Sie sind auf Seite 1von 31

BIOENERGETICS Part 1

HOW THE BODY CONVERTS FOOD TO ENERGY

Click to edit Master subtitle style

METABOLISM

Is the sum total of all the chemical reactions involved in maintaining the dynamic state of the cell

Metabolic Reactions

Those in which molecules are broken down to provide the energy needed by cells catabolism Those that synthesize the compounds needed by cells anabolism

METABOLISM

Biochemical Pathway

Is a series of consecutive biochemical reactions


Carbohydrates Lipids Proteins Common Catabolic Pathway

To convert the chemical energy in food to molecules of ATP

METABOLISM

Principal Compounds of the Common Catabolic Pathway

Common Catabolic Pathway

Citric Acid Cycle

Oxidative Phosphorylation Pathway


Electron Transport Chain Phosphorylation

METABOLISM

Principal Compounds of the Common Catabolic Pathway

Agents for Storage of Energy and Transfer of Phosphate Groups


Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP) Adenosine Diphosphate (ADP) Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)

METABOLISM

Principal Compounds of the Common Catabolic Pathway

Agents for Transfer of Electrons in Biological Oxidation-Reduction Reactions

Coenzymes

NAD+ (nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide) FAD (flavin adenine dinucleotide) Contain and ADP core

METABOLISM

Principal Compounds of the Common Catabolic Pathway

Agent for Transfer of Acetyl Groups

Coenzyme A

Final principal compound Acetyl (CCH3CO)-transporting molecule Contains ADP

CATABOLISM

Stage I: Hydrolysis of Dietary Macromolecules into Small Subunits

To degrade large food molecules into their component subunits

Simple sugars, amino acids, fatty acids, and glycerol Digestive processes

CATABOLISM

Stage II: Conversion of Monomers into a Form that can be Completely Oxidized

Monosaccharides, amino acids, and glycerol are assimilated into the pathways of energy metabolism

Glycolysis Citric Acid Cycle (Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle or Krebs Cycle)

CATABOLISM

Stage II: Conversion of Monomers into a Form that can be Completely Oxidized

Sugars usually enter the glycolysis pathway in the form of glucose or fructose Eventually converted to acetyl-CoA, which can be completely oxidized in the citric acid cycle

CATABOLISM

Stage II: Conversion of Monomers into a Form that can be Completely Oxidized

Amino groups are removed from amino acids Remaining carbon skeletons enter the catabolic processes at many steps of the citric acid cycle

CATABOLISM

Stage II: Conversion of Monomers into a Form that can be Completely Oxidized

Fatty acids are converted to acetylCoA and enter the citric acid cycle in that form

CATABOLISM

Stage II: Conversion of Monomers into a Form that can be Completely Oxidized

Glycerol produced by the hydrolysis of fats Converted to glyceraldehyde-3phosphate (one of the intermediates of glycolysis) Enters energy metabolism

CATABOLISM

Stage III: The Complete Oxidation of Nutrients and the Production of ATP

Acetyl CoA carries 2-carbon remnants of the nutrients, acetyl groups, to the citric acid cycle Electrons and hydrogen atoms are harvested during the complete oxidation of the acetyl group to CO2

Used in the process of oxidative phosphorylation to produce ATP

(1) GLYCOLYSIS

Also known as the Embden-Meyerhof Pathway A pathway for carbohydrate catabolism that begins with the substrate D-glucose

Anaerobic process 10 steps 3 Major Products


ATP chemical energy NADH chemical energy 2 three-carbon pyruvate

Goodness Gracious, Franklin Did Go By Picking Pumpkins (to) Prepare Pies

ENZYME MNEMONICS High Profile People Act Too Glamorous, Picture Posing Every Place

PENTOSE PHOSPHATE PATHWAY

An alternative pathway for glucose oxidation It provides the cell with energy in the form of reducing power for biosynthesis

NADPH is produced in the oxidative stage

Reducing agent required for many biosynthetic pathways

Provides sugar phosphates that are required for biosynthesis Most active in tissues involved in cholesterol and fatty acid biosynthesis