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Supercritical Boilers

V.Balarathinam
BHEL Tiruchirappalli

21.07.03
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Emerging Market Requirements
High Reliability & Availability
Highest economically achievable plant
efficiency and heat rate
Suitable for differing modes of operation
Suitable for different quality of fuel
Ability to operate under adverse grid
conditions / fluctuations
Minimum emission of Pollutants
Lowest life cycle cost
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Thermal Power Generation
Higher cycle efficiency for :
Conservation of fuel resources
Reduction of Pollutants - SO
X
& NO
X

Reduction in CO
2
emission (linked to
global warming)
Better economy in power generation
where fuel costs are high and pollution
control requirements are stringent
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Fuels for Steam Power Plants
Coal & Lignite:

Abundant availability
Lower cost
Will continue as the main fuels in many countries
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Cycle Efficiency
Higher efficiency can be realised with

Higher live steam parameters
Adoption of double reheat cycle
Reduction in condenser absolute pressure
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Measures to improve Plant Efficiency
Boiler side measures :

-Minimum RH spray
-Minimum SH spray (if tapped off before feed heaters)
-Minimum flue gas temperature at AH outlet
-Minimum excess air at AH outlet
-Minimum unburnt Carbon loss
-Reduced auxiliary power consumption
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Increase of Cycle Efficiency due
to Steam Parameters
300
241
175 538 / 538
538 / 566
566 / 566
580 / 600
600 / 620
6,77
5,79
3,74
5,74
4,81
2,76
4,26
3,44
1,47
3,37
2,64
0,75
2,42
1,78
0
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
HP / RH outlet temperature [deg. C]
Pressure [bar]
Increase of efficiency [%]
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Approximate improvement in Cycle Efficiency
Pressure increase : 0.005 % per bar
Temp increase : 0.011 % per deg K
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
500 MW Steam Generator
Coal Consumption and Emissions
Subcritical
Unit
Supercritical
Unit
Coal Saving t/year Base 68800
CO
2
Reduction t/year Base 88270
SO
2
Reduction t/year Base 385
Basis:
Cycle Efficiency

%

Base

+1.0
No. of operating Hrs./year 8000 8000


Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Comparison of Subcritical and Supercritical
Cycle Availability (NERC)
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
EFOR %
Plant (Super) 13.347 12.077 9.668 7.685 7.534 7.482
Plant (Sub) 10.405 9.439 8.16 6.793 7.103 7.013
Blr (Super) 8.441 7.285 5.823 4.872 4.434 4.023
Blr (Sub) 5.928 5.464 4.344 3.811 3.926 4.018
1982-1984 1985-1987 1988-1990 1991-1993 1994-1996 1997
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Steam generation process
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Definition of Supercritical Design
Evaporator pressure (MCR) 222 bar ] Supercritical Design
Source: Siemens
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Cycles
Initially adopted in the late fifties and
sixties
Higher Steam temperature employed on
some units
Unit sizes also witnessed an increasing
trend

Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Operating Experience
The first generation Supercritical units

Experienced increased forced outages
Witnessed reduced plant reliability and
availability



Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Increased outages were caused by
Inadequate experience while
extrapolating to the new designs and the
increased unit sizes.

Inadequate knowledge of high
temperature materials.

Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
The increased outages led to :

Reversal of steam pressures to
subcritical range
Lowering of steam temperatures to
540 Deg C

Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Current Trends in Parameters
1980s : Pressure increased from 175-180
bar to 225 bar; temp mostly
around 540 Deg C
1990 : Pressures raised to 285 bar;temp
raised to 565-580-600 Deg C
300 bar & 620 Deg C not unusual today
255 bar 568/568 Deg C commonly used presently
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Implications of higher steam
parameters on boiler design

E Boiler type

E Materials

E Reliability and Availability
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Types of boilers

^ Drum type

^ Once-through type
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Drum type boiler
Steam generation takes place in furnace
water walls
Fixed evaporation end point - the drum
Steam -water separation takes place in
the drum
Separated water mixed with incoming
feed water
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Drum type boiler
4 Natural Circulation Boiler
Circulation thru water walls by
thermo-siphon effect
4 Controlled Circulation Boiler
Thermo-siphon effect supplemented
by pumps
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Once Through Boiler-Concept
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
THE CONCEPT
The mass flow rate thru all heat transfer circuits
from Eco. inlet to SH outlet is kept same except at
low loads wherein recirculation is resorted to
protect the water wall system
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
COTROLLED CIRCULATION (Vs)
ONCE THRU
CC
OT
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Once Through Boiler
Once -through flow through all
sections of boiler (economiser, water
walls & superheater)
Feed pump provides the driving head
Suitable for sub critical & super
critical pressures

Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Once-thru Boiler

Major differences from Drum type boiler :

Evaporator system
Low load circulation system
Separator

Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Furnace Arrangement
VERTICAL TYPE
SPIRAL TYPE
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Once -thru Boiler
Evaporator system :
Formed by a number of parallel tubes
Tubes spirally wound around the furnace
to reduce number of tubes and to increase
the mass flow rate thru the tubes
Small tube diameter
Arrangement ensures high mass velocity
thru the tubes
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
SPIRAL WALLS
Can be used in boilers of any capacity.

As the tubes pass through all the furnace walls more
uniform heat absorption .

Evaporator outlet steam temperatures more uniform
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
SPIRAL WALLS
Furnace walls are not self supporting because the tubes are
inclined.
External support strap system is needed
Fabrication and installation are more difficult.
Above apspects tend to increase the cost.

Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
VERTICAL WALLS ONE PASS
Can be used only in large capacity boilers.

The flow through individual evaporator tube depends on the total
flow, the furnace perimeter and the tube size.

The steam temperatures leaving evaporator varies depending on
the heat absorption

With increased furnace sizes for the same duty, water flow
through the tubes reduces and design becomes more critical.
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
VERTICAL WALLS MULTI PASS
To avoid separation of steam at sub critical pressures the
evaporator is kept at supercritical pressure at all loads.
Not suitable for sliding pressure operation.
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
SPIRAL VS VERTICAL WALL
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
OPTIMUM FURNACE WALL DESIGN
Vertical tube with variable pressure furnace walls
will provide all the operational benefits of the
currently popular spiral design while significantly
reducing the cost and construction time for the
furnace and providing some reduction in
pressure drop.
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
VERTICAL WALL DESIGN - ADVANTAGES
The tubes are self supporting.
Transition headers at spiral/vertical interface are
avoided.
Ash hopper tubing geometry simplified
Corners are easier to form
Reduced pressure drop, auxiliary power

Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
OPTIMUM FURNACE WALL DESIGN
Development of the above design is attempted by
companies like Siemens, MBEL and B & W USA
MHI has successfully developed and supplied
boilers with Vertical walls for higher capacity
boilers (700 MW and above).
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Once -thru Boiler
N Low load circulation system :

At part loads once -thru flow not adequate
to cool the tubes
To maintain required mass velocities boiler
operates on circulating mode at low loads

Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
ONCE - THROUGH OPERATING RANGE
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
LOW LOAD SYSTEM WITH CIRC. PUMP
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
LOW LOAD SYSTEM WITH HEAT EXCHANGER
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Once - thru Boiler
Low load circulation system :
The excess flow over the once-thru
flow separated in separator and
Returned to the condenser or
deaerator thru a heat exchanger
or
Recirculated back to the boiler directly
by a dedicated circulating pump
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Once -thru Boiler
Separator :
= Separates steam and water during
the circulating mode operation
= Runs dry during once-thru flow mode
= Smaller in size compared to drum in
a drum type boiler
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Typical Separator sizes
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Number of separators 2 4
Inside diameter approx mm 850 600
Thickness mm 95 70
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
ARRANGEMENT OF SEPARATOR AND
COLLECTING VESSEL
Once -thru Boiler
Advantages:
Better suited for sliding pressure operation
Steam temperature can be maintained over wider
load range under sliding pressure
Quick response to load changes
Shorter start up time
Higher tolerance to varying coal quality
Suitable for sub critical & super critical pressures

Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Sliding Pressure Operation
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Advantages of sliding pressure operation:
Lower thermal stresses in the turbine during load
changes.
Control range of RH temp is extended.
Reduced pressure level at lower loads prolongs
the life span of the components.
Overall reduction in power consumption and
improved heat rate.
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Changed heat absorption in furnace due to
changes in coal quality
Varying combustion and fouling behaviour of
different coals within a wide range of coals
cause varying heat release and heat absorption
in the furnace

Benson boiler principle compensates these
effects by shifting of the final evaporation
point.



Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Fixed evaporation end point
For a drum type boiler the flue gases at the combustion
chamber outlet can not be cooled below a certain value.
Dimensioning of the heating surfaces of boilers having
fixed evaporation end point must be done precisely.
Generation of steam and spraying quantity in the SH
change substantially if the operating point deviates
from the design point.
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Start-Up Times [min] of Power Plants
Plants with BENSON Boiler
250 bar / 540C / 560C
Plants with Drum Boiler
167 bar / 538C / 538C
first steam
to Turbine
full load
From ignition to:
first steam
to Turbine
full load
From ignition to:
20 - 30
40 - 60
150 - 210
150 - 210
60 - 80
80 - 100
300 - 350
450 - 600
20 - 30
30 - 40
60 - 80
60 - 80
30 - 40
50 - 60
150 - 200
400 - 600
After shut
down hours
<1
8
48
>48
Page 55
EV 2 / ; NTPC Presentation.ppt
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli


First Fire to Turbine Synch,
Minute without Bypass System
First Fire to Turbine Synch,
Minute with Bypass System
Hot Start Up, after 2 hr shutdown 40 30
Warm Start Up, after 8 hr shutdown 65 45
Cold Start Up, after 36 hr shutdown 130 90
Faster Start-up Time with Supercritical Design


First Fire to Turbine Synch,
Minute without Bypass System
First Fire to Turbine Synch,
Minute with Bypass System
Hot Start Up, after 2 hr shutdown 40 30
Warm Start Up, after 8 hr shutdown 65 - 90 45 - 70
Cold Start Up, after 36 hr shutdown 180 - 260 140 - 220
Once - Thru
Drum
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Once -thru Boiler
Requirements :
Stringent water quality
Sophisticated control system
Low load circulation system
Special design to support the spiral furnace
wall weight
High pressure drop in pressure parts
Higher design pressure for components from
feed pump to separator
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Advanced Cycles
Effect on Boiler Components
Evaporator (Furnace) walls
Superheaters
Thickwalled boiler components
Steam piping
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Furnace walls
Increased operating pressure increases
the medium temperatures.
Increased regenerative feed heating
increases the fluid temp entering.
Larger furnaces required for NO
X

reduction, increase SH steam
temperature at furnace wall outlet.
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Superheaters
Tube metal temperatures in final sections
increase with outlet steam temperature.
Susceptibility for high temperature
corrosion.
Susceptibility to steam side oxidation

Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Thick walled components
Higher pressure & temperature lead to
increased thickness of :
Shells of separator, start-up system
components, SHO header..
Main steam piping.
Higher thickness results in larger
temperature gradients across walls.

Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Realising higher steam parameters is
dependent, to a great extent on the
availability of materials to withstand
the demanding service conditions
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Requirements of Materials for
Supercritical cycles
Strength to resist rupture at design condition
Fatigue strength to withstand cycling stresses
Ability to resist stress concentrations
Resistance to oxidation,corrosion and erosion
Ability to withstand damaging metallurgical
changes.
Ease of fabrication
Good physical properties to minimise thermal
stresses.
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Low Alloy steels
Can meet live steam temperatures of 540
Deg.C.
Reduced creep strength at higher
temperatures calls for high thickness
Poor resistance to oxidation at high
temperatures
Good workability & high thermal
conductivity

Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Austenitic steels
Superior high temp. strength
High Steam side oxidation
High temperature corrosion
Expensive.
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Materials used
For waterwalls : 15 Mo 3, 13 CrMo 44,
For Separator : 15 NiCuMoNb5,
X20CrMoV121
For superheaters : 13 CrMo 44,
X20CrMoV121
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
New Materials
Optimised to achieve :
Greater long-term rupture strength
Improved resistance to high temperature
corrosion
Lower oxide film growth
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
T91/P91
Bridged the gap between Low alloy
ferritic steels and Austenitic steels
Higher Creep strength compared to the
earlier ferritic steels
Lower thickness resulting from the
higher creep strength
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
T92/P92
Development on T91/P91
Creep rupture strength higher than
T91/P91(20 to 30% higher at 600 Deg C)
Will facilitate raising steam temperature
by 20 deg C over T91/P91 capability
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
T23/T24
Higher Creep Rupture Strength
compared to T22.
Potential candidate for use in evaporator
walls.
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Benson Boiler
Main Configuration - Single-pass /
Two-pass
Source: Siemens
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Steam temperature range for Materials

MATERIAL LIVE STEAM TEMPERATURE
X20CrMo V12-1 < 565 Deg.C (< 545 Deg.C for SH)
X3CrNiMoN17-13
Esshete 1250
565 Deg.C 580 Deg.C

TP 347 H FG, SUPER 304 H 580 Deg.C - 600 Deg.C
HR 3C (25 Cr 20 Ni Nb N)
AC 66 (27 Cr 30 Ni Nb Ce)
NF 709 (20 Cr 25 Ni Mo Nb Ti)
Incoclad 671/ Incoloy 800 HT
600 Deg.C - 620 Deg.C

Compound Tubes
Coextruded Tubes
Alloy 617 (NiCr 23 Co 12 Mo)
620 Deg.C 720 Deg.C
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Evolution of Higher steam parameters
1980s: Pressure increased from 175-180
bar to 225 bar ;temp mostly
around 540 deg C
1990s: Pressures raised to 285 bar; temp
raised to 565-580-600 Deg C
Today 255 bar 568/568 Deg C commonly used
300 bar & 620 Deg C under development
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
PC Firing - Pressure,Temperature Trends
Denmark 1991 25 540 / 540
1997 29 580 / 580 / 580
Germany 1995 28.5 545 / 560
1999 27 580 / 600
Japan 1991 24.6 538 / 566
1995 24.6 566 / 593
2000 24.6 593 / 593

Country Year Pr (MPa) Temp C
Max Thermal Efficiency - 43% (1997) 45% (2000)
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli

EDDY STONE UNIT NO 1

Supplied by Alstom (C.E) to Philadelphia
Electric Company during 1959.
325 MW
Designed for a parameters of 365 bar / 654
deg C / 566 deg C/ 566 deg C
Parameters reduced to 297 bar/608 deg C to
increase the availability of the plant.
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli

Schwarze Pumpe, Germany

Supplied by Alstom (EVT) to VEAG
(Vereinigte Energiewerke) Company
Commissioned in 1997
2 x 800 MW , Lignite fired
Designed for a parameters of 268 bar / 547
deg C / 565 deg C
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli

Niederaussem K, Germany

Supplied by Consortium of EVT, BLK, and
Stein-Muller to RWE Energie Company
Commissioned in 2002
1 x 1012 MW, Lignite fired
Designed for a parameters of 274 bar / 580
deg C / 600 deg C
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli

Rockport 1&2, USA

Supplied by B & W USA to AEP, Indiana
& Michigan Power Company
Commissioned in 1984, 1989
2 x 1300 MW, Universal Pr.Boiler
Designed for a parameters of 26.5 MPa /
543 deg C / 538 deg C
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Skaerbaek Unit 3, Denmark
Supplied by Burmeister & Wain Energi &
Aalborg Boilers and Volund Energy.
Commissioned in 1997
1 x 330 MW, Oil and Gas fired.
Designed for a parameters of 290 bar / 580
deg C / 580 deg C / 580 deg C
47 % thermal efficiency (LHV)
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Misumi Unit 1, Japan
Supplied by MHI to Chugoku Eleltric
Power co.
Commissioned in 1998
1 x 1000 MW, Coal fired.
Designed for a parameters of 25.4MPa / 604
deg C / 602 deg C
Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
600 MW reference boiler project
European Comission is funding a project for
developing a 600 MW boiler.
MBEL, Siemens, Power Gen (UK),
Enel(Italy) and IST (Portugal) are involved.
Objective is to develop a design with 300
bar / 600 deg C / 620 deg C


Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Thermie 700 project
European Comission is funding a project called
Thermie 700 to be completed in 2015.
Most boiler and turbine makers and coal fird
utilities in Europe are involved.
Objective is to develop a design with 375 bar / 700
deg C / 700 deg C / 700 deg C
Nickel alloy material will be developed for this.
55 % Thermal efficiency (LHV)

Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Considerations involved in selection of
the steam parameters

Life cycle costing
Requirements of pollution minimisation

Supercritical Boilers
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited - Tiruchirappalli
Parameters to be decided
on a case to case basis