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Design & Constructional Features of Turbogenerators

KAPIL NARULA Sr. Engr./EME HEEP, BHEL Hardwar

BHEL Hardwar

Index
1. History of Development 2. Power Output of Generator 3. Generator Modules & Types 4. Important Parameters of Generator Modules 5. Design Features 6. Main parts of TG/ Constructional features 7. Excitation System 8. Auxiliary Systems 9. Generator Testing 10. New Developments - Total Imp. of Stator Winding

BHEL Hardwar

History of Development - Globally


First single phase generator of 75 KW First 3 phase generator, salient pole First turbo type 3 phase 25 MW generator UK made 50 Hz as standard frequency for Europe First Hydrogen cooled 3 phase 30 MW generator First Hydrogen cooled TG with direct cooling of rotor First generator with water cooled stator winding 1888 1900 1912 1925 1937 1949 1956

First generator with water cooling for stator and rotor wdg1959 BHEL Hardwar

History of Development in BHEL


THREE PLANTS SET UP: IN 1950s: At Bhopal with British collaboration 30 MW & 120 MW Hydrogen Cooled IN 1960s: At Hardwar with Russian Collaboration 100 MW Hydrogen Cooled & 200 MW Hydrogen Cooled IN 1960s: At Hyderabad with CZECH Collaboration 60 MW Air Cooled & 110 MW Hydrogen Cooled

BHEL Hardwar

Power Output of Turbogenerator P D2 . L . B . A . n


P D L B A n Power in MVA Bore Diameter of Core in meters Length of Active Rotor Body in meters Air Gap Flux Density in Tesla Stator Ampere-Turn Loading in Amp./meter Speed in rpm

BHEL Hardwar

Power Output of Turbogenerator

No increase of utilization Same or higher mfg. Costs

Increased utilization Lower mfg. costs possible

BHEL Hardwar

Generator Modules

Air Cooled Turbogenerator - TARI Hydrogen Cooled Turbogenerator - THRI Hydrogen/Water Cooled TG - THDF

Module Nomenclature THRI 108/44 THDF 115/59

BHEL Hardwar

Module Nomenclature
T H R I 108/44
4350 mm( 44 dm) Core length 1075 mm( 108 cm) Rotor dia.

Stator winding

Indirect
Hydrogen Cooled

Stator Cooling - Indirect Rotor Cooling- Radial Cooling Gas in the Casing Rotor winding

H = Hydrogen
Product

Radial
Hydrogen Cooled

Turbogenerator
BHEL Hardwar

Generator cooling System

BHEL Hardwar

Stator Slot - TARI / THRI

BHEL Hardwar

Stator Slot - THDF 500 MW

BHEL Hardwar

210/235 MW THW Generator

BHEL Hardwar

Library of Designs
TYPES OF GENERATORS SUPPLIED BY BHEL: # AIR COOLED # HYDROGEN COOLED # HYDROGEN/WATER COOLED

FOR APPLICATIONS:

# THERMAL # NUCLEAR # GAS BASED


BHEL Hardwar

Library of Designs
1000 MW
WATER COOLED STATOR

350 MW
HYDROGEN COOLED

660 MW

170 MW
AIR COOLED
DESIRED MW CAPACITIES

80 MW

1000 MW

BHEL Hardwar

Capability of Generator Modules


DESIGN VARIANT GENERATOR MODULE ORDERS/MFD./COMMD. TARI 93/38 AIR COOLED TARI 108/36 15/11/7 TARI 108/41 TARI 108/46 THRI 93/38 THRI 108/39 THRI 108/44 THRI 108/44 B THRI 108/55 THW-200-2 THW-210-2 THW-235-2 THDF 115/59 THDF 115/55 OUTPUT RANGE 75-92 MW 100-120 MW 120-140 MW 140-170 MW 120-150 MW 170-220 MW 200-260 MW 260-275 MW 350 MW UPTO 200 MW 200-219 MW 220-237 MW 500-585 MW 500 MW(new)

HYDROGEN COOLED 25/22/17

HYDROGEN/WATER COOLED 149/142/137 BHEL Hardwar

Improtant Parameters of Generator Modules


SL. NO.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12.

13. 14.

TECHNICAL PARAMETE R GENERATO R TYPE RATED MVA RATED MW RATED VOLT. KV POWER FACTOR STATOR CURRENT SPEED RPM FREQ. HZ HYDROGEN PRESSURE Kg/Cm2(g) S.C.R EXCITATIO N VOLTS AMPS NEG. SEQ. CAP. I2,% I2sq.xt WEIGHTS, T STATOR HEAV. LIFT ROTOR BRG. - BRG. DIST. IN MM TYPE OF EXCITATIO N

130 MW THRI 93/38 162.5 130.0 10.5 0.80 8935 3000 50 3.0 0.57 240 2039 8 10 132 28 6700 STATIC

200 MW THW200-2 235.3 200.0 15.75 0.85 8625 3000 50 3.0 0.50 300 2515 7 8 175 42.2 7700 STATIC / HFG

210 MW THW210-2 247.1 210.0 15.75 0.85 9054 3000 50 3.5 0.49 310 2600 7 8 175 42.2 7700 STATIC / HFG

235 MW THW235-2 264.1 237.7 16.5 0.90 9240 3000 50 3.5 0.58 326 2755 7 8 175 42.5 7882 STATIC / HFG

210 MW THRI 108/44 247.1 210.0 15.75 0.85 9054 3000 50 2.0 0.55 265 2080 8 10 182 43.3 7870 BLESS/ STATIC

250 MW THRI 108/44 294.1 250.0 16.5 0.85 10291 3000 50 3.0 0.52 319 2386 8 10 182 43.3 7870 BLESS

500 MW THDF 115/59 588.2 500.0 21.0 0.85 16166 3000 50 3.5 0.48 340 4040 8 10 255 68 10410 BLESS

560 MW THDF 115/59 659.0 560.0 21.0 0.85 18118 3000 50 4.0 0.46 410 4463 8 10 255 68 10410 BLESS

BHEL Hardwar

Improtant Parameters of Generator Modules


SL. NO.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

11. 12.

13. 14.

TECHNICAL PARAMETE R GENERATO R TYPE RATED MVA RATED MW RATED VOLT. KV POWER FACTOR STATOR CURRENT SPEED RPM FREQ. HZ HYDROGEN PRESSURE Kg/Cm2(g) S.C.R EXCITATIO N VOLTS AMPS NEG. SEQ. CAP. I2,% I2sq.xt WEIGHTS, T STATOR HEAV. LIFT ROTOR BRG. - BRG. DIST. IN MM TYPE OF EXCITATIO N

210 MW THRI 108/39 247 210 15.75 0.85 9056 3000 50 3.0 0.57 251 2260 8 10 215.3 192 39 7420 BLESS/ STATIC

250 MW THRI 108/44(FI) 294.1 250.0 16.5 0.85 10291 3000 50 4.0 0.63 308 2497 8 10 232 212 43 7870 BLESS/S TATIC

BHEL Hardwar

Improtant Parameters of Generator Modules


SL. NO.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

10. 11.

12. 13.

TECHNICAL PARAMETE R GENERATO R TYPE BASE LOAD MVA MW RATED VOLT. KV POWER FACTOR STATOR CURRENT SPEED RPM FREQ. HZ S.C.R EXCITATIO N VOLTS AMPS NEG. SEQ. CAP. I2,% I2sq.xt WEIGHTS, T STATOR HEAV. LIFT ROTOR BRG. BRG. DIST. IN MM TYPE OF EXCITATIO N

TROMBA Y STG

KKULA M GTG

KKULA M STG

FARIDAB AD GTG

FARIDAB AD STG

LIBYA GTG

TARI 93/38 100 80 10.5 0.80 5499 3000 50 0.56 274 719 10 20 128 28 7050 BLESS

TARI 108/36 137.5 116.8 10.5 0.85 7561 3000 50 0.55 339 777 10 20 170 37 7250 BLESS

TARI 108/36 154.3 131.1 10.5 0.85 8484 3000 50 0.50 381 851 10 20 170 37 7250 BLESS

TARI 108/41 170.1 144.6 10.5 0.85 9354 3000 50 0.50 410 833 10 20 181 40.1 7800 STATIC

TARI 108/46 188.2 160.0 15.75 0.85 6900 3000 50 0.52 432 797 10 20 200 44 7900 BLESS

TARI 108/46 18O.4 153.3 15.75 0.85 6612 3000 50 0.54 388 770 10 20 200 44 7900 STATIC

BHEL Hardwar

TARI Generators - Design features


# DIRECT COOLING OF STATOR CORE AND ROTOR WINDING # INDIRECT COOLING OF STATOR WINDING # HORIZONTALLY SPLIT CASING DESIGN FOR STATOR # VERTICALLY SIDE MOUNTED COOLERS IN A SEPARATE HOUSING # VPI INSULATION SYSTEM # TOP RIPPLE SPRINGS IN STATOR SLOTS TO CONTAIN BAR BOUNCING FORCES # SEPARATELY ASSEMBLED STATOR CORE AND WINDING FOR REDUCING THE MANUFACTURING CYCLE # STATIC/BRUSHLESS EXCITATION SYSTEM BHEL Hardwar

THRI Generators - Design features


DIRECT HYDROGEN COOLING OF STATOR CORE AND ROTOR
WINDING INDIRECT COOLING OF STATOR WINDING EXPLOSION PROOF SINGLE PIECE STATOR FRAME END SHIELD MOUNTED BEARINGS VPI INSULATION SYSTEM TOP RIPPLE SPRINGS IN STATOR SLOTS TO CONTAIN BAR BOUNCING FORCES COLD GAS TEMPERATURE CONTROL VALVE TO MAINTAIN COLD GAS TEMPERATURE CONSTANT SINGLE FLOW RING TYPE SHAFT SEALS STATIC/BRUSHLESS EXCITATION SYSTEM

BHEL Hardwar

THDF Generators - Design features


DIRECT WATER COOLING OF STATOR WINDING
DIRECT AXIAL HYDROGEN COOLING OF ROTOR WINDING OPTIMALLY DESIGNED LEAF SPRING SUPPORT FOR CORE END SHIELD MOUNTED BEARINGS VPI INSULATION SYSTEM MASSIVE SUPPORT RING FOR STATOR WINDING OVERHANG TO ABSORB SHORT CIRCUIT FORCES SIDE AND TOP RIPPLE SPRINGS IN STATOR SLOTS TO CONTAIN BAR BOUNCING FORCES 5 STAGE AXIAL COMPRESSOR AND VERTICAL HYDROGEN COOLERS ON TURBINE END COLD GAS AND PRIMARY WATER TEMPERATURE CONTROL VALVES TO MAINTAIN AVERAGE INLET COOLING MEDIUM TEMPERATURES CONSTANT DOUBLE FLOW RING TYPE SHAFT SEALS BRUSHLESS EXCITATION SYSTEM BHEL Hardwar

Gas Turbine Generators - Design features


TERMINAL BUSHINGS ON TOP
STATIC EXCITATION SYSTEM SFC (SYNCHRONOUS FREQUENCY CONVERTOR) STARTING SYSTEM FORCED COOLING WATER SYSTEM (MPR SYSTEM)

BHEL Hardwar

Gas Turbine Generators - Design features TARI Generator Outline

BHEL Hardwar

Gas Turbine Generators - Design features TARI Generator Cross section

BHEL Hardwar

Gas Turbine Generators - Design features TARI Generator End View

BHEL Hardwar

Forced Cooling Water System (MPR System)


A SYSTEM TO TAKE CARE OF DM COOLING WATER REQUIREMENT OF GAS TURBINE GENERATORS

1. TO DELIVER DM COOLING WATER TO GENERATOR AIR COOLERS 2. TO ENSURE HEAT TRANSFER FROM GENERATOR AIR COOLERS TO THE FIN-FAN COOLERS. 3. TO MAINTAIN COOLING WATER TEMPERATURE AND PRESSURE AT ALLOWABLE VALUES.

BHEL Hardwar

Forced Cooling Water System (MPR System)

BHEL Hardwar

Gas Turbine Generators - Experience List


GENERATOR MODULE TARI 108/46 SUPPLIED / UNDER SUPPLY : BAIJI GPP, IRAQ W. MOUNTAIN, LIBYA 4 SETS 4 SETS

GENERATOR MODULE TARI 108/41 (SUPPLIED) FARIDABAD CCPP, INDIA 1 SET

GENERATOR MODULE TARI 108/36 SUPPLIED / UNDER SUPPLY: KAYAMKULAM, INDIA 2 SETS - GE Turbines

BHEL Hardwar

Main Parts of TG / Constructional features


1. Stator - Stator Frame (Fabrication & Machining) 2. Core Assembly - Stator Core, Core Suspension Arrangement 3. End Shield 4. Stator Winding Assembly - Stator Winding , Winding Assembly, Connecting Bus bar 5. Rotor - Rotor Shaft, Rotor Wedges, Rotor Coils, Wound Rotor, Rotor Assembly 6. Completing Assembly - Bearing Assembly, Shaft Seal Assembly, Oil Catchers, Insert Cover etc 7. Exciter 8. Auxiliary System BHEL Hardwar

Main Parts of Turbogenerator


Stator Core Cooler Insert Cover Rotor fan

End Shield Wdg Overhang Oil Catcher Rotor

Bearing Shaft Seal

Stator

Terminal Bushing

BHEL Hardwar

Main Parts of Turbogenerator


Coolers

Foundation

Terminal bushing

BHEL Hardwar

Ventilation Circuit in THRI TG

BHEL Hardwar

Ventilation Circuit in THRI TG

BHEL Hardwar

Stator Frame
Rigid fabricated cylindrical frame Withstands weight of core & wdg, forces & torques during operation Natural frequency away from exciting frequencies Provision for H2/CO2 filling Provision for temp measurements Foot plates for supporting on foundation provision for H2 coolers

BHEL Hardwar

Stator Frame (Fabrication & Machining)

BHEL Hardwar

Hydraulic/Pneumatic testing of Stator


TURBINE SIDE END SHIELD STATOR EXCITER SIDE END SHIELD

BHEL Hardwar

Stator Frame TARI 108/46

BHEL Hardwar

Stator Core
Made up of punched segments of thin sheets of ETS Punchings coated by insulating varnish Vent segments at designed intervals for flow of cooling gas Compressed with tension bolts, pressure plate and clamping fingers Stepped arrangement at the end for reduction in eddy current losses

BHEL Hardwar

Core Suspension - TARI/THRI TG

BHEL Hardwar

Core Suspension - Air Cooled TG


Location for Spring Core Housing

Core End Plate

Core

BHEL Hardwar

Core Suspension - 500 MW

BHEL Hardwar

End Shield
Closes both ends of Stator Frame Fabricated rigid box type structure in two parts Supports and houses bearings Provision for mounting Shaft seal body, Oil catchers, etc Provision for supply of Bearing Oil, Seal oil, Thrust oil and its drain

BHEL Hardwar

End Shield (Exciter side 500 MW)

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End Shield (Turbine side 500 MW)

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Stator Winding
Three phase windings in two layers of individual bars Top and bottom bar displaced by one winding pitch and connected to coil groups Coil groups connected to Connecting Bus bar and finally to Term Bushing Involute shape at the end of bar helps withstands various forces Micalastic Insulation System (VPI process) - Micalastic good conductor of heat - Low flamability - High resistance to moisture and chemical action - Accommodates thermo-mechanical stresses - Retains properties even after years of operation
VPI- Vacuum Pressure Impregnation

BHEL Hardwar

Stator Winding Assembly

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

CO RE CLAM PIN G FIN GE R PRE S S URE PLAT E T OP BAR BO T T OM BAR PHASE CONN E CT OR GAS O UT LE T GAS INLE T T E RM INAL BUS H IN G

BHEL Hardwar

Stator END Winding Support

BHEL Hardwar

Stator End Winding Assembly

BHEL Hardwar

Stator End Winding 500 MW

BHEL Hardwar

Stator End Winding 500 MW

BHEL Hardwar

Rotor
1. A high strength alloy steel single forging prepared by vacuum cast steel 2. Slots for housing field windings 3. Strong coupling for withstanding short circuit forces 4. Bending critical speed away 5% of operating speed 5. Supported on two journal Bearings 6. Provision of axial fan/compressor for forced ventilation 7. Provision of damper wedges for increasing negative sequence capability of rotor

BHEL Hardwar

Rotor Body

BHEL Hardwar

Rotor Body with cross Pole Slot


Rotor Wedge

Cross Pole Slot

BHEL Hardwar

Rotor Slot
Rotor Wedge Top Slot Liner Conductor

Inter turn Insulation Slot Liner

Sub Slot

BHEL Hardwar

Arrangement of Damper Wedges

1. ROTOR BODY 2. DAMPER BAR 3. SILVER PLATED ROTOR END WEDGE 4. ROTOR WINDING

5. RETAINING RING 6. SILVER PLATED SHRINK SEAT 7. TRANSVERSE SLOTS 8. ROTOR WEDGE

BHEL Hardwar

Rotor End Winding


1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

1. ROTOR BODY 2. SNAP RING 3. TERMINAL LUG 4. ROTOR WINDING 5. FILLER

6. GAS BAFFLE 7. RETAINING RING 8. END RING 9. BALANCING BORE

BHEL Hardwar

Rotor End Winding

BHEL Hardwar

Rotor Fan Blades

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Rotor Slip Ring

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Bearing Assembly
It is sleeve Bearing Supports Rotor weight Reduces shaft vibrations Minimises frictional losses Located in End Shields or outside stator depending upon type of machine Self aligning outer part Insulated from Stator or End Shield to prevent flow of shaft current Inner surface is made of babbit material (Tin alloy)

BHEL Hardwar

Bearing Assembly

BHEL Hardwar

Bearing Assembly

BHEL Hardwar

Bearing Assembly

BHEL Hardwar

Shaft Seal Assembly


Prevents escape of H2 through junction of rotor and stationary part Maintains continuous oil film between Seal Ring and rotor journal Clearance should be sufficient to maintain oil film without unnecessary large oil flow and with minimum frictional losses Ring relief oil for balancing the gas pressure on seal ring Inner surface of Babbit material

BHEL Hardwar

Shaft Seal Assembly


Hydrogen Side Air Side

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

OIL WIPE R RIN G AIR S IDE S E AL RING CHAM BE R PRE S S U RE OIL G RO OVE BABBIT S E AL OIL IN LE T BO RE S E AL OIL GROO VE

7. S E AL RING 8 . S E AL RIN G CARRIE R 9 . OIL W IPE R RIN G H2 S IDE 10. S E AL S T RIP 11. ROT O R S HAFT 12. IN NE R LABY RINT H RING

13. IN S UL AT ION 14. PACKIN G 15. S E AL OIL G RO OVE 16. E N D S HIE LD

BHEL Hardwar

Terminal Bushing
Tubular construction for gas / water cooling High conductivity copper for taking out electrical power Connection flanges are silver plated to minimise contact resistances Insulated with a epoxy resin cylinder or porcelain cylinder Differential pressure of gases or forced water for cooling Bolted on to stator bottom/top directly or housed in a box type construction which is bolted to stator bottom

BHEL Hardwar

Terminal Bushing

BHEL Hardwar

Cooling of Terminal Bushing

1. HYDROGEN SIDE FLANGE 2. TUBULAR COPPER COND. 3. INSULATING CYLINDER 4. MOUNTING FLANGE 5. RUBBER GASKET 6. AIR SIDE TERMINAL BOLT

BHEL Hardwar

Terminal Bushings Arrangement TARI

BHEL Hardwar

Terminal Bushings Arrangement THRI

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

CO RE CLAM PIN G FIN GE R PRE S S URE PLAT E T OP BAR BO T T OM BAR PHASE CONN E CT OR GAS O UT LE T GAS INLE T T E RM INAL BUS H IN G

BHEL Hardwar

Terminal Bushing Box 500 MW

BHEL Hardwar

Excitation System
1. Static Excitation
Rotor Field Winding is connected to Slipring mounted on rotor Excitation is provided by current transfer by contact through Carbon Brushes, Slipring and field lead Brush Gear

BHEL Hardwar

Static Excitation System

Brush Gear Assly BHEL Hardwar

Brush Holder

Brushless Excitation System


2. Brushless Exciter
Eliminates Slip Rings, Brushgear and Field Breaker Eliminates all problems associated with transfer of current via sliding contacts Simple, Reliable and ideally suited for large sets Minimum operating and maintenance cost Self generating excitation unaffected by system fault/disturbances because of shaft mounted pilot exciter Increasingly popular system the world over

BHEL Hardwar

Brushless Exciter
High response excitation with fast acting AVR Multi contact electrical connections between exciter and generator field Stroboscope for fuse failure detection Rotor Earth fault monitoring system RC circuit to avoid over voltages Dehumidifier for use during shut down

BHEL Hardwar

Brushless Exciter

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Rectifier Wheel

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PMG Rotor & Fan

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Auxiliary System

1. Primary Water System 2. Seal Oil System 3. Gas Flow System

BHEL Hardwar

Primary Water System


Losses in wdg, bushings, bus bar are dissipated
1. PRIMARY WATER TANK 2. PRESSURE REGULATOR 3. WASTE GAS TO ATM. 4. PUMP 5. COOLER 6. FILTER 7. BYPASS LINE 8. CW FOR STATOR WDG. 9. ION EXCHANGER 10. CW FOR BUSHINGS 11. TEFLON HOSE 12. C W MANIFOLD

BHEL Hardwar

Seal Oil System


Prevents H2 losses at the shaft entry into stator

BHEL Hardwar

Gas System
Facilitates H2 filling & maintains gas pressure in stator
1. H2 BOTTLE 2. H2 PRESS REDUCER 3. N2 BOTTLE. 4. N2 PRESS REDUCER 5. PW TANK 6. PRESS CONTROLLER 7. UPR. GEN GAS HEADER 8. LWR.GEN GAS HEADER 9. GAS DRIER HEATER 10. GAS DRIER FAN 11. GAS DRIER CHAMBER 12. CO2/H2 PURITY TRANS. 13. DEHYDR. FILTER 14. PRESS REDUCER 15. COMPRD. AIR HOSE 16. COMPRD. AIR FILTER 17. CO2 FLASH EVAPORTR 18. CO2 BOTTLE

BHEL Hardwar

Generating testing
1. Mechanical test 2. Open Circuit test 3. Short circuit test 4. Sudden short circuit test 5. Voltage wave form 6. Tan test 7. Vibration Measurement

BHEL Hardwar

500 MW Generator on test bed

BHEL Hardwar

Gas Turbine Generator-Faridabad

BHEL Hardwar

Gas Turbine Generator- Baiji, IRAQ

BHEL Hardwar

New dev - Total Impregnated generator


STATOR WINDING AND CORE BECOMES A MONOLITHIC STRUCTURE : NO VOIDS, LESSER VIBRATIONS & BETTER HEAT TRANSFER THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF VPI INSU. 2.2 - 2.5 mW/CmC THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF H2 THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF AIR 1.4 - 1.5 mW/CmC 0.257 mW / Cm C

BHEL Hardwar

Advantages of Total Impregnated generator


+ PARTIAL DISCHARGES ARE REDUCED, RESULTING IN BETTER LIFE OF MACHINE + NO POSSIBILITY OF CORE OR BAR LOOSENESS: Thus a major cause of failure, resulting in stator earth faults is eliminated. + NO POSSIBILTY OF LOOSENESS IN STATOR WINDING OVERHANG: Lesser overhang vibrations. Glue injection in overhang is not required. + NO POSSIBILTY OF WEDGE LOOSENESS Wedge tightness checking not required. Rotor withdrawl during initial inspection not required. + LESSER MAINTENANCE + LESSER OVERHAUL TIME
+ REDUCTION

IN SPARES INVENTORY - STATOR BARS AND STATOR SLOT WEDGES ARE NO MORE REQUIRED AS SPARES

BHEL Hardwar

WOUND STATOR CORE BEING LOADED FOR TOTAL IMPREGNATION

BHEL Hardwar

CURING OF TOTALLY IMPREGNATED WOUND CORE

BHEL Hardwar

INSERTION OF IMPREGNATED WOUND CORE IN STATOR

BHEL Hardwar

THANK YOU

END

BHEL Hardwar