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Antenna Theory

Basic Principles For Daily Applications

Base Station Antenna Systems March 2009

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Base Station Antenna Technology Evolution


Antenna Core Technology
Omni Vertical Directional Polarization DualPol MIMO DualPol Dual Band RET Capacity Improvement Interference Reduction with Frequency MIMO MIMO
Low Application

Digital Beam Former SDMA Capacity

SmartBeam Capacity Load Balance MIMO

Air Interfaces
AMPS
GSM CDMA W-CDMA WiMAX TD-SCDMA LTE

Dominate Application

Significant Application

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Dipole
F0 (MHz) 30 (Meters) 10.0 3.75 1.87 (Inches) 393.6 147.6 73.8

80 160

280
460 800
F0

1.07
0.65 0.38 0.31 0.18 0.15

42.2
25.7 14.8 12.3 6.95 5.9

960 1700 2000

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3D View Antenna Pattern

Source: COMSEARCH
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Understanding The Mysterious dB


dBd dBi dB dBm Signal strength relative to a dipole in empty space Signal strength relative to an isotropic radiator Difference between two signal strengths Absolute signal strength relative to 1 milliwatt 1 mWatt = 0 dBm Note: The 1 Watt = 30 dBm Logarithmic Scale 20 Watts = 43 dBm 10 * log10 (Power Ratio) Signal strength relative to a signal of known strength, in this case: the carrier signal Example: 150 dBc = 150 dB below carrier signal If two carriers are 20 Watt each = 43 dBm 150 dBc = 107 dBm or ~0.02 pWatt or ~1 microvolt

dBc

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Effect Of VSWR
Good VSWR is only one component of an efficient antenna.
VSWR 1.00 1.10 1.20 1.30 1.40 1.50 2.00 Return Loss (dB) 26.4 20.8 17.7 15.6 14.0 9.5 Transmission Loss (dB) 0.00 0.01 0.04 0.08 0.12 0.18 0.51 Power Power Reflected (%) Trans. (%) 0.0 0.2 0.8 1.7 2.8 4.0 11.1 100.0 99.8 99.2 98.3 97.2 96.0 88.9

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Shaping Antenna Patterns

Vertical arrangement of properly phased dipoles allows

control of radiation patterns at the horizon as well as


above and below the horizon. The more dipoles that are stacked vertically, the flatter the vertical pattern is and the higher the antenna coverage or gain is in the general direction of the horizon.

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Shaping Antenna Patterns (Continued)


Aperture of Dipoles Vertical Pattern Horizontal Pattern

Stacking 4 dipoles vertically in

Single Dipole

line changes the pattern shape (squashes the doughnut) and increases the gain over single dipole. vertical pattern measures the gain.

The peak of the horizontal or

The little lobes, illustrated in the


4 Dipoles Vertically Stacked

lower section, are secondary minor lobes.

General Stacking Rule

Collinear elements (in-line vertically). Optimum spacing (for non-electrical tilt) is approximately 0.9. Doubling the number of elements increases gain by 3 dB, and reduces vertical beamwidth by half.
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Gain
What is it?
Antenna gain is a comparison of the power/field characteristics of a device under test (DUT) to a specified gain standard.

Why is it useful?
Gain can be associated with coverage distance and/or obstacle penetration (buildings, foliage, etc).

How is it measured?
It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing. The reference gain standard must always be specified.

What is Andrew standard?


Andrew conforms to the industry standard of +/1 dB accuracy.

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Gain References (dBd And dBi)

An isotropic antenna is a single point in space radiating in a perfect sphere (not physically possible). A dipole antenna is one radiating element (physically possible).

Isotropic Pattern Dipole Pattern

Isotropic (dBi) Dipole (dBd) Gain


dBi dB d

A gain antenna is two or more radiating elements phased together.

3 (dBd) = 5.14 (dBi) 0 (dBd) = 2.14 (dBi)

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Principles Of Antenna Gain


Omni Antenna, Side View
-3 dB

Directional Antennas, Top View

0 dBd

60
-3 dB

0 dBd

+3 dBd

30
-3 dB

+3 dBd

180
-3 dB

+6 dBd

15
-3 dB

+6 dBd

90
-3 dB

+9 dBd

7.5
-3 dB

+9 dBd

45
-3 dB

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Theoretical Gain Of Antennas (dBd)


3 dB Horizontal Aperture (Influenced by Grounded Back Plate) 360 180 120 105 90 60 45 33 Typical Length of Antenna (ft.) 800/900 MHz PCS DCS Vertical 1800/1900 Beamwidth

# of Radiators Vertically Spaced (0.9)

1 2 3 4
6 8

0 3 4.5 6
7.5 9

3 6 7.5 9
10.5 12

4 7 8.5 10
11.5 13

5 8 9.5 11

6 9

8 11

9 12

10.5 13.6 15.1 16.6


18.1 19.6

1 2 3 4
6 8

0.5 1 1.5 2
3 4

60 30 20 15
10 7.5

10.5 12.5 13.5 12 14 15

12.5 13.5 15.5 16.5 14 15 17 18

Could be horizontal radiator pairs for narrow horizontal apertures.

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Antenna Gain

Gain (dBi) = Directivity (dBi) Losses (dB) Losses: Conductor Dielectric Impedance Polarization

Measure using Gain by Comparison

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Antenna Polarization

Vertical polarization Traditional land mobile use Omni antennas Requires spatial separation for diversity Still recommended in rural, low multipath environments Polarization diversity Slant 45 (+ and ) is now popular Requires only a single antenna for diversity Lower zoning impact Best performance in high and medium multipath environments
Measured data will be presented in the Systems Section
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Various Radiator Designs


Elements

Dipole

1800/1900/UMTS Directed Dipole

DualPol (XPol) Directed Dipole

Patch

800/900 MHz Directed Dipole

MAR Microstrip Annular Ring

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Dipoles

Single Dipole

Crossed Dipole

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Feed Harness Construction


ASP705
(Old Style)

ASP705K

LBX-6513DS

Series Feed

Center Feed (Hybrid)

Corporate Feed

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Feed Harness Construction (Continued)


Series Feed
Advantages Center Feed (Hybrid)

Corporate Feed
Frequency independent main beam direction More beam shaping ability, sidelobe suppression

Minimum feed losses Simple feed system

Frequency

independent main lobe direction Reasonably simple feed system

Disadvantages

+2 +1 0 +1 +2 450 455

BEAMTILT

Not as versatile as
ASP-705

corporate (less bandwidth, less beam shaping)

Complex feed
system

460

465

470 MHz

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Feed Networks

Coaxial cable
Best isolation
Constant impedance Constant phase

Microstripline, corporate feeds


Dielectric substrate Air substrate

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Microstrip Feed Lines

Dielectric substrate
Uses printed circuit technology Power limitations

Dielectric substrate causes loss (~1.0 dB/m at 2 GHz)

Air substrate
Metal strip spaced above a groundplane Minimal solder or welded joints Laser cut or punched Air substrate cause minimal loss (~0.1 dB/m at 2 GHz)

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Air Microstrip Network

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LBX-3316-VTM Using Hybrid Cable/Air Stripline

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LBX-3319-VTM Using Hybrid Cable/Air Stripline

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DB812 Omni Antenna


Vertical Pattern

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932DG65T2E-M
Pattern Simulation

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Key Antenna Pattern Objectives


For sector antenna, the key pattern objective is to focus as much energy as possible into a desired sector with a desired radius while minimizing unwanted interference to/from all other sectors. This requires:

Optimized pattern shaping Pattern consistency over the rated frequency band Pattern consistency for polarization diversity models Downtilt consistency

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Main Lobe
What is it?
The main lobe is the radiation pattern lobe that contains the majority portion of radiated energy.

35 Total Main Lobe

Why is it useful?
Shaping of the pattern allows the contained coverage necessary for interference-limited system designs.

How is it measured?
The main lobe is characterized using a number of the measurements which will follow.

What is Andrew standard?


Andrew conforms to the industry standard.

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Half-Power Beamwidth
Horizontal And Vertical
What is it?
The angular span between the half-power (-3 dB) points measured on the cut of the antennas main lobe radiation pattern.

1/2 Power Beamwidth


30 30

Why is it useful?
It allows system designers to choose the optimum characteristics for coverage vs. interference requirements.

How is it measured?
It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing.

What is Andrew standard?


Andrew conforms to the industry standard.

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Front-To-Back Ratio
What is it?
The ratio in dB of the maximum directivity of an antenna to its directivity in a specified rearward direction. Note that on a dual-polarized antenna, it is the sum of co-pol and cross-pol patterns.

Why is it useful?
It characterizes unwanted interference on the backside of the main lobe. The larger the number, the better!

How is it measured?
It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing.

What is Andrew standard?

F/B Ratio @ 180 degrees 0 dB 25 dB = 25 dB

Each data sheet shows specific performance. In general, traditional dipole and patch elements will yield 2328 dB while the Directed Dipole style elements will yield 3540 dB.
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Sidelobe Level
What is it?
Sidelobe level is a measure of a particular sidelobe or angular group of sidelobes with respect to the main lobe.

Why is it useful?
Sidelobe level or pattern shaping allows the minor lobe energy to be tailored to the antennas intended use. See Null Fill and Upper Sidelobe Suppression.

Sidelobe Level (20 dB)

How is it measured?
It is always measured with respect to the main lobe in dB.

What is Andrew standard?


Andrew conforms to the industry standard.
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Null Filling
What is it?
Null filling is an array optimization technique that reduces the null between the lower lobes in the elevation plane.

Why is it useful?
For arrays with a narrow vertical beamwidth (less than 12), null filling significantly improves signal intensity in all coverage targets below the horizon.

How is it measured?
Null fill is easiest explained as the relative dB difference between the peak of the main beam and the depth of the 1st lower null.

What is Andrew standard?


Most Andrew arrays will have null fill of 2030 dB without optimization. To qualify as null fill, we expect no less than 15 and typically 1012 dB!
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Null Filling
Important For Antennas With Narrow Elevation Beamwidths

Null Filled to 16 dB Below Peak Received Level (dBm)


0

Transmit Power = 1 W
-20 -40 -60 -80 -100 0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.9 1

Base Station Antenna Height = 40 m Base Station Antenna Gain = 16 dBd Elevation Beamwidth = 6.5

Distance (km)

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Upper Sidelobe Suppression


What is it?
Upper sidelobe suppression (USLS) is an array optimization technique that reduces the undesirable sidelobes above the main lobe.
First Upper Sidelobe Suppression

Why is it useful?
For arrays with a narrow vertical beamwidth (less than 12), USLS can significantly reduce interference due to multi-path or when the antenna is mechanically downtilted.

How is it measured?
USLS is the relative dB difference between the peak of the main beam peak of the first upper sidelobe.

What is Andrew standard?


Most of Andrews arrays will have USLS of >15 dB without optimization. The goal of all new designs is to suppress the first upper sidelobe to unity gain or lower.
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Orthogonality
What is it?
The ability of an antenna to discriminate between two waves whose polarization difference is 90 degrees. d

Why is it useful?
Orthogonal arrays within a single antenna allow for polarization diversity. (As opposed to spacial diversity.) Decorrelation between the Green and Blue Lines d = 0, XPol = dB d = 5, XPol = 21 dB d =10, XPol = 15 dB d =15, XPol = 11 dB d =20, XPol = 9 dB d =45, XPol = 3 dB d = 50, XPol = 2.3 dB d =60, XPol = 1.2 dB d =70, XPol = 0.54 dB d =80, XPol = 0.13 dB d =90, XPol = 0 dB XPol = 20 log ( sin (d))
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How is it measured?
The difference between the co-polar pattern and the cross-polar pattern, usually measured in the boresite (the direction of the main signal).

What is Andrew standard?


Andrew conforms to the industry standard.

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Cross-Pol Ratio (CPR)


What is it?
CPR is a comparison of the co-pol vs. cross-pol pattern performance of a dual-polarized antenna generally over the sector of interest (alternatively over the 3 dB beamwidth).

120
0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40

Why is it useful?
It is a measure of the ability of a cross-pol array to distinguish between orthogonal waves. The better the CPR, the better the performance of polarization diversity.

Typical
Co-Polarization Cross-Polarization (Source @ 90)

How is it measured?
It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing and compares the two plots in dB over the specified angular range. Note: in the rear hemisphere, cross-pol becomes co-pol and vice versa.

120
0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40

Directed Dipole

What is Andrew standard?


For traditional dipoles, the minimum is 10 dB; however, for the Directed Dipole style elements, it increases to 15 dB min.
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Horizontal Beam Tracking


What is it?
It refers to the beam tracking between the two beams of a +/45 polarization diversity antenna over a specified angular range.

120

Why is it useful?
For optimum diversity performance, the beams should track as closely as possible. 45 Array +45 Array

How is it measured?
It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing and compares the two plots in dB over the specified angular range.

What is Andrew standard?


The Andrew beam tracking standard is +/1 dB over the 3 dB horizontal beamwidth.

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Beam Squint
What is it?
The amount of pointing error of a given beam referenced to mechanical boresite.
Horizontal Boresite Squint 3 dB +3 dB /2

Why is it useful?
The beam squint can affect the sector coverage if it is not at mechanical boresite. It can also affect the performance of the polarization diversity style antennas if the two arrays do not have similar patterns.

How is it measured?
It is measured using data collected from antenna range testing.

What is Andrew standard?


For the horizontal beam, squint shall be less than 10% of the 3 dB beamwidth. For the vertical beam, squint shall be less than 15% of the 3 dB beamwidth or 1 degree, whichever is greatest.
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Sector Power Ratio (SPR)


120 What is it?
SPR is a ratio expressed in percentage of the power outside the desired sector to the power inside the desired sector created by an antennas pattern.

Why is it useful?
It is a percentage that allows comparison of various antennas. The better the SPR, the better the interference performance of the system.

How is it measured?
It is mathematically derived from the measured range data.
300

Desired Undesired

What is Andrew standard?


Andrew Directed Dipole style antennas have SPRs typically less than 2 percent.
SPR (%) =

PUndesired PDesired
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60 60

X 100

300

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AntennaBased System Improvements


Key Antenna Parameters To Examine Closely
932LG Directed Dipole
7 dB

Standard 85 Panel Antenna


Roll off at -/+ 60 -10 dB points Horizontal Ant/Ant Isolation Next Sector Ant/Ant Isolation Cone of Silence
6 dB

74 74

83 83

16 dB

12 dB

35 dB

18 dB

120 Cone of Great Silence with >40 dB Front-to-Back Ratio

60 Area of Poor Silence with >27 dB Front-to-Back Ratio


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Key Antenna Pattern Objectives


Azimuth Beam

Beam tracking vs. frequency


Limited to sub-bands on broadband models

1 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 2

1 1 2 1 1 2 2 3 2

1 1 3 2 1 3 3 2 3
Ratings: 1 = Always important 2 = Sometimes important

Squint Roll-off past the 3 dB points

Front-to-back ratio
Cross-pol beam tracking Beam tracking vs. frequency Upper sidelobe suppression Lower null fill Cross-pol beam tracking

Elevation Beam

3 = Seldom important

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Key Antenna Pattern Objectives (Continued)


Downtilt

Electrical vs. mechanical tilt

Absolute tilt
Electrical tilt vs. frequency Effective gain on the horizon

2
1 1

2
2 2

3
3 3

Gain

Close to the theoretical value


(directivity minus losses)

1
Ratings: 1 = Always important 2 = Sometimes important

Note: Pattern shaping reduces gain.

3 = Seldom important

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Advanced Antenna Technology


Adaptive Array (AA)

Planar array External digital signal processing (DSP) controls the antenna pattern A unique beam tracks each mobile Adaptive nulling of interfering signals Increased signal to interference ratio performance benefits

4, 6, and 8 column vertical pol designs for WiMAX and TD-SCDMA*


Often calibration ports are used

* Time Division Spatial Code Division Multiple Access

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Advanced Antenna Technology


MIMO Systems

2 x 2 MIMO Spatial Multiplexing

Multiple Input Multiple Output (MIMO)


External DSP extracts signal from interference Capacity gains due to multiple antennas

A DualPol RET for 2x2 MIMO, two separated for 4x4 MIMO Spatial multiplexing works best in a multi-path environment Space Time Block Coding is a diversity MIMO mode

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Advanced Antenna Technology


SmartBeam Antenna Family
Most flexible and efficient antenna system in the industry Solution for the traffic peaks instead of raising the bar everywhere Full 3-way remote optimization options
- RET Remote Electrical Tilt (e.g. 010) - RAS Remote Azimuth Steering (+/ 30) - RAB Remote Azimuth Beamwidth (from 35 to 105)

Redirect and widen the beam based on traffic requirements Balance the traffic per area with the capacity per sector Best utilization of radio capacity per sector Convenient and low-cost optimization from a remote office Quick and immediate execution Scheduled and executed several times a day (e.g. business and residential plan)

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Advanced Antenna Technology


SmartBeam 3-Way Model Azimuth patterns measured at 17102180 MHz with no radome.

35

65

90

105

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Advanced Antenna Technology


SmartBeam 3-Way Model Elevation patterns measured at 17102180 MHz with no radome.

35

65

90

105

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System Issues
Choosing sector antennas Narrow beam antenna applications Polarizationvertical vs. slant 45

Downtiltelectrical vs. mechanical


RET optimization Passive intermodulation (PIM)

Return loss through coax


Antenna isolation Pattern distortion

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Choosing Sector Antennas


For 3 sector cell sites, what performance differences can be expected from the use of antennas with different horizontal apertures? Criteria

Area of service indifference between adjacent sectors


(ping-pong area)

For comparison, use 6 dB differentials


Antenna gain and overall sector coverage comparisons

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3 x 120 Antennas
120 Horizontal Overlay Pattern
0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25

Examples
VPol Low Band DB874H120 DB878H120

-30
-35

49

-40

3 dB
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3 x 90 Antennas
90 Horizontal Overlay Pattern
0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30

Examples
XPol VPol Low Band DB854DG90 DB842H90 DB856DG90 DB844H90 DB858DG90 DB848H90 LBX-9012 LBV-9012 LBX-9013 High Band DB932DG90 UMW-9015 DB950G85 HBX-9016 UMWD-09014B UMWD-09016

44

-35 -40

5 dB
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3 x 65 Antennas
65 Horizontal Overlay Pattern
0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35

Examples
XPol VPol

19

-40

Low Band CTSDG-06513 DB844H65 CTSDG-06515 DB848H65 CTSDG-06516 LBV-6513 DB854DG65 DB856DG65 DB858DG65 LBX-6513 LBX-6516
High Band UMWD-06513 UMWD-06516 UMWD-06517 HBX-6516 HBX-6517 PCS-06509 HBV-6516 HBV-6517

10 dB

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Special Narrow Beam Applications

4-Sector Site (45)

Road

6-Sector Site (33)

Repeater Narrow Donor, Wide Coverage Antennas Rural Roadway


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Test Drive Route

35

183

CELL SITE

N
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Polarization Diversity Tests

DB854HV90 DB854DD90

1 Test A
DRIVE TESTS

2
0/90 (H/V)

.
A Test B B
HANDHELD MOBILE

+45/-45 (Slant 45)

1A 1B

2A 2B

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Slant 45 / Hand-Held In Car


Space Diversity vs. Slanted +45/45
-40 Test Set-Up and Uplink Signal Strength Measurements
DB833
A

TEST 1A
DB833
B

DB854DD90
E

9dB

Green Black 11dB 7.5 ft.

9dB Blue

Signal Strength (dBm)

-50

Red

-60

-70

-80 moving away from tower -90 moving crossface Uplink Signal Strength
Vert Left Vert Right Slant Div Slant Div

moving towards tower

-100

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Slant 45 / Hand-Held In Car


Space Diversity vs. Slanted +45/45
Difference Between Strongest Uplink Signals
16 12 8 4 0 -4 -8 Difference Between Polarization Diversity and Space Diversity Average Difference

TEST 1A

Signal Strength (dB)

Slant 45 Improvement

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Slant 45 / Mobile With Glass Mount


Space Diversity vs. Slanted +45/-45
-40

TEST 1B
DB833
B

Test Set-Up and Uplink Signal Strength Measurements


DB833
A

DB854DD90
E

9dB

Green Black 11dB 7.5 ft.

9dB Blue

Signal Strength (dBm)

-50

Red

-60 moving away from tower

-70

moving towards tower

-80

moving crossface -90 Uplink Signal Strength Vert Left Vert Right Slant Div Slant Div
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Slant 45 / Mobile With Glass Mount


Space Diversity vs. Slanted +45/-45
Difference Between Strongest Uplink Signals
16

TEST 1B

Signal Strength (dB)

12

8
4 0

-4
-8

Slant 45 Degradation

Difference Between Polarization Diversity and Space Diversity Average Difference


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Rysavy Research

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Future Technology Focus


Figure 16 shows that
HSDPA,1xEV-DO, and 802.16e are all within 2-3 dB of the Shannon bound, indicating that from a link layer perspective, there is not much room for improvement. This figure demonstrates that the focus of future technology enhancements should be on improving system performance aspects that improve and maximize the experienced SNRs in the system instead of investigating new air interfaces that attempt to improve the link layer performance.

1 Peter

Rysavy of Rysavy Research, Data Capabilities: GPRS to HSDPA and Beyond, 3G Americas, September 2005

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The Impact
Lower Co-Channel Interference/Better Capacity And Quality
In a three sector site, traditional antennas produce a high degree of imperfect power control or sector overlap. Imperfect sectorization presents opportunities for: Traditional Flat Panels 65 90

Increased softer hand-offs Interfering signals Dropped calls Reduced capacity Andrew Directed Dipole 65 90

The rapid roll-off of the lower lobes of the Andrew Directed Dipole antennas create larger, better defined cones of silence behind the array.

Much smaller softer hand-off area Dramatic call quality improvement 5%10% capacity enhancement
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120 Sector Overlay Issues


On the Capacity and Outage Probability of a CDMA Heirarchial Mobile System with Perfect/Imperfect Power Control and Sectorization By: Jie ZHOU et, al IEICE TRANS FUNDAMENTALS, VOL.E82-A, NO.7 JULY 1999 . . . From the numerical results, the user capacities are dramatically decreased as the imperfect power control increases and the overlap between the sectors (imperfect sectorization) increases . . . Effect of Soft and Softer Handoffs on CDMA System Capacity By: Chin-Chun Lee et, al IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON VEHICULAR TECHNOLOGY, VOL. 47, NO. 3, AUGUST 1998
15 Percentage of capacity loss 10 5 0 15 10 5 0 Overlapping angle in degree

Qualitatively, excessive overlay also reduces capacity of TDMA and GSM systems.

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Hard, Soft, and Softer Handoffs Hard Handoff


- Used in time division multiplex systems - Switches from one frequency to another

- Often results in a ping-pong switching effect

Soft Handoff
- Used in code division multiplex systems - Incorporates a rake receiver to combine signals from multiple cells

- Smoother communication without the clicks typical in hard handoffs

Softer Handoff
- Similar to soft handoff except combines signals from multiple adjacent sectors

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Soft and Softer Handoff Examples


Softer Handoff

Two-Way Soft Handoff

Three-Way Soft Handoff

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Beam Downtilt
In urban areas, service and frequency utilization are frequently improved by directing maximum radiation power at an area below the horizon. This technique . . .

Improves coverage of open areas close to the base station. Allows more effective penetration of nearby buildings, particular high-traffic lower levels and garages. Permits the use of adjacent frequencies in the same general region.

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Electrical/Mechanical Downtilt

Mechanical downtilt lowers main beam, raises back lobe. Electrical downtilt lowers main beam and lowers back lobe. A combination of equal electrical and mechanical downtilts lowers main beam and brings back lobe onto the horizon!

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Electrical/Mechanical Downtilt (Continued)

Mechanical

Electrical

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DB5083 Downtilt Mounting Kit


DB5083 downtilt mounting kit is constructed of heavy duty galvanized steel, designed for pipe mounting 12 to 20 wide panel antennas.

Correct bracket calibration


assumes a plumb mounting pipe!

Check antenna with a digital level.


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Mechanical Downtilt
Pattern AnalogyRotating A Disk

Mechanical tilt causes . . .

Beam peak to tilt below horizon

Back lobe to tilt above horizon


At 90, no tilt

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Mechanical Downtilt Coverage


110 120 130 140 150 160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 310 320 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 350 340 330 140 130 120

110

100

90

80

70
60 50 40

150
160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 270 280 290 300 310 320

30
20 10 0 350 340 330

240
250 260 270 280 290

300

Elevation Pattern

Azimuth Pattern

Mechanical Tilt 0 4 6 8 10
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0 Mechanical Downtilt
Quiz What is the vertical beamwidth of a 4-element array?

85

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7 Mechanical Downtilt

93

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15 Mechanical Downtilt

123

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20 Mechanical Downtilt
Horizontal 3 dB Bandwidth Undefined

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Managing Beam Tilt


For the radiation pattern to show maximum gain in the direction of the horizon, each stacked dipole must be fed from the signal source in phase. Feeding vertically arranged dipoles out of phase will generate patterns that look up or look down. The degree of beam tilt is a function of the phase shift of one dipole relative to the adjacent dipole.

Generating Beam Tilt


Dipoles Fed In Phase
Energy in Exciter Phase Exciter

Dipoles Fed Out of Phase

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Electrical Downtilt
Pattern AnalogyForming A Cone Out Of A Disk

Electrical tilt causes . . .

Beam peak to tilt below horizon


Back lobe to tilt below horizon At 90, tilt below horizon All the pattern tilts

Cone of the Beam Peak Pattern

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

76

Electrical Downtilt Coverage


110 120 130 140 150 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 150 140 120 110 100 90 80 70 60

130

50
40 30 20 10 0 350 340 330

160
170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 260 300 290 310 320

20
10 0 350 340 330

160 170 180 190 200 210 220 230 240 250 300 290 310 320

270

280

260

270

280

Elevation Pattern

Azimuth Pattern

Electrical Tilt

0 4 6 8 10
PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

77

Mechanical Vs. Electrical Downtilt

Mechanical

Electrical

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

78

Remote Electrical Downtilt (RET)


Optimization
ATM200-002
RET Device (Actuator)

Local PC

ATC200-LITE-USB
Portable Controller

Local PC

ANMS
Remote Locations Network Server

ATC300-1000
Rack Mount Controller

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

79

Ericsson Interoperability

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

80

Intermod Interference
Where?
F1 Tx F1 Rx F3
Receiver-Produced

F3 Tx F1 Rx F3
Transmitter-Produced

F2

F2

Tx F2

Tx F2

F1 Tx1 F2 Tx2 F3
Elsewhere

F1 F2 Rx F3 Tx1 Tx2 C O M B DUP Rx3

F3

RF Path-Produced
PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

81

High Band
Product Frequencies, Two-Signal IM
FIM = nF1 mF2 Example: F1 = 1945 MHz; F2 = 1930 MHz

n
1 2 1 2

m
1 1 2 2

Product Order
Second Third Third Fourth

Product Formula
1F1 + 1F2 1F1 1F2 2F1 + 1F2 *2F1 1F2 2F2 + 1F1 *2F2 1F1 2F1 + 2F2 2F1 2F2

Product Frequencies (MHz)


3875 15 5820 1960 5805 1915 7750 30

3
2

2
3

Fifth
Fifth

3F1 + 2F2 *3F1 2F2


3F2 + 2F1 *3F2 2F1

9695 1975
9680 1900

*Odd-order difference products fall in-band.


PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

82

Two-Signal IM
Odd-Order Difference Products
Example: F1 = 1945 MHz; F2 = 1930 MHz F = F1 - F2 = 15 F2 1930 F dBc 2F2 F1 1915 2F 5th 3rd F F2 F1 F 3rd 2F1 F2 1960 F1 1945

3F2 2F1 1900

dBm 2F

3F1 2F2 1975 5th

Third Order: F1 + F; F2 - F Fifth Order: F1 + 2F; F2 - 2F Seventh Order: F1 + 3F; F2 - 3F Higher than the highest lower than the lowest none in-between
PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

83

PCS A Band Intermodulation


11th 1855 9th 1870 7th 1885 5th 1900 3rd 1915 1930 1945

Channel Bandwidth Block (MHz) Frequencies C 30 18951910, 19751990 C1 15 1902.51910, 1982.51990 C2 15 18951902.5, 19751982.5 C3 10 18951900, 19751980 C4 10 19001905, 19801985 C5 10 19051910, 19851990

FCC Broadband PCS Band Plan


Note: Some of the original C block licenses (originally 30 MHz each) were split into multiple licenses (C-1 and C-2: 15 MHz; C-3, C-4, and C-5: 10 MHz).

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

84

PCS A & F Band Intermodulation


3rd 1895 1935 1975

Channel Bandwidth Block (MHz) Frequencies C 30 18951910, 19751990 C1 15 1902.51910, 1982.51990 C2 15 18951902.5, 1975-1982.5 C3 10 18951900, 19751980 C4 10 19001905, 19801985 C5 10 19051910, 19851990

FCC Broadband PCS Band Plan


Note: Some of the original C block licenses (originally 30 MHz each) were split into multiple licenses (C-1 and C-2: 15 MHz; C-3, C-4, and C-5: 10 MHz).

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

85

Causes Of IMD Ferromagnetic materials in the current path:


- Steel - Nickel plating or underplating

Current disruption:
- Loosely contacting surfaces

- Non-conductive oxide layers between contact surfaces

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

86

700, 750, 850A&B, PCS & AWS polarization diversity


DBXNH-6565A-VTM LNX-6512DS-VTM
| | | | | | | | | |
X X X X X

DBXNH-6565A-VTM
X X X X X

X X X X X

X X X X X

LNX-6512DS-VTM

850

850

850

PCS 700
TMA

AWS 750
TMA TMA

850

Triplex
Lo/Mid/Hi

Triplex
Lo/Mid/Hi

Triplex
Lo/Mid/Hi

Triplex
Lo/Mid/Hi

4 antennas and 4 transmission lines

Triplex
Lo/Mid/Hi

Triplex
Lo/Mid/Hi

Triplex
Lo/Mid/Hi

Triplex
Lo/Mid/Hi

850

700 Lower A&B

850 B+B

PCS AWS

850 A+A+A

750 Upper C

AWS

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

87

Upper 700 C / 850 A expanded


Product Frequencies, Three-Signal IM
FIM = F1 + F2 F3

F1 MHz 755 757 869 757 757

F2 MHz 890 890 869 891.5 891.5

F3 MHz 869 871 891.5 872.5 869.5

Product Order

Product Formula 1F1+1F2+1F3 1F1+1F2+1F3 1F1+1F2+1F3 1F1+1F2+1F3 1F1+1F2+1F3

Product MHz 776 776 846.5 776 779

Third Third Third Third Third

*Odd-order difference products fall in-band.


PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

88

System VSWR Calculator


System VSWR Calculator
Version 9.0 Frequency (MHz): Component Used?
No No No No No No No No No No No No Yes

850.00 Return Loss (dB) 13.98 32.26 20.83 27.32 23.13 27.32 29.42 27.32 23.13 27.32 29.42 27.32 20.83 28.30
CommScope

18-Mar-09 Cable Type / Component Loss (dB)


VXL7-50 LDF4-50A 2

System Component Antenna or Load Jumper Tower Mounted Amp Jumper Top Diplexer or Bias Tee Jumper Main Feed Line Jumper Bias Tee Jumper Surge Suppressor Jumper Bottom Diplexer or Duplexer Jumper Legacy Jumper / TL Cables
1/2 inch Superflexible Copper 1/2 inch Foam Copper 1/2 inch Superflexible Aluminum 1/2 inch Foam Aluminum

Max. VSWR 1.50 1.05 1.20 1.09 1.15 1.09 1.07 1.09 1.15 1.09 1.07 1.09 1.20 1.08
Andrew

Cable Length (m) 1.83 1.83 1.83 200.00 30.48 11.00 1.83 1.83 27.30

Cable Length (ft) 6.00 6.00 6.00 656.17 100.00 36.09 6.00 6.00 89.57

Ins Loss w/2 Conn (dB) 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 3.00

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1

2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 1

0.20 2 0.20 2.00 8 4 0.10 2.00 0.10 3.00 0.10 FSJ4-50B 1.00

% of Est. Reflections at System input Reflection 87.2% 0.1003 0.0% 0.0000 0.0% 0.0000 0.0% 0.0000 0.0% 0.0000 0.0% 0.0000 0.0% 0.0000 0.0% 0.0000 0.0% 0.0000 0.0% 0.0000 0.0% 0.0000 0.0% 0.0000 0.0% 0.0000 12.8% 0.0385
100.0%

FSJ4-50B LDF4-50A

Estimated Conn Loss ( 2per cable) CR 540 SFX 500 FXL 540
CommScope

0.028 0.1074 1.24 19.4 0.1387 1.32 17.2 3.00


Feet to meters converter

Typical System Reflection: Typical System VSWR: Typical System Return Loss (dB): Worst System Reflection: Worst System VSWR: Worst System Return Loss (dB): Total Insertion Loss (dB):
Return Loss to VSWR converter

Legacy Transmission Lines


7/8 inch Copper 1 1/4 inch Copper 1 5/8 inch Copper 7/8 inch Very Flexible Copper 1 1/4 inch Very Flexible Copper 1 5/8 inch Very Flexible Copper 7/8 inch Virtual Air Copper
Yes

Andrew

1 5/8 inch Virtual Air Copper 7/8 inch Aluminum 1 1/4 inch Aluminum 1 5/8 inch Aluminum

LDF5-50A LDF6-50 LDF7-50A VXL5-50 VXL6-50 VXL7-50 AVA5-50 AVA7-50 AL5-50 AL7-50

CR 1070 CR 1480 CR 1873

FXL 780 FXL 1480 FXL 1873

Return Loss (dB) 17.00

VSWR 1.33

Feet 100.00

meters 30.48

No

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

89

Possible Cascaded VSWR Results


Possible results (at a given frequency) when Antenna and TMA are interconnected with different electrical length jumpers.
If: L = 1.5:1 (14 dB RL Antenna) S = 1.2:1 (20.8 dB RL TMA)
Then: X (max) = 1.8:1 (10.9 dB RL) S (min) = 1.25:1 (19.1 dB RL)

Worst case seldom happens in real life, but be aware that it is possible!

From http://www.home.agilent.com/agilent/editorial.jspx?cc=US&lc=eng&ckey=895674&nid=-35131.0.00&id=895674
PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

90

Recommended Antenna/TMA Qualification Test


Antenna

50 ohm load

6 foot LDF4-50A Adapter or jumper to bypass TMA

6 foot LDF4-50A

TMA

TMA

12 foot LDF4-50A 12 foot LDF4-50A

Transmission Line

Transmission Line

20 foot FSJ4-50

20 foot FSJ4-50

Antenna Return Loss Diagram

TMA Return Loss Diagram

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

91

Attenuation Provided By Vertical Separation Of Dipole Antennas

Isolation in dB

Antenna Spacing in Feet (Meters)


The values indicated by these curves are approximate because of coupling which exists between the antenna and transmission line. Curves are based on the use of half-wave dipole antennas. The curves will also provide acceptable results for gain type antennas. If values (1) the spacing is measured between the physical center of the tower antennas and it (2) one antenna is mounted directly above the other, with no horizontal offset collinear). No correction factor is required for the antenna gains.
PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

92

Attenuation Provided By Horizontal Separation Of Dipole Antennas

Isolation in dB

Antenna Spacing in Feet (Meters)


Curves are based on the use of half-wave dipole antennas. The curves will also provide acceptable results for gain type antennas if (1) the indicated isolation is reduced by the sum of the antenna gains and (2) the spacing between the gain antennas is at least 50 ft. (15.24 m) (approximately the far field).

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

93

Pattern Distortions

Conductive (metallic) obstruction in the path of transmit and/or receive antennas may distort antenna radiation patterns in a way that causes systems coverage problems and degradation of communications services.

A few basic precautions will prevent pattern distortions.

Additional information on metal obstructions can also be found online at: www.akpce.com/page2/page2.html

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

94

Pattern Distortions
Side Of Building Mounting

Building

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

95

90 Horizontal Pattern
Obstruction @ 10 dB Point
340 330 320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 350 0 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 90 100 110 120 130 70 80 10 20 30 40 50 60

880 MHz

0
10 dB Point

Antenna

Building Corner

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

96

90 Horizontal Pattern
Obstruction @ 6 dB Point
340
330 320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 350 0 0 -5 -1 0 -1 5 -2 0 -2 5 -3 0 0 80 90 100 110 120 130 10

20
30 40 50 60

880 MHz

-3 5
-4 0

6 dB Point

Antenna

Building Corner

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

97

90 Horizontal Pattern
Obstruction @ 3 dB Point
340 330 320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140 350 0 0 -5 -1 0 -1 5 -2 0 -2 5 -3 0 -3 5 -4 0 90 100 1 10 120 130 0 80 10 20 30 40 50 60

880 MHz

3 dB Point

Building Corner Antenna

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

98

90 Horizontal Pattern
0.51 Diameter Obstacle @ 0
340 330 320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 230 220 210 200 190 180 1 70 160 150 140 350 0 0 -5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40 90 100 110 120 130 0 80 10 20 30 40 50 60

880 MHz

0 12

Antenna

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

99

90 Horizontal Pattern
0.51 Diameter Obstacle @ 45
340 330 320 310 300 290 280 270 260 250 240 350 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 80 90 100 110 120

0
-5 -10 -15 -20 -25 -30 -35 -40

880 MHz

45 8 Antenna

230
220 210 200 190 180 170 160 150 140

130

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

100

90 Horizontal Pattern
0.51 Diameter Obstacle @ 60
340 330 320 310 300 290
280

350

0 0 -5 -10 -15
-20

10

20 30 40 50 60 0
80

880 MHz

-25 -30 -35

270 260 250 240 230


220

-40

90

60
100 110 120 130
140

6 Antenna

210 200
190 180 170

150 160

Additional information on metal obstructions can also be found online at www.akpce.com/page2/page2.html.


PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

101

90 Horizontal Pattern
0.51 Diameter Obstacle @ 80
340 330 320 310 300 290
280

350

0 0 -5 -10 -15
-20

10

20 30 40 50 60 0
80

880 MHz

-25 -30 -35

270 260 250 240 230


220

-40

90 100 110 120 130


140

80 Antenna

210 200
190 180 170

150 160

Additional information on metal obstructions can also be found online at www.akpce.com/page2/page2.html.


PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

102

General Rule
Area That Needs To Be Free Of Obstructions (> 0.51)
Maximum Gain
> 12 WL

3 dB Point (45) 6 dB Point (60)

WL

> 3 WL

10 dB Point (80 90)

Antenna 90 horizontal (3 dB) beamwidth

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

103

Pattern Distortions

d D d = D x tan tan 1 = 0.01745 for 0 < < 10 : tan = x tan 1 tan = Note: tan 10 = 0.1763 10 x 0.01745 = 0.1745
PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

104

Gain Points Of A Typical Main Lobe


Relative to Maximum Gain

Vertical Beam Width= 2 x (3 dB point)

3 dB point below boresite. 6 dB point 1.35 x below boresite. 10 dB point 1.7x below boresite.

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

105

Changes In Antenna Performance In The Presence Of:


Non-Conductive Obstructions

Fiberglass Panel

90 PCS Antenna

Dim A

PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

106

Performance Of 90 PCS Antenna Behind Camouflage (" Fiberglass)


120
110
DIM A
FIBERGLASS PANEL

Horizontal Aperture

100 90 80
1/4 1/2 3/4 1 1-1/2 2

70
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Distance of Camouflage (Inches) (Dim. A)


PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

107

Performance Of 90 PCS Antenna Behind Camouflage (" Fiberglass)


1.7 1.6 1.5
DIM A

VSWR (Worst Case)

FIBERGLASS PANEL

1.4 1.3
1/4

1/2

1-1/2

1.2
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12

Distance of Camouflage (Inches) (Dim. A)


W/Plain Faade W/Ribbed Faade Without Facade
PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

108

Distance From Fiberglass


0 330 30

90
60 300

0 330 30

102
60

300

270
-55 -50 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20

90

270
-55 -50 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20

90

240

120

240

120

210

150 0

210

150

180

180 330 30

No Fiberglass
300

68
60

3" to Fiberglass

270
-50 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15

90

240

120

210

150

180

1.5" to Fiberglass
PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

109

Distance From Fiberglass


0 330 300 30

77
60 300

0 330 30

112
60

270
-50 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15

90

270

90
-50 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15

240 210

120

240 210 0 330 30

120 150

150

180

180

4" to Fiberglass
300

108
60

6" to Fiberglass

270

90
-50 -45 -40 -35 -30 -25 -20 -15

240

120

210

180

150

9" to Fiberglass
PRIVATE AND CONFIDENTIAL CommScope

110