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Optimization of Boiler total air

Concept
Efficient operation of boiler depends on optimisation of CO2 and O2 This involved elimination of source of air ingress. As different losses of boiler is affected by variation of air, the optimum value is determined by plotting the total loss and thereby determining CO2 and O2.

Oxygen % at various locations in boiler


10 8
O2 %

6 4 2 0 Furn Outlet
210 MW

AH Inlet
210 MW

AH Outlet
500 MW

ID outlet
210 MW

4. Boiler Air Ingress


Cold air leaks into the boiler from openings in the furnace and convective pass and through open observation doors. Some of the boiler leakage air aids the combustion process; some air that leaks into the boiler in the low temperature zones causes only a dilution of the flue gas.

This portion of air appears as a difference in O2 level between the furnace exit and oxygen analysers at economizer exit. Actual oxygen in the furnace could be much less. Also, boiler casing and ducting air ingress affects ID fans power consumption and margins in a major way.

Air Ingress Points Furnace Roof , Expansion joints, Air heaters, Ducts, ESP Hoppers, Peep Holes, Manholes, Furnace Bottom
Air-inleakage

Furnace Outlet Zirconia O2 Probe Expansion Joints AH Seal Lkg ESP

Air Ingress Calculations


Air ingress quantification is done with the same formulae as those used for calculation of AH leakage Air ingress = O2out - O2in * 0.9 * 100 (21- O2out)

The basis of O2 or CO2 calculation should be the same either wet or dry.

Air optimization process


Find Dry gas, unburnt gas, combustible in ash and auxiliary power (fans) to find the total loss. Repeat the same for different test air (% of CO2 at A/H inlet) settings. Find the minimum total loss. Find air setting corresponding to minimum total loss.

Boiler loss calculation- an example

Fuel firing rate Steam generation rate Steam pressure

= 5599.17 kg/hr = 21937.5 kg/hr = 43 kg/cm2(g) = 377 oC = 96 oC = 14 = 0.55 = 190 oC = 31 oC = 0.0204 kg / kg dry air = 70 oC = 3.5 m/s = 90 m2 = 800 kCal/kg = 452.5 kCal/kg = 90:10

The data collected are for a boiler using coal as the fuel. Find out the boiler efficiency by indirect method.

Steam temperature Feed water temperature %CO2 in Flue gas %CO in flue gas Average flue gas temperature Ambient temperature Humidity in ambient air Surface temperature of boiler Wind velocity around the boiler Total surface area of boiler GCV of Bottom ash GCV of fly ash Ratio of bottom ash to fly ash Fuel Analysis (in %) Ash content in fuel Moisture in coal Carbon content Hydrogen content Nitrogen content Oxygen content GCV of Coal

= 8.63 = 31.6 = 41.65 = 2.0413 = 1.6 = 14.48 = 3501 kCal/kg

Boiler efficiency by indirect method Step 1 Find theoretical air requirement Theoretical air required for complete combustion = [(11.43 x C) + {34.5 x (H2 O2/8)} + (4.32 x S)] / 100 kg/kg of coal = [(11.43 x 41.65) + {34.5 x (2.0413 14.48/8)} + (4.32 x 0)] / 100 = 4.84 kg / kg of coal

Step 2 Find theoretical CO2 % Moles of C % CO2 at theoretical condition ( CO2 )t Where, 4.84 x 77/100 Moles of N2 Where moles of C = 28 = 0.4165/12 = 0.0347 0.0347 ( CO2 )t = 0.1332 + 0.0347 + 28 0.016 = 0.1332 = Moles of N2 + Moles of C

= 20.67

Step 3 To find Excess air supplied Actual CO2 measured in flue gas = 14.0%

% Excess air supplied (EA)

= 7900 x [ ( CO2)t (CO2)a] (CO2)a x [100 (CO2)t ] = 7900 x [20.67 14 ] 14a x [100 20.67] = 47.44 %

Step 4 to find actual mass of air supplied Actual mass of air supplied = {1 + EA/100} x theoretical air = {1 + 47.44/100} x 4.84 = 7.13 kg/kg of coal

Step 5 to find actual mass of dry flue gas Mass of dry flue gas consists of Mass of CO2 +Mass of N2 content in the fuel+ Mass of N2 in the combustion air supplied + Mass of oxygen in combustion air supplied 0.4165 x 44 Mass of dry flue gas = 12 = 7.562 kg / kg of coal + 0.016 + 100 7.13 x 77 + 100 (7.13-4.84) x 23

Step 6 to find all losses 1. % Heat loss in dry flue gas (L1) = m x cp x (Tf Ta ) x 100 GCV of fuel 7.562 x 0.23 x (190 31) = 3501 L1 = 7.89 % x 100

2. % Heat loss due to formation of water from H2 in fuel (L2)

9 x H2 x {584 + Cp (Tf Ta )} x 100 GCV of fuel 9 x .02041 x {584 + 0.45(190-31)}

= 3501 L2 = 3.44 %

x 100

M x {584 + Cp ( Tf Ta )} 3. % Heat loss due to moisture in fuel (L3) = GCV of fuel 0.316 x {584 + 0.45 ( 190 31) } = 3501 L3 = 5.91 % x 100 X 100

AAS x humidity x Cp x (Tf Ta ) x 100 4. % Heat loss due to moisture in air (L4) = GCV of fuel 7.13 x 0.0204 x 0.45 x (190 31) x 100 = 3501 L4 = 0.29 %

%CO x %C 5. % Heat loss due to partial conversion of C to CO (L5) = % CO + (% CO2)a 0.55 x 0.4165 x = 0.55 + 14 3501 x

5744 x GCV of fuel 5744 x 100 100

L5 = 2.58 %

6. Heat loss due to radiation and convection (L6)

= 0.548 x [ (343/55.55)4 (304/55.55)4] + 1.957 x (343 - 304)1.25 x sq.rt of [(196.85 x 3.5 + 68.9) / 68.9] = = = = 633.3 w/m2 633.3 x 0.86 544.64 kCal / m2 544.64 x 90

Total radiation and convection loss per hour % radiation and convection loss

= 49017.6 kCal = 49017.6 x 100 3501 x 5591.17 = 0.25 %

L6

7. % Heat loss due to unburnt in fly ash % Ash in coal Ratio of bottom ash to fly ash GCV of fly ash Amount of fly ash in 1 kg of coal Heat loss in fly ash % heat loss in fly ash L7 = = = = = = = = = 8.63 90:10 452.5 kCal/kg 0.1 x 0.0863 0.00863 kg 0.00863 x 452.5 3.905 kCal / kg of coal 3.905 x 100 / 3501 0.11 %

8. % Heat loss due to unburnt in fly ash GCV of bottom ash = Amount of bottom ash in 1 kg of = coal = Heat loss in bottom ash = = % Heat loss in bottom ash = L8 =

800 kCal/kg 0.9 x 0.0863 0.077 kg 0.077 x 800 62.136 kCal/kg of coal 62.136 x 100 / 3501 1.77 %

Boiler efficiency by indirect method

= 100 (L1+ L2+ L3+ L4+ L5+ L6+ L7+ L8)

= 100-(7.89 + 3.44+ 5.91+ 0.29+ 2.58+ 0.25+ 0.11+1.77) = 100-22.24 = 77.76 % Summary of Heat Balance for Coal Fired Boiler Input/Output Parameter kCal / kg of % loss coal Heat Input = 3501 100 Losses in boiler 1. Dry flue gas, L1 = 276.23 7.89 2. Loss due to hydrogen in fuel, L2 = 120.43 3.44 3. Loss due to moisture in fuel, L3 = 206.91 5.91 4. Loss due to moisture in air, L4 = 10.15 0.29 5. Partial combustion of C to CO, L5 = 90.32 2.58 6. Surface heat losses, L6 = 8.75 0.25 7. Loss due to Unburnt in fly ash, L7 = 3.85 0.11 8. Loss due to Unburnt in bottom ash, = 61.97 1.77 L8 Boiler Efficiency = 100 (L1 + L2+ L3+ L4+ L5+ L6+ L7+ L8) = 77.76 %

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