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The protection of an organism is afforded against infection is called host defense.

There are two types of host defense or immunity:1. INNATE (NON SPECIFIC) IMMUNITY 2. ACQUIRED (SPECIFIC) IMMUNITY

DEFINITION:The term innate immunity refers to resistance to diseases that a species possesses. This is the first line of defense against infection.

ANATOMIC BARRIERS:. SKIN . EPIDERMIS . DERMIS . MUCOUS MEMBRANE . PH

. TEMPERATURE . ELEVATED BODY TEMPERATURE . PH . OXYGEN TENSION

The humoral factors are found in serum and they are formed at site of infection. 1. COMPLEMENT SYSTEM:This is the major humoral non specific defense mechanism it leads to increased vascular permeability on activation. Recruitment of phagocytic cells, lysis and opsonization of bacteria. 2. COAGULATION SYSTEM:Depending on severity of tissue injury coagulation system may or may not be activated. It acts as chemotactic agents for phagocytic cells.

3. LACTOFEERIN AND TRANSFERRIN:By binding iron an essential nutrient of bacteria, these proteins limit bacterial growth. 4. INTERFERONS:They are proteins that can limit virus replication in cell. 5. LYSOZYME:Lysozyme breaks down the cell wall of bacteria. 6. INTERLEUKIN 1 AND 2:Induces fever and production of acute phase proteins, some of which are anti microbial because they can opsonize bacteria.

1. NEUTROPHILS 2. MACROPHAGES 3. NATURAL KILLERS 4. EOSINOPHILS

MEANING :Latin word inflammare means to set on fire. DEFINITION:Inflammation is a part of complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, damage cells or irritants. Inflammation is protective attempt by the organism to remove the injurious stimuli and to initiate healing process. CAUSES:1. burns 2.chemical irritants 3. frost bite 4. toxins 5. foreign bodies 6. immune reactions due to hypersensitivity

There are 2 types of inflammation. 1. ACUTE INFLAMMATION 2. CHRONIC INFLAMMATION

It is the initial response of body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by increased movement of plasma and leukocytes especially granulocytes from the blood into injured tissues. It is short term process. The traditional names for sign of inflammation comes from latin words 1. DOLAR 2. CALOR 3. RUBOR 4. TUMOR 5. FUNCTIO LAESA

Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to progressive shift in the type of cells present at a site of inflammation and is characterizes by simultaneous destruction and healing of tissues from inflammatory process.

Inflammatory response must be actively terminated when no longer needed. Mechanism which serve to terminate inflammation include: production and release of (TGF) from macrophages. production and release of interleukins apoptosis of pro inflammatory cells de sensitization of receptors cleavage of chemokines lead to production of anti inflammatory factors.

1.

Acute appendicitis

2.

Acute dermatitis

3. Acute infective Meningitis

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Auto immune disease Asthma Glomerulonephritis Chronic prostatitis Inflammatory bowel disease.

It is also called as specific immunity. It results from exposure to organism or by receiving preformed antibodies made in another host. Acquired immunity may be active or passive.

ACTIVE IMMUNITY
One which results from exposure to organism.
PASSIVE IMMUNITY It is kind of a temporary protection against an organism and is acquired by serum containing prepared anti bodies from another person or animal.