results,
the event must then be modeled dynamically to determine if the system can
survive the field failure.
LOSS OF FIELD
Generator damage:
The potential for generator damage following a LOF is dependent on generator
design and final slip during asynchronous operation.
Although the asynchronous capabilities are not addressed in the standards,
modern expectations, particularly for conductor cooled machines are much
lower, with damage in as little as 10 second for some instances.
The improved cooling techniques result in larger MVA ratings from a given
physical size. These machines have higher per unit impedance and lower inertia
than indirect cooled machines and therefore tend to operate at a higher slip. This
reduces Xg during asynchronous operation, increasing the stator and induced
rotor current
Conductor cooled machine will also have lower thermal time constants, hence
faster temperature rise for a given current than indirect cooled machines

Load before LOF Final slip Effect on generator
<=30% rated load 0.1-0.2% Damage unlikely
100% rated load 2-5% Exposed to damage
LOSS OF FIELD
The large Q and depressed Et following a LOF load can
give rise to Is well above rated. Peak currents of 2.5 pu have
been reported
ANSI C50.12,13,14 defines a required short time O/L
capability for stator windings which is the limiting value to
prevent stator winding damages
LOSS OF FIELD
Rotor damage:
Can occur as a result of rapid heating caused by currents induced in
rotor
LOF by shorted field circuit: the induced current is divided between
rotor structure and the field winding. This reduces heating in rotor
structures
The induced field current is generally below rated in salient pole
machines and only slightly above rated in a few cases with cylindrical
rotor machines
LOF by open field circuit: maximum rotor heating occurs. Also,
damaging over voltage will be induced in the field circuit for all but very
low slip events.
In a cylindrical rotor machine, induced currents flow along the length of
rotor body, creating heat in teeth, slot wedges, and, if present, the
amortisseur winding. Thermal damage is most likely to occur near the
ends of the rotor where currents converge to enter the retaining rings
In a salient pole machine, induced currents are found in the amortisseur
bars located in each pole face
LOSS OF FIELD
Stator end core damage:
Thermal damage at the ends of the stator core of a cylindrical rotor machine
when operated at reduced field current.
This limitation forms the leading Var boundary of the generator capability curve
A LOF represents the extreme in field current reduction.
generators MVA rating. Typically, the generator manufacturers capability
curve limits leading Var intake to about 40 to 60% of the generator rating
The reduction in terminal voltage that accompanies a LOF markedly increases
the Var capability, but this increase is insufficient to accommodate a potential
The voltage dependent Var limitation is circular on the P-Q plane with the
following characteristics:
Centre (Q,P) = 0, K1*et
2
Excessive end core heating would result in bluing of metallic end core structure,
charring of stator winding insulation and failure of the insulation medium
between laminations.
LOSS OF FIELD
Torque pulsations:
Originate from the electrical and magnetic difference between the d- and q-axes.
More severe for shorted field circuit than an open circuit condition
The torque magnitude associated with a LOF is less severe than that
accompanying an out of step condition with full excitation, but mechanical
damage remains a significant concern following a LOF event
Asynchronous operation exposes the generator and the prime mover to two
stress cycles each slip cycle.
Fatigue is cumulative, and extended asynchronous operation can consume a
considerable portion of the fatigue life of the shaft and associated structures,
including the machine foundations
These pulsations are also potentially resonant with shafts, turbine blades and
other components.
Thank you
MINIMUM EXCITATION LIMITER
AVR-SS
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
P
Q
0.85
0.95
MINIMUM EXCITATION LIMITER
AVR-SS
-0.8
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
P
Q
0.85
0.9
TRANSIENT STABILITY
Criterion for determination of non-recoverable Swings:
Improved cooling techniques have increased generator impedance whereas
system impedance declined due to reinforcement
Electrical Centers moved from transmission system into the GSU and the
generator itself
Following a system disturbance, generator rotors experience angular
perturbations as they attempt to adjust a new steady state operating condition
In a stable system rotor oscillations are damped ; initial angular displacement is
largest and proportional to the severity of disturbance
There exists a maximum swing angle known as critical swing angle (
C)
from
which the system can not recover
System modeling on a transient stability program is best way to determine
C
.
Tools and time to use them are generally not available to all and a less accurate
A general assumption is made that >120
0
is not recoverable and thereafter
instability is imminent
The minimum system impedance and Xd values are typically used to construct
swing loci because lower impedances produce a smaller swing diameter

TRANSIENT STABILITY
Swing Velocity:
A fault changes system impedance instantaneously while impedance change
during a system transient is constrained by inertia and generator time constants
GE publication GER-3179 (J Brady) lists the following average velocities for
the first half of the first slip cycle

Maximum acceleration occurs after each pole slip at the midpoint of the slip
cycle
Plot indicates slip < 5Hz at the beginning of second slip cycle. This value is
good estimation of upper limit of slip being calculated for a light machine (H=3)
Unit Type

s
, deg/sec
s
, slip cycles/sec
Steam units 1296-1728 3.6-4.8
Tandem units 250-400 0.694-1.11
Compound units 400-800 1.11-2.22
LOSS OF FIELD
The full load LOF event depicted in figure in earlier slide is typical
It produces cyclic Is with variation between 1.14 and 2.13pu each slip cycle
In theory, the stator heating is related to the RMS current over a slip cycle.
The incremental form for RMS current is

t
I
T
RMS
I
T
A
}
=
0
2
1
In the case of the full load LOF event depicted in figure, the RMS current at final
slip was calculated as 1.74pu
ANSI standards require that this current is limited to 22 sec to prevent winding
damage
The stator waveform is not sinusoidal, because slip is not constant through the slip
cycle. Figure in next slide shows the stator current waveform for the same LOF
condition but with Xs reduced from 0.2 to 0.1.
The incrementally calculated RMS current for this condition is 1.34pu. The
corresponding stator overload limit for this current is 50 sec from ANSI standards.
This demonstrates that generator stress can increase with increased system
impedance
I
RMS
can be calculated from
incremental currents and slip
cycle duration determine from
LOSS OF FIELD
NPS current induces rotor currents at 2fs whereas frequency of asynchronously
induced rotor current is equal to slip frequency and is usually less than 5 Hz
As frequency increases, skin effect increases the effective resistance of a
conductor . Thus, higher I
2
R and more heating per ampere are produced by NPS
operation than those by asynchronous operation
The 2fs current produced by NPS current does not have sufficient penetration
into the rotor lots to induce current into the field winding. Therefore, the NPS
limit is, is, in effect, based on an open field circuit
The NPS limits are based on the limiting temperature for pole face amortisseur
winding in salient pole machines and teeth or wedges in round rotor machine
with induced currents at 2fs. A realistic estimate of asynchronous limits requires
an adjustment of conductor resistance for lower frequency asynchronous case
An AIEEE paper gives expression Tmax = CI
2
t/d
2
Where Tmax= the limiting temperature for a component, C= constant for a
particular machine, I= stator current, and d= depth of penetration
The physical differences between conducting structure in salient and round rotor
machines, result in different treatments for the resistance variation

LOSS OF FIELD
The NPS short time limit is defined in terms of K, a constant representing the
maximum (I
2
eq)
2
*t value the machine can withstand
The I
2
eq term refers to equivalent RMS pu NPS current in the event the current
is time variant
IEEE standard C37.102:
K= 40 for salient pole machine
K= 10 for large conductor cooled machine
For pole face amortisseurs on a salient pole machine and other small
conductors, d varies proportional to 1/f
Assume IRMS = 1.74pu at final slip under asynchronous operation
( )
( )
sec 264
5 * 74 . 1
40 * 100 100
100
2 2
2
2
2
max
2
max
2
2
2
max
= = =
=
= = = =
= = = =
f I
I K
t
Hz slip 5 at operation us asynchrono for withstand rotor expected the
40), (K r amortisseu face pole by limited were 13.2 Figure in machine If
tf I
I K limit NPS
C
T
tf I Kf
Cf
T
t I K limit Thermal
d
t CI
T
LOSS OF FIELD
For a solid face cylindrical rotor having large diameter configuration, d varies
proportional to (I/f)
( )
( )
sec 7 . 28
5 * 74 . 1 * 4
10 * 100
* 4
* 100
100
4
)
2
max
2
2
max
max
2
= = =
=
= = = =
= =
= =
If
I K
t
Hz slip 5 at operation us asynchrono for withstand rotor expected the
10), (K e temperatur tooth by limited were 13.2 Figure in machine If
limit NPS
C
T Itf
I K pu 4 current NPS for limit upper Practical
t I not and It of function a is limitation resulting (Note
C
T
It K and
Cf
I T
t I limit thermal rotor l Cylindrica