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GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM

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PRESENTED BY ::JHASKETAN SAHU 0801300154 CSE (3rd YEAR)

HI-TECH INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

INTRODUCTION
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The GPS is a satellite based Radio Navigation system, that utilizes precise range measurements from the GPS satellites to determine precise position anywhere in the world.

Globe Positioning System (GPS)

GPS is a Satellite Navigation System GPS is funded and controlled by the U. S. Department of Defense (DOD). While there are many thousands of civil users of GPS world-wide, the system was designed for and is operated by the U. S. military. GPS provides specially coded satellite signals that can be processed in a GPS receiver, enabling the receiver to compute position, velocity and time. At least 4 satellites are used to estimate 4 quantities: position in 3-D (X, Y, Z) and GPSing time (T)

20,000 km

http://maic.jmu.edu/sic/glossary.htm#Projectio n

Components of the GPS

G S p a c e S eC g o m n

S S eU g s m e r e S n te g

e r no tl t

Space Segment:
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24 GPS space vehicles(SVs). Satellites orbit the earth in 12 hrs. 6 orbital planes inclined at 55 degrees with the equator. This constellation provides 5 to 8 SVs from any point on the earth.

Control Segment:

The control segment comprises of 5 stations. They measure the distances of the overhead satellites every 1.5 seconds and send the corrected data to Master control. Here the satellite orbit, clock performance and health of the satellite are determined and determines whether repositioning is required. This information is sent to the three uplink stations

User Segment:
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There are two services SPS and PPS The Standard Positioning Service
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SPS- is position accuracy based on GPS measurements on single L1 frequency C/A code C/A ( coarse /acquisition or clear/access) GPs code sequence of 1023 pseudo random bi phase modulation on L1 freq

User Segment:
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The Precise Position Service


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PPS is the highest level of dynamic positioning based on the dual freq Pcode The P-code is a very long pseudorandom bi phase modulation on the GPS carrier which does not repeat for 267 days Only authorized users, this consists of SPS signal plus the P code on L1 and L2 and carrier phase measurement on L2

GPS Satellite Signal:


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L1 freq. (1575.42 Mhz) carries the SPS code and the navigation message. L2 freq. (1227.60 Mhz) used to measure ionosphere delays by PPS receivers 3 binary code shift L1 and/or L2 carrier phase
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The C/A code The P code The Navigation message which is a 50 Hz signal consisting of GPs satellite orbits . Clock correction and other system parameters

NAVIGATION
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Navigation is used for estimating the position of a vehicle on sea, in air or and on land to ensure that the chosen route is followed accurately. GPS satellites constellations orbit consists of 24 satellites orbiting in 6 orbits, 4each.they are orbiting around earth in every 12 hours emitting continuous navigation signals.

HOW DOES IT WORK?


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GPS provides specially coded satellite signals that can be processed in a GPS receiver, enabling the receiver to compute position, velocity and time. Four GPS satellite signals are used to compute positions in three dimensions and the time offset in the receiver clock.

SATELLITE NAVIGATION
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This is based on measurement of the times of arrival of the time signals received from 3 or more orbiting satellites, whose positional coordinates in space are also transmitted. The limiting pulses are sent out by each satellite in the LBand, using spread spectrum modulation and are received by the GPS Receivers in

SATELLITE TRANSMISSION
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The space vehicles transmit two microwave carrier signals. The L1 frequency ranging about 1575.42 MHz carries the navigation message and the SPS code signals. The L2 frequency about 1227.60 MHz is used to measure the ionospheric delay by PPS equipped receiver. Three types of binary codes are there which shifts the L1 and/or L2 carrier phase.

The C/A Code (Coarse Acquisition) The P-Code (Precise) The Navigation Message

RECEIVER POSITION, VELOCITY AND TIME

GPS RECEIVER

POSITION &TIME DETERMINATION

RADIO NAVIGATION
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The basis of Global Navigation for an AGV is reliably gaining a co-ordinate of vector describing where the vehicle is in relation to a fixed point on the globe. This point is generally taken to be the intersection of the Greenwich meridian and the equator line of latitude, at sea level - in accordance with standard geographical practice. Using this position information, with reference to a map or otherwise, a list of waypoints can be generated and followed to allow the vehicle to navigate between end points of a journey.

WAYPOINT NAVIGATION
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A waypoint is an address which defines starting point, expected destination point, a place to avoid or sometimes the intermediate position along the way. The Destination Waypoint Routes Mob (man over board) position waypoint Navigating To Single Way Point

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NASA Landsat-7 (ETM+) launched 4/15/1999


Spectrum Visible Near Infrared Thermal Infrared Bands 8 Resolution (m) 15, 30, 60

705 km

Terra satellite launched on 12/18/1999


Spectrum Visible Near Infrared Thermal Infrared
705 km

Bands 36 Resolution (m) 250, 500, 1000

http://terra.nasa.gov/About/MODIS/modis_swath.html

Global Geostationary Satellites


N. & S. American
Earth radius 6,370 km Satellite altitude 35,800 km

Eastern Pacific

Europe and Africa

Jap. Aus. W. Paci

C. Asia, India

China, India

Image processing and modeling


The size of a cell we call image resolution, depending on Such as 1 m, 30 m, 1 km, or 4 km

Image processing and modeling

Soil Surface moistu tempert

E T

Rainf all

Snow and

Wat er

Vegetati Lan on d

http://www.geoplane.com/gpsneeds.html

Errors
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Satellite errors
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Errors in modeling clock offset Errors in Keplerian representation of ephemeris Latency in tracking Through the ionosphere,carrier experiences phase advance and the code experiences group delay Dependent on o Geomagnetic latitude o Time of the day o Elevation of the satellite

Atmospheric propagation errors


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Errors
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Atmospheric errors can be removed by


Dual freq measurement low freq get refracted more than high freq
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thus by comparing delays of L1 and L2 errors can be eliminated


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Single freq users model the effects of the ionosphere

Errors
Troposphere causes delays in code and carrier But they arent freq dependent But the errors are successfully modeled o Errors due to Multipath o Receiver noise
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Errors due to geometry


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Poor GDOP
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When angles from the receiver to the SVs used are similar

Good GDOP
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When the angles are different

CONCLUSION
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Though Navigation was someday an unsolved mystery but GPS made it possible in all types of Navigation such as Space, Ground and Marine Navigations. further researches are making it day by day more useful and the prediction says that all the problems regarding position fixing and determination will be solved by the development of GPS efficiency

THANK YOU!!!