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Creating IPv4 Address Spaces

IPv4 IP Addressing
You can configure networks to use unicast, broadcast, or multicast data packet delivery methods to transmit content between computers running Windows Server 2008. You can assign IP addresses to computers on a network to ensure that the appropriate content is delivered to the appropriate location. IP addresses are organized into classes, such as A, B, C, and internal IP address, to accommodate networks of varying sizes. You can perform subnetting to divide the IP address space of a large network into smaller networks that are controlled by routers. The process of subnetting makes IP communication easy.

Overview of Content Delivery

On a network, content is delivered in data packets. In a unicast delivery, the data packets are delivered on a one-to-one basis between two hosts. In a broadcast delivery, data packets are sent from one host to all other hosts on a network. In a multicast delivery, data packets are sent from one host to a group of hosts. The destination IP address that receives the data packet is recognized by all hosts. In a direct delivery, data packets are sent to the destination by addressing the packet to the destinations physical address. The different types of network content are static content, such as Basic Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) Web pages; dynamic content, such as Web pages that display the IP address of a user accessing the content; and streaming content, such as online video.

How Does Unicast Delivery Work

Unicast delivery is a one-to-one data packet delivery method in which a network enables the transfer of a data packet to one receiver, such as from a server to a local area network (LAN) workstation. Unicast delivery is the most common mode of communication on a network. The destination IP address of a unicast data packet is the IP address of the host to which the content or data is being delivered.

In a unicast environment, multiple users might want to access the same content, such as a video clip, from the same server at the same time. However, duplicate data streams are sent from the server to the user. Therefore, each user receives a separate data stream, leading to increased network traffic. You can use the unicast data packet delivery method for Domain Name System (DNS) lookups, for accessing Web sites, for transferring files, and for validating network credentials upon logon.

Types of Network Content


Content type Static Description Static content is data that is the same for all users who access it. Static content does not change based on where the users access the content from, or which user accesses the content. This is the most common type of data on all networks. Some examples of static content are: Basic HTML Web pages Microsoft Office Word documents Microsoft Office PowerPoint slides Dynamic content is data that can change each time a user accesses it. This content type depends on variables such as the user and the users location. This content type is most commonly found in Web sites and Web-based applications. You can create dynamic content by using ASP and ASP.NET. These methods use scripts in Web pages. The scripts are processed by the server to generate the Web pages that are delivered to users. Some examples of dynamic content are: Streaming A Web page that displays a users name when the user accesses the Web site. A Web page that displays the IP address of a user who accesses the content. A Web page that changes content depending on the location of the user.

Dynamic

Streaming content is data that is delivered to users at the speed required for playback. Nonstreaming content is data that is delivered to users at the fastest possible speed that the client, servers, and network can support. This can increase network traffic and cause network congestion. Windows Server 2008 and Windows Media Services support streaming content. Some examples of streaming content are: Online radio stations Online video

How Does Multicast Packet Delivery Work


Multicast delivery is a one-to-many data packet delivery method in which a network enables the transfer of a data packet to multiple receivers on the network, at the same time. Multicast delivery is similar to broadcast delivery. However, in a multicast environment, content or data is sent to a specific group. In a broadcast environment, content is sent to all devices on a network.
A multicast data packet is addressed to an IP address in the range from 224.0.0.0 through 239.255.255.255. The multicast addresses that are used, are selected by the application that sends and receives content. All application clients and servers must use the same multicast address to communicate with each other. In a multicast data packet delivery method, you can forward multicast data packets by using routers. However, many routers do not forward multicast data packets by default. Routers on the Internet do not forward multicast data packets at all. A multicast data packet delivery method saves network bandwidth because bulk content is sent only once. For example, a host can deliver streaming audio and video to Windows Media Player clients without causing network traffic. The data packets travel from the source, for example, a server, and are then multiplied, or distributed, at switching points closer to the receivers, for example, multiple workstations

Overview of IP Communication
The IP addresses that you obtain from your Internet service provider (ISP) are organized into classes, which help you to determine the size of a network. You can use Address Resolution Protocol (ARP) to resolve IP addresses to media access control (MAC) addresses when data packets are created. You can also use the ARP tool to manage the ARP cache that is used by ARP.

The IP communication process takes place on a single network or between networks. On a single network, IP addresses are resolved over the same subnet and no routing is required. In IP communication between networks, IP addresses are resolved through routing.

Types of IP Addresses
IP address class Description

Class A

Class A supports up to 126 networks and up to 16,777,214 hosts for each network. The range of the first octet is from 1 through 127. 127 is used for diagnosis. The default subnet mask is 255.0.0.0.
Class B supports up to 16,384 networks and up to 65,534 hosts for each network. The range of the first octet is from 128 through 191. The default subnet mask is 255.255.0.0. Class C supports up to 2,097,152 networks and up to 254 hosts for each network. The range of the first octet is from 192 through 223. The default subnet mask is 255.255.255.0

Class B

Class C

Internal IP Address

Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) manages and creates internal IP addresses. IANA Reserved Private Network Ranges are allocated in blocks.
The characteristics of a 24-bit block are: Belongs to class A Starts at 10.0.0.0 Ends at 10.255.255.255

What is ARP?
ARP refers to a protocol and a tool. ARP is used to resolve IP addresses to MAC addresses during the creation of a data packet. The ARP tool is used to manage the ARP cache that is used by the protocol. The destination MAC address, in an IP frame, is critical for the delivery of IP frames on a network. A MAC address is a 6-byte or 48-bit number that is used to uniquely identify network devices. The manufacturer of a network device or network adapter configures the MAC address for the network device. When IP frames are created, computers convert IP addresses to MAC addresses. You should use the ARP tool to view the ARP cache and remove entries from the ARP cache. By using the ARP tool, you can also store static entries directly in the ARP cache. You can also use the ARP tool to isolate connection issues. For example, if two computers on the same subnet cannot communicate with each other, you can use ARP to determine whether the correct MAC addresses are listed. To verify that the MAC addresses are correctly listed in the ARP cache, run the arp -a command on each computer. In addition, by using ipconfig.exe, you can verify that the MAC address listed in the ARP cache is the same as the actual MAC address for the destination computer.

Creating Subnets
You can subdivide a large IP network into subnets. When you divide a network into subnets, you should create a unique ID for each subnet. Subnetting is the process of taking one TCP/IP network address range and splitting it into two or more ranges that can be used on various network cards.

When you assign IP addresses, you can use dotted decimal notation. However, computers use IP addresses in a binary format. A subnet mask, which is also referred to as an address mask, is a 32-bit value that is used to distinguish the network ID from the host ID in an arbitrary IP address. To use the suitable number of bits for the subnet mask, you must estimate the required number of segments and hosts per segment.

Converting Dotted Decimal IP Addresses to Binary Format


When you assign IP addresses to computers on a network, you use the dotted decimal notation, which is based on the decimal system. However, computers read IP addresses and subnet mask values as binary numeric strings. Therefore, you also need to determine the binary format of assigned IP addresses. In a dotted decimal notation, every 32-bit address number is read as four separate groups of 8 bits. Each group of 8 successive bits is known as an octet. For example, in an IP address, 129.194.68.32, the numbers 129, 194, 68, and 32 are called octets. In binary format, this address will be represented as 10000001 11000010 01000100 00100000.

Within an octet, each bit position has an assigned decimal value. A bit that is set to 0 always has zero value. However, a bit that is set to 1 can be converted to a decimal value. The following table shows the decimal notation for each place in an individual octet:
Octet
First bit Second bit Third bit Fourth bit Fifth bit Sixth bit Seventh bit

Decimal value
128 64 32 16 8 4 2

What is Subnet?
A subnet is a physical segment of a network that is separated from the rest of the network by one or more routers. For example, if your organization has a class A, B, or C network, it is subdivided into subnets to match the physical layout of your network or design specifications. If you do not subnet, you can only use one network from your Class A, B, or C network. A subnet divides network traffic and decreases network congestion. A subnet also reduces the number of broadcasts that are sent on each segment. You can derive the IP address for each subnet from the main network ID. You need to create a unique ID for each subnet. While creating subnets, you can allocate some of the bits in the host ID to the network ID. This will help you to create more networks. The process of creating subnets is called subnetting. By dividing a large network into subnets, you can overcome the limitations of current technologies, such as exceeding the maximum number of hosts allowed per segment. For example, Ethernet is limited to 1024 hosts on a network. Dividing the segment into further segments increases the total number of hosts allowed on a network