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Psychometrics

Intelligence and personality tests

Psychometrics
1. 2. Measure: Maximum performance through cognitive ability tests, when they perform certain tasks well. Typical performance through personality tests, to understand their typical behavior rather than performance in special circumstance

Types
1. 2. 3. 4. Cognitive ability tests Specific ability tests Personality tests Tests of interest and motivation.

Intelligence
Capacity to learn Ability to adapt to environments Meta-cognitions ( peoples understanding and control of their own environments. Emotional, social and cultural adaptation. Interpretation of intelligence 1. 2. Different meanings in different contexts due to implicit theories of intelligence. Explicit theories of intelligence.

Intelligence
1. 2. What are psychologists interested in? Structure or process. Nature or nurture issue.

Theories
1.
2. Galtons psycho-physical abilities.( weight discrimination, pitch sensitivity, physical strength). Binet and Simon ( judgment--- ability to learn in an academic setting direction, adaptation and criticism). Introduced the concept of IQ. (MA/ CA x 100). Factor analysis (statistical method to test certain hypothesized abilities) by Spearman, Cattell, etc. Information-processing : How people mentally manipulate what they learnspeed and accuracy.

3. 4.

Intelligence
5. Biological theories. 6. Cultural theories( contextual values) 7. Multiple intelligences.

Personality
Relatively stable pattern of behaviours and consistent internal states that explain a person's behavioural tendencies. ... more or less stable internal factors that make one persons behaviour consistent from one time to another, and different from the behaviour other people would manifest in comparable situations. (Child, 1968)

Personality
Personality theory is broadly concerned with understanding the psychological differences between people and the reasons why people do not all behave in the same way.

Personality
Cattells research into dimensions of personality Some of these dimensions were labelled with a word at just one end or pole, whereas others, the bipolar dimensions, were labelled at both ends (such as extroversion introversion). five-factor model All of the major alternatives to the Big Five factors can be subsumed within them that there is no fundamental incompatibility between the Big Five and these other dimensions

Big five personality dimensions


Conscientiousness Emotional stability Openness to experience Agreeableness Extroversion

Caring, dependable Poised, secure Sensitive, flexible

Courteous, empathic
Outgoing, talkative

Personality tests
Cattells 16PF MyersBriggs Type Indicator (MBTI) developed by C. J. Jung, a contemporary of Freud. It is based on the idea of personality types of which Jung believed that there are 16. California Personality Inventory (CPI) Occupational Personality Questionnaire (OPQ) designed for use in employee selection.

Myers-Briggs Type Indicator


Extroversion versus introversion Sensing versus intuition Thinking versus feeling

Judging versus perceiving

Courtesy of Thompson Doyle Hennessey & Everest

Locus of control and self-monitoring


Locus of control internals believe in their effort and ability externals believe events are mainly due to external causes Self-monitoring personality sensitivity to situational cues and ability to adapt your behaviour to that situation