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Teguh Eko Setio

What is comparison and contrast?


Comparison

are similar Contrast shows how two or more things are different In most writing situations, the two related processes are used together An analogy explains one thing by comparing it to a second, more familiar, thing.

shows how two or more things

A contrast paragraph labels the differences between two persons, places, or things. Once all of the information for the paragraph is obtained one must organize it in one of these two ways:

Option One: First present all of the points of one subject, and then contrast the points with all of the information about the other subject. This is a good way to organize the information of a short paragraph because the reader can readily recall the first points that are stated. 2. Option Two: Make a point about the first subject and then contrast it with a point from the other subject. Alternating between points. This is a good option for longer paragraphs because the reader does not have to search for the contrasted point.
1.

Establishing a basis for comparison


The

two things to be compared must have enough in common to justify the comparison. In making comparisons, you should move beyond the obvious (i.e., people and bees) When two things are very similar, it is the contrasts that may be worth writing about.

Searching points for discussion

Determine your emphasis on similarities, differences, or both. Determine the major focus of your paper. Make sure you treat the same or similar elements for each subject you will discuss:

Novel A

Novel B

Major characters Minor characters themes

Major characters Minor characters themes

Novel A

Novel B Plot Authors Life symbolism

Do not discuss entirely different elements for each subject.

Major Characters Minor Characters Themes

Structuring a Comparison and Contrast Essay Subject by Subject

Write a separate essay about each subject, but you discuss the same points for both subjects. Use basis for comparison to guide your selection of points. Arrange points in logical order, usually order of importance. Good for short, uncomplicated papers.

Point by Point Comparison

Good for longer, more complex papers Make a point about one subject, and then follow it with a comparable point about the other subject. Alternating pattern Be careful not to fall into a monotonous, back and forth movement between points. To avoid this problem, vary sentence structure as you move from point to point.

Using Transitions
Transitions

especially useful for comparison and contrasts. Longer essays may have transitional paragraphs that connect one part of the essay to another.

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.

although whereas but however conversely on the other hand in contrast while yet unlike

Alcoholism is a disease that the nonalcoholic has a hard time understanding, and the two lifestyles are quite different. The nonalcoholic has a lifestyle that involves family and friends. He enjoys going to family functions and interacting with his loved ones. In contrast, the alcoholic tries to avoid family functions unless alcohol is offered. Even then, the alcoholic is consumed with drinking rather than interacting with loved ones. If the nonalcoholic is lonely, he tends to seek out a family member or friend to talk to. He will find ways to fill the void of loneliness. However, when the alcoholic feels lonely, sad or angry, he turns to the alcohol to fulfill that void so he does not have to deal with his feelings. Disagreements with a nonalcoholic are often handled quite differently than with an alcoholic. As an example, a nonalcoholic may often walk away from an argument opting for a time to come back when both parties have had time to cool down. Because the disease of alcoholism has a detrimental effect on the judgment of the alcoholic, he may simply lash out relentlessly, not realizing his tactlessness and the hurt he is causing. Goals can be very different for the afflicted person. An unaffected person will set goals to ensure the basic necessities of life, whereas an alcoholic will orientate his goals to achieve a result that satisfies his needs for alcohol. To a nonalcoholic, family rates number one in his life. To the alcoholic, alcohol is number one in his life. The only conclusion that can be drawn is that alcohol is the single factor that consumes the life of an alcoholic.

Student Example: Comparison and Contrast Essay

WRITING EXERCISE: LOVE!

Auguste Rodin, The Kiss (Sculpture)

Robert Indiana, LOVE (Sculpture)

What significant characteristics do these two sculptures share? Do they share enough characteristics to establish a basis for comparison? Explain.

Auguste Rodin, The Kiss (Sculpture)

Robert Indiana, LOVE (Sculpture)

In your journal, create a venn diagram to list the similarities and differences of these two works of art.

Auguste Rodin, The Kiss (Sculpture)

Robert Indiana, LOVE (Sculpture)

What general statement could you make about these two sculptures? Do the points you listed on your venn diagram provide enough support for this general statement?

Auguste Rodin, The Kiss (Sculpture)

Robert Indiana, LOVE (Sculpture)

Write a short comparison-contrast essay in your journal on the following: How does each sculpture convey the idea of love? Which one do you believe conveys this idea more effectively? Why?

Grammar: parallelism
Parallelism

is the use of matching nouns, verbs, phrases, or clauses to express the same or similar ideas. It was the best of times; it was the worst of times. Charles Dickens, Tale of Two Cities.