Sie sind auf Seite 1von 6

PARKINSON DISEASE

NAME: GOPI PROGRAM: DIPLOMA IN PHYSIOTHERAPY LECTURER: MS.RANJINI @ SINDHU SUBJECT: NEUROLOGY II

DEFINITION

Parkinson's disease is a degenerative disorder of the central nervous system.


Its a disorder that affects nerve cells, or neurons, in a part of the brain that controls muscle movement. Its affecting approximately 1% of individuals older than 60 years.

The motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease result from the death of dopamine-generating cells in the substantia nigra, a region of the midbrain; the cause of this cell death is unknown. Early in the course of the disease, the most obvious symptoms are movement-related; these include shaking, rigidity, slowness of movement and difficulty with walking and gait. Later, cognitive and behavioural problems may arise, with dementia (loss of brain function) commonly occurring in the advanced stages of the disease. Trembling of hands, arms, legs, jaw and face Stiffness of the arms, legs and trunk Slowness of movement Poor balance and coordination

PHYSIOTHERAPY MANAGEMENT
Exercise therapy in patients with Parkinson disease using a variety of physiotherapy interventions may play a role in improving gait, balance and flexibility, aerobic capacity, initiation of movement, and functional independence. Studies generally have suggested improvement in functional outcomes.
In terms of improving flexibility and range of motion for patients experiencing rigidity, generalized relaxation techniques such as gentle rocking have been found to decrease excessive muscle tension. In terms of improving flexibility and range of motion for patients experiencing rigidity, generalized relaxation techniques such as gentle rocking have been found to decrease excessive muscle tension.

Other effective techniques to promote relaxation include slow rotational movements of the extremities and trunk, rhythmic initiation, diaphragmatic breathing, and meditation techniques. Areas of interest with respect to gait during rehabilitation programs focus on but are not limited to improving gait speed, base of support, stride length, trunk and arm swing movement. Strategies include utilizing assistive equipment (pole walking and treadmill walking), verbal cueing (manual, visual and auditory), exercises (marching and PNF patterns) and altering environments (surfaces, input). Strengthening exercises have shown improvements in strength and motor function for patients with primary muscular weakness and weakness related to inactivity with mild to moderate Parkinsons disease. Also, due to the forward flexed posture, and respiratory dysfunctions in advanced Parkinsons disease, deep diaphragmatic breathing exercises are beneficial in improving chest wall mobility and vital capacity. Exercise may improve constipation.