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PLANNING & CONSTRUCTION OF HYDRO POWER PROJECTS By:P S RAWAT CDE(PE-HYDRO)

Basis components of hydro projects


Diversion Structure-Dam/ Barrage/ Weir/ Trench Weir Feeder channel, Trash racks, Intake gates Power Intakes, Desilting Tanks/ Chambers/ basin, Spilling arrangements Power channel, Forebay tanks, Head Race Tunnel Surge Shaft, Pressure shaft, Penstocks, Power house, Transformer Hall Draft tube, Tail Race Tunnel/ Channel, Construction adits & permanent adits

LAYOUT OF HYDRO PROJECTS

Corporate centre

CANAL FALL IRIGATION CANAL

INTAKE

TAIL RACE CHANNEL POWER HOUSE

CANAL FALL POWER HOUSE

DIVERSION STUCTURE
ER IV R

POWER INTAKE

POWER CHANNEL FALL FOREBAY PENSTOCK POWER HOUSE TAIL RACE POOL

POWER CHANNEL DEVELOPMENT

DIVERSION STUCTURE
ER IV R

POWER INTAKE

HEAD RACE TUNNEL FALL SURGE SHAFT POWER HOUSE TAIL RACE POOL

POWER TUNNEL DEVELOPMENT

UPSTREAM SURGE SHAFT HYDROSTATIC LEVEL STEADY STATE LEVEL PRESSURE SHAFT LOW PRESSURE CONDUIT TAILRACE TUNNEL UNDERGROUND POWER HOUSE

RESERVOIR

DOWNSTREAM SURGE SHAFT AIR VENT

U/S AND D/S SURGE TANK SYSTEM

ACCESS SHAFT DAM

RIVER

SURGE CHAMBER TAIL RACE TUNNEL UNDERGROUND MACHINE HALL

UPSTREAM STATION ARRANGEMENT (SWEDISH SYSTEM)

SURGE TANK GATE GROOVE RESERVOIR


MIN SURGE LEVEL MAX SURGE LEVEL

STEADY STATE LEVEL

INTAKE

PRESSURE TUNNEL PRESSURE SHAFT

MAIN INLET VALVE TAILRACE

TURBINE

EXCAVATED SURGE TANK

INVESTIGATION & PROJECT FORMULATION STAGES

STUDIES AND INVESTIGATIONS

GEO-TECHNICAL INVESTIGATION

PROJECT OPTIMIZTION

SOCIO-ECONOMIC STUDIES

CONSTRUCTION MATERIAL SURVEY

TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY

FR / DPR
EIA STUDIES

HYDROLOGICAL STUDY TRANSPORTATION STUDY DISASTER MANAGEMENT STUDIES SEISIMIC STUDIES

PROJECT FORMULATION STAGES

SURVEY & IVESTIGATION (S&I)

PFR DPR TEC FINANCIAL APPRAISAL BY FI

PRE CONSTRUCTION S&I PRE-AWARD ENGG. AWARD OF PACKAGES DETAILED ENGG. CONSTRUCTION OF PROJECT

INVESTMENT APPROVAL

INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES REQUIRED FOR CONSTRUCTION OF HYDRO PROJECTS

INFRASTRUCTURAL FACILITIES REQUIRED PPROACH ROADS, LAND, QUARRY SITES, DUMPING AREAS, TEMPORARY INSTALLATION SERVICES LIKE CAMP OFFICE, FIELD HOSTEL, GUEST HOUSE, FAMILY QUARTERS FOR OFFICERS & STAFF, MAIN OFFICE, WORKSHOPS, DG POWER GENERATING SETS, MAIN STORES, GARRAGE, COMPRESSOR STATIONS, DISPENSARY, SECURITY STAFF COMMUNICATION FACILITIES AGGREGATE PROCESSING PLANT (APP), CONCRETE BATCHING PLANT (CBP) QUALITY CONTROL LAB AREA FOR PROCESSING FILL MATERIAL STORES FOR BLASTING MATERIAL WATER SUPPLY & SEWERAGE DISPOSAL SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION EQUIPMENTS

General layout of facilities & installations

Construction Materials
OPC to be used for shotcrete & grouting and PPC to be used for concreting & masonry. Steel to be sourced from reputed Suppliers like SAIL, TISCO, RIL etc. confirming to the provisions of the document. Structural Steel to be sourced from reputed Suppliers like SAIL, TISCO, RIL etc. confirming to the provisions of the document. Material available from under ground excavation for aggregates.

PLANNING OF HYDRO PROJECTS

CONSTRUCTION PROGRAMME
Major Activities LOI & Mobilization Barrage Intake Pool Power Intake Desilting Chamber Gate shaft DC & SFT Silt Flushing Tunnel GROUTING AND PLUGING Start Month End Month Months 0 10 20 30 40

1 3 13 13 3 3 4 25

6 38 38 25 39 25 35 40

Construction Equipments
S. No. Equipment and Capacity 1 2 3 2-Boom hydraulic Drill Jumbo Hydraulic Excavator, 2.0 cum Hydraulic Excavator, 0.9 cum Hydraulic excavator CK 90 or equivalent Hydraulic excavator CK 75 or equivalent Crawler / Wagon Drill Crawler Drill LM100 or Eq Heavy Duty Rock Drill, 120 cfm (with Rear Dumper 18T, 4x4 Rear Dumper 15T, 4x4 Crawler Dozer, 180hp Dozer D6, 165HP Wheel mounted Dozer, 180 hp Wheel Loader, 2.5 cum Loader cum excavator, 1.0cum / 0.24cum Shotcrete m/c, 4-6 cum Shotcrete Machine, Aliva 260 or Eq (4 Shotcrete m/c with Robot Arm, 10-20 cum Shotcrete machine (30 m3 /hr capacity) Raise Climber, 250 M Raise Borer Air Compressor, 600 cfm, Electric Air Compressor, 500 cfm, Diesel Air Compressor, 500-600 cfm, electric / deisel Air Compressor, 180 cfm, electric / deisel Min Quty in Nos 4 2 4

No. proposed 3 3 1 9 24 19

4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

5 24 24 4 1 1 3 3 3 3 2 1 6 3 2 2 3 1 3

9 2

Construction Equipments
SN . o. 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 E quipm and C ent apacity A C plant , 100 tph gg r B atching & m ixing plant, 60 m 3/hr B atching & m ixing plant, 30 m 3/hr C ollapsible S hutter formw traveler, ith Tunnel formw traveler, 8m ith Transit M ixer, 6.0 m 3 C oncrete pum truck m p ounted w ith placing boom 30m , 3/hr C oncrete pum 30m p, 3/hr C oncrete m ixer, 14/10 cft Tipper, 10T G rout P p um Telescopic C rane, 20T M obile crane 30T for steel liner w ork C ler crane 20T capacity raw H dra / M y obile crane, 5T R E ib rector, 1.8Ton S coop Tram/ Lowprofile Loader 1.6 cum S cissor,s P latform F bed Truck lat F bed Truck 10 ton capacity lat Trailer Trailer 20 Ton capacity Trailer 30 Ton capacity B ending & C utting M achine B ending & C utting M achine (S teel P late) P late bending m achine-63m m P cutting m ug achine P er W ow inch W inch 20T C apacity G antry C rane G antry C rane 25 T G antry C rane 15 T P ortable gantry crane 30T cap E T crane of 30T, 10m O M Q in in uty N os 1 1 1 2 15 2 2 3 24 4 2 N o. proposed 1 1 1 2 13 4 3 6 3 1 1 2 1 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 4 2 4 1 1 1 2 1

28 29 30 31 32 33

2 1 1 1 1 1

34 35

1 1

36 37

LAYOUT OF SOME OF EXISTING/ PLANNED HYDRO PROJECTS

KOL DAM HEPP (4 x 200 MW)


DIVERSION DIKE RESERVOIR U/S OF DAM MAIN DAM AXIS DESILTING BASIN SATLUJ RIVER

DIVERSION TUNNELS SPILLWAY POWER HOUSE PENSTOCKS SATLUJ RIVER

KOL DAM -- LAYOUT PLAN KOL DAM -- LAYOUT PLAN

VE

BH

IL

LA

NG

DIVERSION TUNNEL T1&T2

HRT OF PSP

HRT OF HPP

NA

PSP (1000MW)

TRT OF PSP

RI

POWER INTAKE OF HPP

M/C HALL OF HPP

TRANSFORMER HALL

POWER INTAKE OF PSP

SHAFT SPILLWAYS

BH

AG

IR

H AT

INTERMEDIATE LEVEL OUT LET

DIVERSION TUNNEL T3 & T4

SHAFT SPILLWAYS

CHUTE SPILLWAY

GENERAL LAYOUT OF TEHRI DAM, HPP & PSP

BH

AG

V RI

IR

ER

AT

IV

TEHRI DAM

TRT OF HPP
ER

Loharinagpala HE PROJECT-General Layout

Plan of Barrage & Desilting Area

Layout of Power House

L-Section Through Pressure Shaft

CONSTRUCTION SEQUENCE/ METHODOLOGY OF IMPORTANT STRUCTURES

DESILTING CHAMBER
How does a DC look like?

VIEW OF UNDER GROUND DESILTING CHAMBER

Under Ground Excavation sequence


6 m x 6m
260 m

EL +2145

Cycle time ( Hr.) Good Rock 11.32 (3 m Pull)

4250 HS 85m 150m

200 m

Poor Rock-14.15 (1 m Pull) Activity Duration 3 to 7 Months

+2124 m

+2132.7 5m

235m

Invert : 2134m

Stage 1 Excavation of Adit ( Top & Bottom)

Av. Progress : 95 m/month Activity Duration 8 to 9.5 months

+2132.7 5m

80m
+2132.7 5m +2132.7 5m

50m

Invert : 2134 m

150m

400m

Stage 2 Excavation of pilot drift ( 6 x 8 m) up to EL + 2132.75

Cycle time ( Hr.) Good Rock 9.59 ( 3 m pull) Poor Rock - 13.16 (1m pull) Ave. Progress Activity Duration Exc 9.5 to14.5 months Lining 11.5 to 17.5 months (Outlet Tunnel) 95m/m

80m
4.25 m

Invert : 2134 m 50m 150m 400m


6.0 m

Stage 3 Outlet tunnels and HRT

Cycle time ( Hr.) Good Rock 16.6 ( 3 m pull) Poor Rock - 15.36 (1m pull) Av. Progress : 70m/m

Activity Duration Exc Lining : : 9.5-11.5 months 11.5-17.5 month

Stage 4 Side slashing of desilting chamber exc up to EL. 2132.75 m & lining upto 2134.m

Cycle time ( Hr.) 10.19 (for 25 sqm benching) Activity Duration 17.5-19.5 months

Stage 5 Excavation in benching and ramp formation (EL. + 2132.75m to EL. +2129.75m)

Cycle time ( Hr.) 10.19 Benching 2 Months Lining from El 2129.75 to 2134.0 4 Months (for 25 sqm benching) Activity Duration 19.5-25.5 months

EL+2126.75

EL+2126.75

EL+2126.75

Stage 6 Excavation in benching and ramp formation (EL. + 2129.75m to EL. +2126.75m)

Activity Duration 25.5-28.5 month Cycle time ( Hr.) 10.19 (for 25 sqm benching) Interconnecting Tunnels 1 Month Removal of bench and benching down 2 month

EL+2123.75

EL+2123.75

EL+2123.75

Stage 7 Excavation in benching (EL. + 2126.75m to EL. +2123.75m incl interconnecting bottom tunnels & removal of ramp)

Activity Duration 28.5- 39.0 month Trench exc 2 Month Conc in Trench EL+ 2120 to EL+ 2123.75 =3.5 Month Lining in Hopper El + 2123.75 to 2129.75 to 5 Months

Stage 8 Excavation of trench

HRT
How does a HRT look like?

Circular HRT

Horse shoe type HRT

Modified horse shoe type HRT

Cross Section of a Horse Shoe HRT

Surge Shaft How does a surge shaft look like?

Looking from top towards bottom

Dhaulinganga HEP Surge Shaft

Dhaulinganga HEP Surge Shaft

Nathpa Jhakri HEP Surge Shaft

Nathpa Jhakri HEP Surge Shaft

Nathpa Jhakri HEP Surge Shaft

Nathpa Jhakri HEP Surge Shaft

Nathpa Jhakri HEP Surge Shaft

SURGE SHAFT CONSTRUCTION BY RAISE CLIMBER

Excavation Scheme For Surge Shaft

Text (Font Arial 16, Color Black, Line Spacing 30 points). Text (Font Arial 16, Color Black, Line Spacing 30 points).

SURGE SHAFT CONSTRUCTION BY RAISE BORER

Surge shaft pilot hole


Surge shaft Top level

Tunnel Level

Surge shaft Reaming


Surge shaft Top level

Tunnel Level

Raise borer

Nathpa JHAKRI HEP Surge Shaft Raise borer

Raise borer

Raise borer

CONSTRUCTION OF VALVE CHAMBER

Valve House Excavation Sequence

Excavation Sequence Of Valve Chamber

Text (Font Arial 16, Color Black, Line Spacing 30 points). Text (Font Arial 16, Color Black, Line Spacing 30 points).

PRESSURE SHAFTS

L-Section Through Pressure Shaft

Location of Pressure Shaft

Bifurcation of HRT into Pressure shafts under construction.

Bifurcation of HRT Into Two PRESSURE SHAFTS Finished.

CONSTRUCTION OF PRESSURE SHAFTS BY RAISE CLIMBER

Steps
1. Pilot raising with alimak raise climber. 2. Installation of rail from the raise climber platform. 3. Concreting of the pilot raise bottom. 4. Dismantling or raise climber and guide rail. 5. Enlarging with alimak suspended drill jumbo. 6. Transporting of tube sections and concreting.

Excavation Scheme For Inclined Pressure Shaft

Text (Font Arial 16, Color Black, Line Spacing 30 points). Text (Font Arial 16, Color Black, Line Spacing 30 points).

Methodology - Enlargement of Inclined Tunnel


C C
t) en m ge ar nl (e

Upper Penstock

Intermediate adit

B
ck to ns Pe ) d d ne 56 cli el ( In nn Tu

B
C-C Section B-B Section A-A Section

Pi t lo

ho le

A A

Lower Penstock Tunnel

(mucking)

Extension of Intermediate Adit

Various Fronts Of Steel Liner Erection And Concreting Of Pressure Shaft

POWER HOUSE & TRANSFORMER HALL

Section Through Pelton Turbine

Section Through Power House & Transformer Cavern

Koyna Powerhouse Stage Machine Hall

Koyna Powerhouse Stage Machine Hall

Dhaulinganga HEP Machine Hall

Dhaulinganga HEP Machine Hall

Dhaulinganga HEP Machine Hall

Dhaulinganga HEP Machine Hall

Purulia PSP Crane Beam And Columns

Purulia PSP Crane Beam And Columns

Purulia PSP Crane Beam And Columns

Purulia PSP Machine Hall

Purulia PSP Crane Beam Columns

Purulia PSP Machine Hall

PURULIA PSP CRANE BEAM AND COLUMNS

CONSTRUCTION OF POWER HOUSE & TRANSFORMER HALL

Excavation Sequence For Powerhouse

Text (Font Arial 16, Color Black, Line Spacing 30 points). Text (Font Arial 16, Color Black, Line Spacing 30 points).

Excavation Sequence Of Transformer Cavern

POWER HOUSE
, 3A , 3 g ge in ta en S id W

ge ta S

t ilo P 1,

, 2A , 2 e ng ag ni e St id W

Stage 1, 2, 2A, 3 & 3A Power House excavation sequence

POWER HOUSE

Completion of Stage 1, 2, 2A, 3 & 3A Power House excavation sequence

POWER HOUSE

Stage 4 Power House excavation sequence

POWER HOUSE

Stage 5 Power House excavation sequence

POWER HOUSE

Stage 6 Service Bay Power House excavation sequence

POWER HOUSE

Stage 7 Power House excavation sequence

POWER HOUSE

Stage 8 Power House excavation sequence

POWER HOUSE

Stage 9 Penstock level Power House excavation sequence

POWER HOUSE

Stage 10 Excavation complete Power House excavation sequence