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Overview of Oracle Database

Lee, JeongKyu (jelee@bridgeport.edu)

Part 1. Introduction to Database System

Introduction to Database
History of RDBMS Entity-Relationship Modeling Database Language

Introduction to Database

File-Based Approach
Each program defines and manages its own data Limitation

Separation and isolation of data Duplication of data Data dependence Incompatibility of files Fixed queries/proliferation of application program

Database Approach
A shared collection of logically related data, designed

to meet the information needs of an organization

Database Management System(DBMS)


A software system that enables users to define, create and maintain the database and provides controlled access to database
DDL

DML : procedural, non-procedural


Control : security, integrity, concurrency control,
recovery control, user-accessible catalog

Components of the DBMS Environment


Hardware - Software - Data - Procedures - People

Advantages of DBMS
- Control of data redundancy - Economy of scale - Data consistency - Balance of conflicting requirements - More information from the same amount of data - Sharing of data - Improved data accessibility and responsiveness - Improved data integrity - Increased productivity - Improved security - Improved maintenance through data independence - Enforcement of standards - Increased concurrency - Improved backup and recovery services

Disadvantages of DBMS
- Complexity, Size, Cost of DBMSs, Additional H/W costs - Cost of conversion, Performance, Higher impact of a failure

Three-Level Database Architecture


External Level
The users view of the database

Conceptual Level
The community view of the database

Internal Level
The physical representation of the database on the computer

Functions of a DBMS
1. Data storage, retrieval, and update 2. A user-accessible catalog 3. Transaction support 4. Concurrency control services 5. Recovery services 6. Authorization services 7. Support for data communication 8. Integrity services 9. Services to promote data independence 10. Utility services

Components of a DBMS
Programmers
Application Programs

Users
Queries

DBA
Database Schema

DML

Query

DDL

DBMS

preprocessor
Program object code

processor
Database manager

compiler
Dictionary manager

Access
methods System buffers

File
manager Database and system catalog

Components of Database Manager

Authorization control

Integrity checker

Command processor Transaction manager Buffer manager

Query optimizer

Scheduler Data Manager

Recovery manager

History of RDBMS

History of DBMS
1960s - Apollo moon-landing project, GUAM
mid 1960s - IMS by IBM (hierarchical DBMS) mid 1960s - IDS by GE (network DBMS) 1965 - CODASYL(Conference on Data SYStems

Language)
1967 -DBTG(Data Base Task Group) 1970 - E.F.Codd of the IBM Research Lab. Late 1970s - System R project at IBM

1980s - commercial relational DBMS(DB2, Oracle, Informix..)


Now - OODBMS, ORDBMS

Terminology
Relation : a relation is a table with columns and rows
Attribute : an attribute is a named column of a relation Domain : a domain is the set of allowable values for one or more attributes

Tuple : a tuple is a row of a relation


Degree : the degree of a relation is the number of attributes it contrains Cardinality : the cardinality of a relation is the number of tuples it contains Relational database : a collection of normalized relation

Properties of Relations
The relation has a name that is distinct from all other relation names Each cell of the relation contains exactly on atomic value

Each attribute has a distinct name


The values of an attribute are all from the same domain The order of attributes has no significance Each tuple is distinct; there are no duplicate tuples

The order of tuples has no significance, theoretically

When is a DBMS Relational?


Foundational rules
Rule 0 : Foundational rule Rule 12 : Nonsubversion rule

Structural rules
Rule 1 : Information representation Rule 6 : View updateing

Integrity rules
Rule 3 : Systematic treatment of null values Rule 10 : Integrity independance

Data manipulation rules


Rule2 : Guaranteed access Rule 4 : Dynamic online catalog based on the relational model Rule7 : High-level insert, update, delete Rule5 : Comprehensive data sublanguage

Data independence rules


Rule8 : Physical data independence Rule11 : Distribution independence Rule 9 : Logical data independence

Entity-Relationship Modeling

Concepts of the E-R Modeling


Entity Types
An object or concept that is identified by the enterprise as having an independent existence

Attributes
A property of an entity or a relationship type

Relationship Types
A meaningful association among entity types

Normalization
A technique for producing a set of relations with desirable properties, given the data requirements of an enterprise

UNF is a table that contains one or more repeating groups 1NF is a relation in which the intersection of each row and column contains one
and only one value

2NF is a relation that is in 1NF and every non-primary-key attribute is fully


functionally dependent on the primary key.

3NF is a relation that is in 1NF, 2NF in which no non-primary-key attribute is


transitively dependent on the primary key

BCNF is a relation in which every determinant is a candidate key 4NF is a relation that is in BCNF and contains no trivial multi-valued
dependency

5NF is a relation that contains no join dependency

Conceptual Database Design


The process of constructing a model of the information used in an enterprise, independent of all physical considerations

Logical Database Design


The process of constructing a model of the information used in an enterprise based on a specific data model, but independent of a particular DBMS and other physical considerations.

Physical Database Design


The process of producing a description of the implementation of the database on secondary storage; it describes the storage structures and access methods used to archieve efficient access to the data

Database Language

SQL
1974 - SEQUEL by D.Chamberlin (IBM) 1975 - SQUARE by Boyce (System R project) 1976 - SEQUEL/2 (SQL) by Chamberlin and Boyce) late 1970 - SQL(Oracle), QUEL(Ingres) 1982 - Relational Database Language(RDL) : ANSI 1987 - ISO standard 1989 - Integrity Enhancement Feature (ISO) 1992 - SQL2(SQL92) : ISO

DML
SELECT INSERT UPDATE DELETE

DDL
CREATE(DROP) SCHEMA CREATE(ALTER, DROP) DOMAIN CREATE(ALTER, DROP) TABLE CREATE(DROP) VIEW CREATE(DROP) INDEX

Advanced SQL
View Integrity Enhancement Feature
Primary key Unique Foreign key

Access Control Embedded SQL Host Language Variables

Application Programming Interface


Dynamic SQL

Part 2. Understanding Oracle Database


Overview of oracle Database Architecture Memory Structure Process Structure Storage Structure

New Features

Overview of Oracle Architecture


PMON SMON RECO D000 S000 P000
* Total SGA Size : 1700 Mbyte

SGA
Shared SQL Area Database Buffer Cashe

Redo Log Buffer

* Fixed Size : 70 Kbyte


* Variavle Size : 490 MByte

TL-812
4,000,000 KByte 1,200,000 KByte

2,100 KByte

Server
USER

DBW0

CKPT

LGWR

Data File Raw Device

ARCH
Archive Log Mode(50M)

Memory Structure : Shared Pool


Shared Pool
Library Cache Shared SQL Area
Control Structures for example: PL/SQL Procedures and Package Character Set Conversion Memory Network Security Attributes and so on ..

Shared Pool Contents


- Text of the SQL or PL/SQL statement

Dictionary Cache

- Parsed form of the SQL or PL/SQL statement - Execution plan for the SQL or PL/SQL statements - Data dictionary cache containing rows of data dictionary information

Library Cache

Control Structures for examples; Locks Library Cache handles and so on ...

- shared SQL area - private SQL area - PL/SQL procedures and package - control structures : lock and library cache handles

Dictionary Cache

Reusable Runtime Memory

- names of all tables and views in the database - names and datatypes of columns in database tables - privileges of all Oracle users

SHARED_POOL_SIZE

Memory Structure :Database Buffer Cache


Database Buffer Cache holds copies of data blocks read from disk

All users concurrently connected to the system share access to the buffer cache
Dirty List LRU List Size = DB_BLOCK_SIZE * DB_BLOCK_BUFFERS

SGA
Shared Pool
Shared SQL Area

Database Buffer Cache

Memory Structure :Redo Log Buffer


Circular buffer containing information about changes made to the database save it redo entry Redo Entries is used when Database Recovery DBWR write contents of Redo Log Buffer to Online Redo Log LOG_BUFFER

change vector #1 redo record change vector #1 change vector #1

Oracle Processes
SNPn Pnnn SMON PMON RECO LCK0

SGA Database Buffer Cache Redo Log Buffer


Offline Storage Device

Snnn

Dedicated Server Process

DBWR Dnnn
User Process

LGWR

ARCH

CKPT
Control Files

Users

Data Files

Redo Log Files

Background Process

DBWR (Database Writer)


- write all dirty buffers to datafiles
- Use a LRU algorithm to keep most recently used blocks in memory - Defers write for I/O optimization
dirty list reaches a threshold length A process scnas a specifed number of buffer in the LRU without finding free buffer A time-out occurs DBWR checkpoint occurs

LGWR (Log Writer)


- writes redo log entries to disk
Commit occurs The redo log buffers pool becomes one-third full

DBWR completes cleaning the buffer blocks at a checkpoint


LGWR time-out

- A commit confirmation is not issued until the tx has been recorded in the rego log file

Contd

PMON (Process Monitor)


- Cleans up abnormally terminated connection - Rolls back uncommited transactions - Releases locks held by a terminated process - Frees SGA resources allocated to the failed processes - Database maintenance

SMON (System Monitor)


- Performs automatic instance recovery - Reclaims space used by temporary segments no longer in use - Merges contiguous area of free space in the datafile

Contd

CKPT (Check Point)


- is enabled by setting the parameter CHECKPOINT_PROCESS=TRUE - If enabled, take over LGWRs task of updating files at a checkpoint - Updates header of datafiles and control files at the end of checkpoint - More frequent checkpoint reduce recovery time from instance failure - CKPT improve the performance of database with many database files

ARCH (Archiver)
- Copies redo log files to tape or disk for media failure - Operates only when a log switch occurs - Is optional and is only needed when in ARCHIVELOG mode - May write to a tape drive or to a disk

LCKn (Lock), Dnnn (Dispatcher), Snnn (Server), RECO (Recover), Pnnn(Parallel), SNPn(Job Queue), QMNn(Queue Monitor),

Server/User Process

User Processes
- A user process is used when a user runs an application program - Runs the tool/application and is considered the client - Passes SQL to the server process and receives the results

Server Processes
- A server process must place the data in the database buffer cache - Parce and execute SQL statements - Read data blocks from disk into the shred database buffers of the SGA - Return the results of SQL statements to the user process Parse : check syntax, security access, object resolution, optimization Execute : applies the parse tree to the data, perform a physical read and change Fetch : Passes data to the user (only SELECT)

Oracle Files

Datafile Redo Log Files Control Files Parameter File Archive File Log File (alert*.log, sqlnet.log, listener.log...) Trace File

Storage Architecture

Physical storage structures


Data files Segments Extents Blocks

Logical storage structures


Tablespaces Tables / Clusters / Indexes Rows Columns

Physical Storage Architecture

Relationship among Segments, Extents, and Blocks

Segment
96K

Extent
24K
2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K

Extent
72K
2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K 2K

Database Blocks

Logical Storage Architecture

Relationship between tablespaces and datafiles

Database

System Tablespace

USER Tablespace

DATA1.ORA

DATA2.ORA

DATA3.ORA

Contd

Objects stored in tablespaces


Tablespace (one or more datafiles)

Table INDEX INDEX INDEX INDEX INDEX

Table INDEX INDEX INDEX

INDEX
INDEX Table

Database Files
(Physical structures associated with only one tablespace)

Objects
(stored in tablespace may span serveral datafiles)

Block
Header
Table Dictionary

Row Dictionary Free Space

General Block Information (Block add, Segment type) 85 ~ 100 bytes Table info in Cluster

Row info in Block (2 byte per row)

Row Data

using when New Row Insert or Update (pctfree, pctused) Table or Index Data

PCTFREE / PCTUSED
PCTFREE PCTUSED

20% Free space 61% Free space

PCTFREE = 20 Insert new row until 80% 20% use when Update

PCTUSED = 40 Can insert new row when below 60% When Usage is below 40% (61% Free space), block is listed in FREELIST

Extent
A

set of contiguous database blocks within a datafile.

Extent

are allocated when.

- The segment is created (INITIAL EXTENT) - The segments grows (NEXT EXTENT) - The table is altered to allocate extents.

Extent

are de-allocated when the

- The segment is dropped and truncated. - The segment is larger than optimal and contains free extents (for rollback segments only)

Each

segment is created with at least on extend( initial extent ) TABLE table_name DEALLOCATE UNUSED

( Rollback segment : 2)

ALTER

Segment

a set of one or more extents that contains all the data for a specific type of logical storage structure within a tablespace Data Segment - A collection of extents that holds all of the data for a table or a cluster Index Segment - A collection of extents that holds all of the index data for search optimization on large tables and clusters Rollback Segment - A collection of extents that holds rollback data for rollback, read-consistency, or recovery Temporary segment - A collection of extents that holds data belonging to temporary tables created during a sort operation Bootstrap segment - An extent that contains dictionary definitions for dictionary tables to be loaded when the database is opened.

Oracle8 New Feature


VLDB, Warehouse
Parallel DML Parallel Index Scans Star Query Optimization Partitioning Parallel Backup/Recovery Incremental Backup Point-in-time Recovery

OLTP
Advanced Queuing XA rewrite Memory reduction Serially reusable memory New OCI Interface Improve Function Performance

Objects
Object Relational Database Object Type Object View

Network Computing
Simple User Integration Simple Maintenance Simple Development

Oracle8i New Features


Data Warehousing
Summary management Analytic function Hash and Composite Paritioning Resource Management Transportable tablespace Functional index, virtual column

OLTP
Publish and subscribe capabilities Database event trigger Single table hash cluster Object type column in partition table Partitioned index-organized table Stable optimizer execution plans

Application Development
Oracle Jserver, VM in Database Java stored procedure, function.. SQLJ: embedded SQL in Java WebDB

Security
Virtual Private Database LDAP integration N-tier authentication/authorization SSL and X.509v3, RAIDUS support Data encrypt, decrypt

Oracle 9i - The eBusiness Platform


Oracle9i continues Oracle8i's focus on the Internet by providing a series of

specific capabilities and product bundles targeted at eBusiness environments. In addition, Oracle9i continues to add features and capabilities that extends existing investment in mission-critical infrastructure. Oracle9i has been designed with focus on certain key development areas.

Key Infrastructure Area


Availability

Key Application Area


Internet Contents Management B2B and B2C eBusiness

Scalability and Performance

Security
Development Platform Manageability

Packaged Application
Business Intelligence

Windows2000 Integration

Oracle Client/Server Architecture

NETWORK
Client Application
Client/Server

Server b

Server/Server

Server A
Benefit

of Client/Server Component - Database S/W work on Server - Minimize network resource - concurrency, consistency, transparency

- Only Server upgrade to increase size - Minimize Client H/W spec - concurrency, consistency, transparency

SQL*Net

What is SQL*Net?
- Oracles Client/Server middleware product - transparent connection from client tool to DB ( from on DB to another ) - works across multiple network protocol and operation system

What is TNS?
- Transparent Network Substrate - Oracles Network applications to access the underlying network protocols transparently - TNS-based application, Oracle Protocol Adapters, Network software like TCP/IP

Configuration File
- TNSNAME.ORA ( Client )
- TNSNAV.ORA ( Client ) - SQLNET.ORA ( Client, Server ) - LISTENER.ORA ( Server )

SQL*Net Configuration

TNSNAME.ORA

LISTENER.ORA

info = (DESCRIPTION= (ADDRESS_LIST= (ADDRESS= (PROTOCOL=tcp) (HOST=brinfoa01) (PORT=1521) ) ) (CONNECT_DATA= (SID=BRBINFO1) ) )

SQLNET.ORA

# SQLNET.EXPIRE_TIME = 0 SQLNET.AUTHENTICATION_S ERVICES=(none, beq)

LISTENER= (ADDRESS_LIST= (ADDRESS= (PROTOCOL=tcp) (HOST=brinfoa01) (PORT=1521) ) ) SID_LIST_LISTENER= (SID_LIST= (SID_DESC= (SID_NAME=BRBINFO1) (ORACLE_HOME=/oracle7/oracle7) (ENVS='EPC_DISABLED=TRUE') ) ) STARTUP_WAIT_TIME_LISTENER=0 CONNECT_TIMEOUT_LISTENER=0 LOG_DIRECTORY_LISTENER=/oracle7/oracle7/network/log LOG_FILE_LISTENER=listener TRACE_LEVEL_LISTENER=OFF

Net8
Networking Challenge

Support large mission-critical client/server, and provide migration path towards distributed object architecture Net8 Focus
1. Scalability : Connection Pooling, Multiplexing(Connection Manager) 2. Manageability : Configuration-free installation option,

Centralized client administration, Automated client configuration


3. Security : Oracle Security Server

ODBC / oo4o / JDBC


ODBC (Open Database Connectivity )
- Provide a way for client program (eg VB, Excel, Access) to access database - is a standardized API, developed according to the specification of the SQL Access Group, than allows one to connect to SQL database

oo4o (Oracle Object for OLE)


- a middleware product manufactured by Oracle that allows native access to Oracle7 databases from client applications via the Microsoft OLE standard - OLE 2.0 Automation Server, Oracle Data Control, Two C++ Class Library

JDBC (Java Database Connectivity )


- a set of classes and interfaces written in Java to allow other Java programs to send SQL statements to a relational database management system - JDBC Thin for Java applets, JDBC OCI for Java application