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Chinna Rao, DGM (SAFETY ), NTPC Ltd;

26th September 2008


Emergencies may be occurred due to many reasons. It may be due to malfunction of standard working systems or practices. Or terrorist activity or natural causes like earthquake, cyclone, flood etc.

An On-Site Emergency is caused by an accident that takes place in a hazardous installation and the effects are confined to the factory premises involving only the people working in the factory. On-site Emergency Plan to deal with such eventualities, is the responsibility of the occupier and is mandatory Hazardous Chemicals Rules, Section 41B(4) of the Factories Act, 1948

Off-site Emergency Plan is statuary responsibilities of occupier to inform collector(District Emergency Authority)
This On-site Emergency Plan contain the following key elements :

Effect the rescue and treatment of causalities.

Safeguard other personnel in the premises. Minimise damage to property and environment. Initially contain and ultimately bring the incident under control identify and deeds. Provide to the needs of relatives. Provide authoritative information to the news media concerned officials. Secure the safe rehabilitation of affected persons. Preserve relevant records and equipment for the subsequent enquiry into the cause and circumstances of emergency


MAJOR PLANT SECTIONS i. Coal Handling Plant. ii. Main Plant (Boiler, Turbo generator, MOTs and Lub. Oil Tanks) iii. Water treatment plant. iv. Hydrogen Generation Plant. v. Switchyard including sub-stations and transformers. vi. Fuel Oil Handling plant. vii. Cable Galleries. viii. Stores where hazardous, Flammable and explosive material are stored. ix. Balancing Reservoir. x. Ash Dykes. BURSTING OF PIPE LINES & VESSELS
i. Steam pipes due to high pressure/ temperature.

ii. H2 Gas Lines and Acid Lines.

MAJOR HAZARD POTENTIAL ASSESSMENT Slow isolated fires. Fast spreading fires. Explosions Bursting of pipe lines/ vessels. Uncontrolled release of toxic/ corrosive/ flammable liquids. Uncontrolled release of toxic/ flammable gases/ dusts depending upon the nature, scale, speed and impact on environment each of these may constitute an emergency. Floods. FIRE HAZARD Coal Handling Plant and conveyor Cables in galleries and on trays in all plant sections. Fuel oil handling and oil tanks in main plant.

Transformer oil and Lub. Oil. & Burners area in boilers.

EXPLOSION HAZARDS Hydrogen Plant. Turbo Generators where Hydrogen is used for cooling. Generator Transformer (Oil cooled) Boiler (Coal/ Oil fired) Coal dust in mills and Boilers. RELEASE OF GASES/ DUST Chlorine in Water Treatment Plant Hydrogen in Turbo Generator Area of Main Plant & H2 Plant. Pulverized Coal dust from mills and associated piping and flue gases.

Fly ash and flue gases from chimneys. Ash ponds, ESP hoppers and bottom ash system.

REALEASE OF LIQUID Chemical tanks and chlorine toner's in WTP Fuel oil tanks in fuel oil handling section Ash dyke (bund failure) Control fluid in 500 MW turbine system

FLOODS Breach of balancing reservoir Breach of ash dykes.

Chlorine leakage
Explosion of cylinder due to terrorist activities Explosion due to fire Release of chlorine due to leakage

Due to eruption of fire

Major fire can occur in following areas Coal Handling Plant Hydrogen generation Plant Hydrogen storage areas Fuel oil handling system

Due to Explosion
Explosion in the plant are possible in H2 Plant, Oil storage tanks, or where Hydrogen cylinders are stored. To prevent such possibility H2 in purged with natral gas like N2 else where purity beyond 98% maintained.


Emergency kits are available in the area Neutralization tanks are provided Breathing apparatus are available Staffs are trained Future arrangement automatic Cl2 absorption system under process SUGGESTION Fire wing should also have the one set of Emergency kit, one tonner and regular mock drill


Toxic Chemicals Stored
Sl.No. 01. 02. 03. 04. 04. Chemical Stored HCL (30% concentration) Caustic Soda Type of container Rubber Lined M.S. Tank HDPE Drums 04 04 Nos. Maximum storage capacity 50M3 Each 50M 3 Each

(45% concentration) Liquid Ammonia

(22-25% concentration Liquid Chlorine Hydrogen Gas

120 200 Kg. Each 0.9 MT each (Max. 6.3 M)

Chlorine Tonner 70 High Pressure

06 20M 3 each


Sl.No. Material Stored

Type od container


Maximum storage capacity 2,25,000 MT 15 KL 30 Kl. 2000 Kl. Each 100 Kl 600 Kl

01 02 03 04 05 06

Coal Petrol Diesal HFO LDO Lubricants

Open Yard 02 Bays Tank Tank Tank Tank Ms Drum 01 02 04 01 3000


The Action Plan Consists of : Responsibilities of Chief Incident controller

Responsibilities of Work Incident Controller

Responsibilities of key personals Responsibilities Declaration of Emergency Responsibilities All Clear Signal Responsibilities Action to be taken by Non- key personnel during emergency




Assess the magnitude of the situation & decide if staff need to be evacuated from their assembly points to identified safer places. Declare on-site / off site emergency Exercise direct operational control over areas other than those affected

Undertake a continuous review of possible developments & assess in consultation with key personnel as to whether shutting down of the plant or any section of the plant & evacuation of personnel are required
Liaise with senior officials of Police, Fire Brigade, Medical & Factories Inpectorate & provide advice on possible effects on areas outside the Factory premises. Look after rehabilitation of affected persons on discontinuation of emergency

Issue authorised statement to news media 4 ensure that evidence is preserved for enquiry's to be conducted by the statutory authorities.
Information CMD and OS control room immediately along with following details Location of disaster Brief description of source and type of occurrence & preliminary action plan. Critical injuries to personnel. Preliminary assessment of plant damages. Likely impact on production and restoration time. Request for external essential services required to manage the emergency. The information shall be further updated & shall be sent to crisis control room atleast after every two hours.


The WIC on knowing about an emergency, immediately will rush to the incident site and take overall charge and report to the CIC. On arrival, he will assess the extent of emergency and decide if major emergency exists and inform the communication officer accordingly. His responsibilities will be to : Direct all operations to stop within the affected area taking into consideration priorities for safety of personnel, minimise damage to the plant, property and environment and minimise loss of materials. Provide advice and information to the Fire & Security Officers and the local fire service :

Ensure that all non- essential worker/ staff of the areas affected are evacuated to the appropriate assembly points and the areas are scratched for casualties. Set up communication points and establish contact with Emergency Control Centre in the event of failure of electric Supply and thereby public address system (PAS) and internal telephones Report on all significant & developments to the communication officer Have regard to the need to preserve the evidence so as to facilitate any enquiry into the cause and circumstances which caused or escalated the emergency.


To identify source of hazard and try to neutralise/ contain it. To isolate remaining plant and keep that in safe condition To organise safe shutdown of plant, if necessary. To organise all support service like operation of fire pumps, sprinkler system etc.

B. Maintenance Team Attend to all emergency maintenance jobs on top priority. To take steps to contain or reduce the level of hazard created due to disaster.

C. Fire Fighting Team

To rush to fire spot and extinguish fire To seek help from outside fire fighting agencies through notified NTPC officers. To evacuate persons affected due to whatever reasons

D. Auto Base Team To make the whole auto base vehicles ready to proceed for evacuation or other duties, when asked for.

E. Communication Team

To maintain the communication network in working condition. To attend urgent repairs in the communication system if required.

To arrange messengers for conveying urgent messages when needed so. To help NTPC Authorities to communicate with external or internal authorities to communicate with external or internal authorities / officials

F. Security Team
To man all gates. To bar entry of unauthorized persons. To permit with minimum delay, the entry of authorized personnel & outside agencies, To allow the ambulance/ evacuation vehicles etc. To pass through the gates without normal checks.

G. Administration Team

To ensure the causalities on priority basis. To transport causalities to first aid post, safe places or medical centres. To account the personnel. To help in search for missing personnel To pass information to the kith & kin of fatal or serious injured persons.

Safety Team To arrange required safety equipment To measure gas concentration, in case of gas leakage, at various places

To record the details of emergency.

To collect and preserve evidences in connection with inquiries.

To guide authorities on all safety related issues.

J. Medical Team
To arrange first aid material/ stretchers immediately and reach to site of incident To arrange for immediate medical attention. To arrange for sending the causalities to various hospitals and nursing homes etc. To ask specific medical assistance from out side (including through Medical Specialist) in consultation with CIC/WIC


Apart from WIC and CIC, other works personnel will have key role to play in providing advice & in implementing the decisions made by the CIC A. Sr. Supdt./ Engineer- In- Charge responsible for Production Electrical Maintenance Mech. Maintenance C&I Chemical

B. Head of Personnel & Officers connected with IR & Labour Welfare.

C. Dy Gen. Manager (TS) D. Head of Safety E. CMO F. Commandant/ Asstt. Commandant, CISF G. CISF Fire Officer H. Transport : Auton Base Engr. I/C I. Public Relation Officer

A list of key personnel & their phone Nos. Shall be informed to all concerned suitably.

Responsibility of Key Personnel

Departmental Heads- The departmental heads will provide assistance as required by WIC Chief Personnel Manager a) Report to WIC b) Ensure that all non- essential workers in the affected area are evacuated to assembly point in consultation with CIC c) Receive report from nominated persons from assembly points and pass on the absence information services d) keep liaison with other co-ordinatiors to meet the requirement of service such as materials, security management, transportation, medical, canteen facilities etc. e) Be in constant touch with the CIC & feed him correct information of the situation.

f) Give information to press public & authorities concerned an instructions from the CIC/WIC g) ensure that causalities received adequate attention at medical centre & arrange required additional help & inform relatives of the injured. h) Arrange to inform public on Radio and T.V about evacuation etc. i) Arrange a T.V. coverage on handling emergency. DGM (TS) Report to CIC and assist him in all activities & also liaison with all teams. CMO- render medical treatment to the inured & mobilize extra medical help from outside if necessary. Keep a list of qualified first aides of the factory .


Make sure that all safety equipment's are made available Participate in rescue operations Co- ordinate to transfer the injured persons to medical centre & arrange for first aid Keep in contact with the ECO & WIC & advise them on the condition of injured persons

Commandant (CISF)
Arrange to control the traffic at the gate & the incident area Direct the security staff to the incident site to take part in the emergency operations under his guidance and supervision. Evacuate the people in the plant or in the nearby areas as advised by WIC after arranging the transport through Transport incharge. Allow only those people who are associated with handling emergency. Maintain tow & orders in the area Maintain communication with CIC, WIC & ECO

CISF Fire Officer

Guide the fire fighting crew & shift the fire fighting facilities to the emergency site. Adequate facilities will be made available. Take guidance of the WIC for fire fighting as well as assessing the requirement of outside help Maintain communication with WIC, CIC & ECO. Auto Base Incharge Report to WIC Make the whole A/B vehicles ready to proceed for evacuation or other duties. When asked for Make all arrangements regarding transportation.


In plants immediately affected or likely to be affected as decided by the CIC, efforts will be needed to make shut down & make process units safe. This work will be carried out by plant supervisors & essentials operators provided they can do it without exposing themselves to undue risk. Some workers/ supervisors will also be required to help the above works for example. Attendants, Messengers, Drivers, First Aides, Steno-Typists etc. These will be Essential Staff and it is the responsibility of the WIC to identify the essential staff from the task force report at defined plant control centres so that they can be readily contacted. It is the responsibility of the Work Incident Controller to remove all non- essential staff to assembly points.

Support Team

Support Team to WIC Manager (Admn.), Supdt. (Opn) and Supdt. (E/M) Call any more persons depending upon the need. Communication & passing instruction to the Teams.

One Steno Secretary Recording all information coming in & instructions going out.


Head of Personnel Next below H.O. P Responsibilities Contacting statutory authorities. Arraigning for relievers & catering facilities. Giving information to media. Arranging shelters for affected persons. Contacting medical centres and nursing homes. Providing all other support, as necessary.

Head of Personnel Next below H.O. Materials Responsibilities

Arranging for urgently required materials through cash purchase or whatever means.

Head of Personnel Next below H.O. Finance Responsibilities

Arranging funds for various relief measures as well as emergency purchase of materials, sending his representative for emergency purchase.


SHIFT - IN- CHARGE WIC ECO Communication Team

Support Team Mgr. SS SS (HR) (O) (Maint) Head of O&M Safety Team Maint. Team Fire Fighting Team Auto Base Team Medical Team Support Team CPM DGM CFM (Maint) Task Force Team Security Team Administration Team

CIC - Chief Incident controller WIC- Work Incident controller ECO- Emergency Communication Officer


ALARM- The emergency alarm will be sounded by control room EMERGENCY SIREN
TYPE Normal factory siren In case of fire Emergency siren for heavy chlorine leak Off-site emergency siren for heavy chlorine leak All clear signal
DURATION continuous 1 minute 10 seconds on, 5 seconds off 5 times , 20 seconds , on 5 seconds off, 5 times. 25 seconds on , 5 seconds off, 10 TIMES. Continuous siren for 3 minutes only once

ALL CLEAR SIGNAL- After cessation on emergency, WIC will communicate to CIC about it. After verification of status, CIC will announce the All Clear and arrange to blast siron accordingly.


The Emergency Control Room will be under administrative control of only Chief Incident Controller, the officials nominated as key personnel & Sr. Officers of outside service called in for assistance shall have access to this control centre. No other personnel shall have access to the Control Centre. ECC will also contain the following Safety information pertaining to all hazardous materials likely to cause emergency. Procedure of major & special fire fighting, rescue operations, first Aid etc. Emergency call out list of persons & key personnel, including officials of fire safety, First Aid, Medical, P&IR, , security, police & District Admn. Facilities should be available in ECC- 2 Nos. of intercoms, - 2 Nos. of P&T phones, Telex & Fax, Satcom, Emergency manuals, Blown up area maps, District phone directories, Emergency lights, wind direction and speed indicator.


The first person who observes/ identifies the sign of any possible emergencies shall inform by shouting & by telephone to the shift engineer & fire station about the hazards. The shift engineer will inform to WIC, CIC and also telephone operator, who shall communicate it to all key officials about the emergency