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What are Sensors?

American National Standards Institute (ANSI) Definition

A device which provides a usable output in response to a specified measurand

A sensor acquires a physical parameter and converts it into a signal suitable for processing (e.g. optical, electrical, mechanical)

A transducer

Microphone, Loud Speaker, Biological Senses (e.g. 5/27/12

Detectable Phenomenon

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Need for Sensors

Sensors are omnipresent. They embedded in our bodies, automobiles, airplanes, cellular telephones, radios, chemical plants, industrial plants and countless other applications. Without the use of sensors, there would be no automation.

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Choosing a Sensor

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Types of Sensors

Bimetallic Switch Colour Sensors Ultrasonic Distance Sensors Light Section Sensors LVDT Limit Switches Photoelectric Devices Proximity Sensors Sensors

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Bimetallic Switch Sensor

A bi-metallic strip is used to convert a temperature change into mechanical displacement and thus acts as a temperature sensor It is in the form of Cantilever beam The strip consists of two strips of different metals which expand at different rates as they are heated, usually steel and copper

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The different expansions force the flat strip to bend one way if heated, and in the opposite direction if cooled below its normal temperature. The metal with the higher expansion is on the outer side of the curve when the strip is heated and on the inner side when cooled.
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Selection of Bimetallic strips


High coefficient of expansion High ductility High modulus of elasticity High electrical conductivity

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Applications of Bimetallic sensors

Mechanical clock mechanisms are sensitive to temperature changes which lead to errors in time keeping. A bimetallic strip is used to compensate for this in some mechanisms In the regulation of heating and cooling, thermostats that operate over a wide range of temperatures the bi-metal strip is mechanically fixed and attached to an electrical power source while the other (moving) end carries an electrical contact.

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A direct indicating dial thermometer uses a bi-metallic strip wrapped into a coil. One end of the coil is fixed to the housing of the device and the other drives an indicating needle.

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Advantages

Cost is low Negligible maintenance expenses Stable operation over extended period of time

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Disadvantages

Not suitable for more than 4000c. Permanent deformation of the metallic strip may occur.

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Colour Sensors

These types of sensors are used to help the robots differentiate between colours and decide on the appropriate actions. The image of the colour sensor is shown in the next slide. We make use of the photo sensor to differentiate between colours.

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In the above pic we place 3 LEDs of green, blue & red and the photo resistor in between them. Now each colour is switched on for a period of time one by one and the readings of the photoresistor are noted. After getting the readings of the different colours we compare how different each reading is from the calibrated reading of every colour

This way whichever calibrated value is closest to the recorded values, indicate that the object in the front is of that 5/27/12 colour.

This happens because we know that when alight of a particular colour is incident on the same coloured object is reflected with more intensity than when a different coloured light falls on a object. Based on this we enter the calibrated values of all the colours required into the system and when the robot comes across the recorded value it compares it with the closest value.

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Ultrasonic Distance sensors


Time of Flight The measured pulses typically come form ultrasonic, RF and optical energy sources.

D=v*t = round-trip distance = speed of wave propagation = elapsed time

D v t

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These are waves of frequency

Basic principle of operation:

Emit a quick burst of ultrasound (50kHz), (human hearing: 20Hz to 20kHz) Measure the elapsed time until the receiver indicates that an echo is detected. Determine how far away the nearest object is from the sensor

D=v*t

D = round-trip distance v = speed of propagation(340 m/s) t = elapsed time

Bat, dolphin,

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Applications

Obstacle avoidance Navigation Map building Underwater exploration Car Parking System Robotics & Automation

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Advantages

Can detect things that are hard to see Not affected by colour Less affected by target surfaces Measures discrete distances to objects Resistance to many disturbances :
vibration infrared ambient EMI
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radiation noise

radiation

Disadvantages

Dont work in vacuum. Poor sound travel on the Mars, the moon Time of Flight error
Time of Flight error

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Light Section Sensors

Measures the level of light as a number between 0% (Total darkness) and 100% (Very bright) Can differentiate light levels reflected from bright and dark surfaces

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light energy

Inside the light sensor is a photo-transistor. The photo-transistor acts like a valve for electricity. The more light energy it senses, the more electricity flows.
light energy

voltage measurement

voltage measurement

electrical flow

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Applications

Navigation - follow a black line on a white surface (or vice versa). FireflyBot - find a very bright object in a room or area (light bulb). Color sorter - tell the difference between black Lego bricks and yellow Lego bricks. Input Device - different colors or gray levels on a piece of paper.

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Advantages

Energy saving Easier installation No background effect on object detection

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Disadvantages

Different sensing distances and sensitivity settings are required for different objects (surface, colour) Higher technical expertise High installation cost

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LVDT

Electromechanical transducer
Coupled

to any type of object/structure the rectilinear motion of an object into a corresponding electrical signal Displacement!!!!!!!!

Converts

Measures

Precision of LVDT
Movements Usually

as small as a few millionths of an inch

measurements are taken on the order of 12 5/27/12 inches

Applications

Automation Machinery Civil/Structural Engineering Power Generation Manufacturing Metal Stamping/Forming OEM Pulp and Paper Industrial Valves D and Tests

R & 5/27/12

Civil/Structural Engineering Examples


Displacement

measurement of imbedded concrete anchors tested for tensile, compression, bending strength and crack growth in concrete and creep of concrete wall used for retaining wall in large gas pipe installation measurement of fatigue in large structural components used in suspension bridges application: measuring displacement (creep) of bedrock

Deformation Dynamic

Down-hole

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Advantages

Infinite resolution is present in LVDT High output LVDT gives High sensitivity Very good linearity Ruggedness LVDT Provides Less friction Low hysteresis LVDT gives Low power consumption.

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Disadvantages

Internally non contact but externally has to be connected where the measurement has to be made Not feasible for very long range measurements Very high displacement is required for generating high voltages. Shielding is required since it is sensitive to magnetic field. performance of the transducer gets affected by vibrations.

The 5/27/12

Limit Switches

A limit switch is an electromechanical device that consists of an actuator mechanically linked to a set of contacts. When an object comes into contact with the actuator, the device operates the contacts to make or break an electrical connection. It can determine the presence or absence of an object. It was first used to define the limit of travel of an object; hence the name "Limit Switch."

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Mechanical Advantages of Limit Switches


Ease of use Simple visible operation Durable housing Well sealed for reliable operation High resistance to different ambient conditions found in industry High repeatability Positive opening operation of contacts (some models)

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Electrical Advantages of Limit Switches

Suitable for switching higher power loads than other sensor technologies (5A at 24V DC or 10A at 120V AC typical vs. less than 1A for proximities or photoelectrics) Immunity to electrical noise interference Immunity to radio frequency interference (walkie-talkies) No leakage current Minimal voltage drops

Simple Normally Open and/or Normally Closed operation 5/27/12

Disadvantages

Shorter contact life than solid-state technology Moving mechanical parts wear out eventually Not all applications can use contact sensing

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Applications

Conveyor systems Transfer machines Automatic turret lathes Milling and boring machines Radial drills High speed production equipment

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Photoelectric Devices

A photoelectric effect is any effect in which light energy is converted to electricity. When light strikes certain light-sensitive materials:
It It It

may cause them to give electrons.

may change their ability to conduct electricity. may cause them to develop an electrical potential, or voltage across two surfaces. ( These are called photoelectric devices.)

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Applications

Photomultipliers Image sensors Gold-leaf electroscope Photoelectron spectroscopy Spacecraft Moon dust Night vision devices

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Advantages

Adapatble Clean Convenient Cost effective Free generation Inexhaustable Transcends National Borders No or Low Maintanence Power Source

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Disadvantages

High initial cost Low output efficiency

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Proximity Sensors

Aproximity sensoris asensorable to detect the presence of nearby objects without any physical contact A proximity sensor often emits anelectromagneticfield or a beam ofelectromagnetic radiation(infrared, for instance), and looks for changes in thefieldor return signal.

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Types of Proximity Sensors


Inductive proximity sensors Capacitive proximity sensors Magnetic proximity sensors Photoelectric proximity sensors

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Advantages

No physical contact required with the target to be detected, therefore, no moving parts so no friction and wear out. Fast switching characteristics Unlimited number of switching cycles since there is no mechanical contact Can work in harsh conditions Any type of target material can be detected.

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Disadvantages

It can detect only metallic targets Operating range may be limited

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Applications

Parktronic, car bumpers that sense distance to nearby cars for parking Ground proximity warning systemfor aviation safety Vibration measurements of rotating shafts in machinery Topdead centre(TDC)/camshaftsensor inreciprocating engines. Sheet break sensing in paper machine. warfare

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Force Sensors

Metal foil strain-gage based (load cell)


Good High

in low frequency response load rating lower than piezoelectricity-based typically big size, heavy weight

Resolution Rugged,

Piezoelectricity based 5/27/12 (force sensor)

Applications

Strain gauge must be made to react to a force.


The strain gauge is attached to the member in which strain is sensed, usually by bonding. Cannot be re-used! Special bonding agents exist for different applications and types of materials Usually supplied by the manufacturers of strain gauges or specialized producers.

Strain gauges are often used for bending strain, twisting (torsional and shear strain) and longitudinal tensioning/deformation (axial strain) of structures (engine shafts, bridge loading, 5/27/12

Thank you

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