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Composite functions

Combination of function
Functions can be add, minus, multiple and divided.

) (
) (
) (
x g
x f
x
g
f
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
) ( ) ( ) )( ( x g x f x g f + = +
) ( ) ( ) )( ( x g x f x g f =
) ( ) ( ) )( ( x g x f x g f - = -
Example 1
Let f(x) = 2x + 3 and g(x) = 4x +1 with
D
f
= R and D
g
= R respectively. Hence, find
and state the domain for
a.
) (x
g
f
|
|
.
|

\
|
) )( ( x g f +
) )( ( x g f
) )( ( x g f -
b.
c.
d.
Solution
a.
) ( ) ( ) )( ( x g x f x g f + = +
) ( ) ( ) )( ( x g x f x g f = b.
1 4 3 2 + + + = x x
4 6 + = x
) 1 4 ( 3 2 + + = x x
2 2 + = x
g f g f
D D D =
+ ) (
} : {
) (
R x x D
g f
e =
+
g f g f
D D D =
) (
} : {
) (
R x x D
g f
e =

Solution
) (
) (
) (
x g
x f
x
g
f
=
|
|
.
|

\
|
) ( ) ( ) )( ( x g x f x g f - = - c.
d.
) 1 4 )( 3 2 ( + + = x x
3 14 8
2
+ + = x x
g f g f
D D D =
- ) (
} : {
) (
R x x D
g f
e =
-
} 0 ) ( : {
) (
= =
-
x g x D D D
g f g f
, : {
) (
R x x D
g f
e =
-
) 1 4 (
) 3 2 (
+
+
=
x
x
}
4
1
= x
Composite functions
In some cases, we need to evaluate
a function of a function of x.
Example evaluate log
10
8
2
1. First we evaluate 8
2
= 64

2. Second evaluate log
10
64
If we let f(x)=x
2
, g(x) = log
10
x,
then find log
10
8
2
= gf(8).

Example 2
Let f(x)=2x+1. Find f(x
2
), f(f(x)) and
[f(x)]
2
.
1 2 ) (
2 2
+ = x x f
) 1 2 ( )) ( ( + = x f x f f
1 ) 1 2 ( 2 + + = x
3 4 + = x
2 2
] 1 2 [ )] ( [ + = x x f
1 4 4
2
+ + = x x
Condition for composite
function to exist
Given function f and g, then
composite function fg, exist if
R
g
D
f
=0.
Example 3
If (fg)(x)=9x
2
+6x and g(x)=3x+1,
find f(x).
Solution
3
1
) (
1

=

x
x g
x x x g f 6 9 ) (
2
+ =
Given
)) ( ( 6 )) ( ( 9 )) ( (
1 2 1 1
x g x g x g g f

+ =
|
.
|

\
|

+
|
.
|

\
|

=
3
1
6
3
1
9 ) (
2
x x
x f
1 ) (
2
= x x f
x x gg =

) (
1
Condition for composite
function to exist
g f g
D D

=
g
f
f g
D R =
g f f
R R

=
Condition for composite
function to exist
g
D
g
f
f
D f
R
g
R
g f
R

g f
D

=
Conclusion
For fg to be defined the range of g
must be a subset or a set equal to
the domain of f, i.e. R
g
_D
f

Example 4
Given the functions and

a) Determine the domain and range of
i. f(x)
ii. g(x)
b) Explain why fg exists
c) Find fg and determine its domain and
range.
x x f = ) (
9 ) (
2
+ = x x g
Solution
} , 0 : { R x x x D
f
e > = a. i
a. ii
} , 0 : { R y y y R
f
e > =
} : { R x x D
g
e = } , 9 : { R y y y R
g
e > =
b.
,
f g
D R _
Since
exists
g f
g f g
D D

=
g
f
f
D f
R
g
R
g f
R

Solution
) (x g f c.
) 9 (
2
+ = x f
9
2
+ = x
D
fg
= {x:xeR}
g f g
D D

=
g
f
f
D f
R
g
R
g f
R

R
fg
= {y:y>3, yeR}
} : { R x x D
g
e =
} 9 : { > = y y R
g
} 0 : { > = x x D
f
} 3 : { > = y y R
f
, ) ( x x f =
New
} 9 : { > = x x D
f
3 9 ) ( = = x f
New
} 0 : { > = y y R
f
, ) ( x x f =
9 = x when
D
fg
= {x:xeR}
9 ) (
2
+ = x x g
Example 5
Given the functions and

a) Determine the domain and range of
i. f(x)
ii. g(x)
2 ) (
2
= x x f
1 ) ( = x x g
Solution
} : { R x x D
f
e = a. i
a. ii
} , 2 : { R y y y R
f
e > =
} , 1 : { R x x x D
g
e > =
} , 0 : { R y y y R
g
e > =
Example 5 (continue)
b) Draw the arrow diagram representing the
composite function fg. Comment on the
existance of fg. Find fg.
g
D
g
f
f
D f
R
g
R
g f
R

g f
D

Since
f g
D R _
g f
Hence
exist
Solution
) (x g f b.
) 1 ( = x f
( ) 2 1
2
= x
3 = x
Example 5 (continue)
c) Find D
fg
and R
fg
g
D
g
f
f
D f
R
g
R
g f
R
g f
D

Since
g f g
R D R =
g g f
D D =

then
} 1 : { > = x x D
g f
But
g f
R

Depend on new D
f
=R
g
Example 5 (continue)
-2
2 ) (
2
= x x f
} 0 : { > = x x D
f
} 2 : { > = y y R
g f
Example 5 (continue)
d) Given h(x)=2x. Find fgh. Find on the
existance of fgh
fgh exist if
)) ( ( ) )( ( x h g f x h g f =
g f h
D R

_
} : { R x x R
h
e =
) 2 ( x g f =
3 2 = x
} 1 : { > = x x D
g f
fgh does not exist
Example 6
Given the functions and

Find the domain and range of fg if fg exist.
1
1
) (

=
x
x f
3
) ( x x g =
, : { R x x D
f
e =
} 1 = x
} : { R x x D
g
e =
, : { R y y R
f
e =
} 0 = y
} : { R x x R
g
e =
, : { R x x D
f
e =
} 1 = x
, : { R x x D
g
e =
, : { R x x D
g f
e =

} 1 = x
} : { R x x R
g
e =
g
f
g
D
g
R
f
R
f
D
For fg to exist,
f g
D R _
.
But
For fg to exist,
, : { R y y R
g
e =
} 1 = y
We want
to find
domain
for fg
to exist
b
a
Limit R
g,
Limit D
g,
} 1 = x
Example 7
Given the functions and

Explain why the composite function gf cannot
be defined.
, 2 ) (
2
x x f =
, ) (
2
x x g =
, 2 : { < = y y R
f
} R ye
} , 0 : { R x x x D
g
e > =
0 > x
0 > x
f f
D R .
Since,
the function gf cannot be defined.
Example 7 (continue)
Given the functions and

Find the largest domain of f such that gf is
defined
2
2 ) ( x x f =
, ) (
2
x x g =
0 > x
} 2 : { < = y y R
f
} 0 : { > = x x D
g
For fg to exist,
g f
D R _
0 = x 2 = x
f
R
must be ) 2 , 0 ( =
When
), 2 , 0 ( =
f
R
), 2 , 0 ( =
f
D