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COM640

Distributive Communications and New Technology


June, 2011

2009 Pearson Education, Inc. Publishing as Prentice Hall

Telecommunications
Chapter 6 Updated January 2009

Raymond Pankos Business Data Networks and Telecommunications, 7th edition May only be used by adopters of the book
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The Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

Carriers
Telephony Television

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6-1: Elements of the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN)

Customer premises Equipment (CPE) consists Of telephones, wires, And other infrastructure on the customer premises. It is owned by the customer.

1. Customer Premises Equipment

1. Customer Premises Equipment


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6-2: Customer Premises Equipment at a Business Site

Most businesses have a PBX (private branch exchange). It acts like an internal switchboard Businesses use 4-pair UTP for in-building telephone wiring. Have long used 4-pair UTP for telephony. Only recently was this 4-pair UTP used for data.
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6-1: Elements of the PSTN


The Access System consists of the access line to the customer (called the local loop) and termination equipment at the end office (nearest telephone office switch).

2. Access Line (Local Loop) 2. & 3. End Office Switch (Class 5)

2. Access Line (Local Loop)

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6-1: Elements of the PSTN

3. Transport Core 3. Switch

3. Trunk Line

The Transport Core connects end office switches and core switches. Trunk lines connect switches.
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6-1: Elements of the PSTN


Telephone Company Switch

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6-1: Elements of the PSTN

4. Signaling System

Transport is the actual transmission of voice. Signaling is the control of calling (setup, teardown, billing, etc.). SS7 in the United States, C7 in Europe
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Transport Versus Signaling


Transport
The carriage of voice during a conversation

Signaling
Supervisory communication to set up a connection, monitor connection quality, collect billing information, closing a connection, etc.

A frequent point of confusion

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6-3: Points of Presence (POPs)

Local, long-distance, and international carriers connect at POPs (points of presence) This permits their subscribers to call one another.
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Circuits

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6-4: Circuit Switching

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6-5: Voice and Data Traffic


Full-Duplex (Tw o-Way) Circuit Voice Traffic: Fairly Constant Use; Circuit Sw itching Is Fairly Efficient Full-Duplex (Tw o-Way) Circuit Data Traffic: Short Bursts, Long Silences; Circuit Sw itching Is Inefficient

Voice uses about 30% of capacity, on average. Data only uses about 5% of capacity, on average. Circuit switching is not too wasteful for voice, but it is very wasteful for data transmission.
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6-6: Dial-Up Circuits Versus Leased Line Circuits

Dial-Up Circuits Is it a circuit with reserved capacity? Operation Speed for Carrying Data Number of Simultaneous Voice Calls per Circuit Yes, by definition Dial-up. Separate circuit for each call Up to 33.6 kbps

Leased Line Circuits Yes, by definition Permanent circuit, always on 56 kbps to gigabit speeds

One

Several due to multiplexing

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6- 7: Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) in T1 Lines

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6- 7: Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) in T1 Lines

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6- 7: Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) in T1 Lines

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6- 7: Time Division Multiplexing (TDM) in T1 Lines

Calculation
Each conversation gets an 8-bit time slot in each frame
There are 8,000 frames per second So each conversation gets 64 kbps

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6-8: Local Loop Technologies

Technology 1-Pair Voice-Grade UTP 2-Pair Data-Grade UTP Optical Fiber

Use Residences Businesses for highspeed access lines Businesses for highspeed access lines

Status Already installed, so no installation cost Must be pulled to the customer premises. (This is expensive) Must be pulled to the customer premises. (This is expensive)

Note: Within buildings, corporate telephony uses 4-pair UTP

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Analog versus Digital Transmission

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6-9: Analog Telephone Transmission


Handset

Speaking creates pressure waves, which hit the microphone in the handset. The microphone generates an analogous electrical signal. This is called an analog signal. 6-22

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6-10: The PSTN: Mostly Digital with Analog Local Loops

The PSTN today is almost entirely digital.


This includes switches (3) and trunk lines (4). It also includes digital leased access lines to businesses (5).
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6-10: The PSTN: Mostly Digital with Analog Local Loops

Only the residential telephone (1) and the 1-pair voice-grade UTP line going to residences (2) are analog today. Digital subscriber lines (which we will see later) Send digital signals over these 1-pair VG UTP lines.
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6-11: Codec at the End Office Switch

A codec at the end office switch translates between the analog customer signals and digital signals in the PSTN core ADC is analog to digital conversion. DAC is digital to analog conversion.
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6-12: Frequency Division Multiplexing (FDM) in Microwave Transmission Box Microwave provides Point-to-point Terrestrial Transmission

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6-13: Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC): Bandpass Filtering and Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Box

For telephone transmission, a filter at the end office switch Bandpass filters the voice to fit into 4 kHz channels. Even when microwave is not used, this saves capacity 6-27

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6-13: Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC): Bandpass Filtering and Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Box

0 to 4 kHz More precisely, it cuts off all signal below about 300 Hz and above about 3,400 Hz This gives guard bands below 300 Hz And from 3,400 Hz to 4 Hz Voice still sounds good because most energy is 30 Hz to 3,400 Hz
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6-13: Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC): Bandpass Filtering and Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Box

The signal is Sampled 8,000 Times per second. So each sample Is 1/8000 second

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6-13: Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC): Bandpass Filtering and Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Box

In each sampling period, only the amplitude of the signal Is sampled

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6-13: Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC): Bandpass Filtering and Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Box

The filter can distinguish 256 loudness levels. Each loudness level is represented as a binary number between 0 and 255. 0 = 00000000 1 = 00000001 255=11111111

This requires one octet of storage per sample.


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6-13: Analog-to-Digital Conversion (ADC): Bandpass Filtering and Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) Box

This sampling method, which is called pulse code modulation (PCM), produces 8 bits per sample. Times 8,000 samples per second this means 64 kbps per conversation

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6-14: Digital-to-Analog Conversion (DAC)


Box

Signals arriving from the PSTN are digital. The DAC converts the 8 bits of each sample into a loudness level. Not smooth, but sounds smooth at 8,000 samples/second.
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Cellular Telephony

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6-15: Cellular Technology


Customer has a mobile phone. A city is divided into small geographic regions called cells. Each cell has a cellsite with an antenna and equipment to serve mobile phones in the cell

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6-15: Cellular Telephony


Cellsites

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6-15: Cellular Technology

A mobile telephone switching office (MTSO) coordinates activity among the cellsites. The MTSO also connects mobile customers with wired PSTN customers via a POP.

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6-15: Cellular Technology


New

Cellsites connect to the MTSO using a landline or a point-to-point radio system called microwave. Here is a microwave dish. It is covered with cloth, which does not interfere with radio transmission.

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6-15: Cellular Technology


Channels can be reused in different cells. This permits more customers to be served. Serving more customers through channel reuse Is the whole reason for cellular service.

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6-15: Cellular Technology


GSM cellular technology cannot use the same channel in adjacent cells. CDMA can use the same channel in adjacent cells, providing more channel reuse and so more customers.

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6-15: Cellular Technology


When a mobile phone travels between cells, it is handed off to the cellsite in the new cell. In this figure, there is handoff between the cellsite in Cell O and the cellsite in Cell P.

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6-15: Cellular Technology

In handoff, a mobile phone moves from one cell to another cell in the same city. In roaming, a mobile phone is taken to a different city.

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6-16: Handoff and Roaming in 802.11 Wireless Networking and Cellular Telephony

802.11 WLANs

Cellular Telephony

Relationship
Handoffs (means the same in both)

Handoff and roaming mean the same thing


Wireless host travels between access points in an organization

Handoff and roaming mean different things


Mobile phone travels between cellsites in the same city Mobile phone travels to a different city

Roaming Wireless host travels (means different between access points things) in an organization

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Voice over IP (VoIP)

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6-17: Voice over IP (VoIP)


In voice over IP (VoIP), calls are digitized, packetized, and transported over an IP network: either an internal IP network or the Internet.

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6-17: Voice over IP (VoIP)


The user either has a PC with multimedia hardware and VoIP software or an IP telephone that can be plugged into an IP network via a wall jack. Either must have a codec

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6-17: Voice over IP (VoIP)


A media gateway connects a VoIP network to the PSTN. This gives VoIP users access To PSTN users. The media gateway must translate between both signaling technology and transport technology.

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VoIP
VoIP means that a firm does not have to maintain two networksan IP network for data and a circuitswitched voice network.
This should reduce costs considerably by only requiring the maintenance of a single network.

In addition, VoIPs packet switching should be more efficient than the PSTNs circuit switching.
But companies have concerns about sound quality and the high availability expected of telephone service.
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6-18: VoIP Signaling and Transport

Again, signaling is the transmission of supervisory messages. Transport is the actual transmission of voice.

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6-18: VoIP Signaling and Transport

The most popular SIGNALING protocol in VoIP is SIP. This figure shows how a sender initiates a connection using SIP. The initiator sends a SIP INVITE message to its SIP proxy server. The initiators SIP proxy server passes the INVITE to the receivers server. The receivers SIP proxy server passes the INVITE to the receiver. If the receiver accepts the INVITE, the conversation begins.
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6-18: VoIP Signaling and Transport


VoIP transport consists of a stream of VoIP packets. Each VoIP packet contains a short amount codec-encoded voice. There is no time to wait for error correction, so UDP is used. The Real Time Protocol (RTP) header fixes weaknesses of UDP. First, the RTP has a sequence number to place packets in order. Second, RTP has a time stamp so that the voice steam can be played back at the correct time.

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6-19: VoIP Codecs


Codec G.711 G.721 G.722 G.722.1 G.723 G.723.1A G.726 Transmission Rate 64 kbps 32 kbps 48, 56, 64 kbps 24, 32 kbps 5.33, 6.4 kbps 5.3, 6.3 kbps 16, 24, 32, 40 kbps Generally, more compression gives lower sound quality but lowers transmission cost 6-52 The two phones must use the same codec to encode and decode voice. They must agree on one of several standard codec protocols through negotiation.

G.728
G.729AB

16 kbps
8 kbps

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Wired Last Mile Services


Telephone Modems

ADSL Modem Service


Cable Modem Service Fiber to the Home
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6-20: Traditional Technologies for the Last Mile


The Last Mile
The access line to your home
Traditionally, a 1-pair VG UTP line from the telephone company

In the 1960s, a few businesses started getting 2-pair data-grade UTP and optical fiber
Given the cost of upgrading the 1-pair VG UTP plant, 1pair VG UTP seemed eternal

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6-20: Traditional Technologies for the Last Mile


Telephone Service and Cable TV
1950s brought cable television service
Used coaxial cable with a central wire and a coaxial conductive ring or mesh

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6-20: Traditional Technologies for the Last Mile


Telephone Service and Cable TV
A static situation emerged
Telephone companies controlled broadcast telephone service Cable companies controlled television delivery service

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6-20: Traditional Technologies for Data Transmission in the Last Mile


Telephone modems
Convert digital computer signals to analog and send these over the telephone access line
They also convert incoming analog signals into digital signals for the computer
Digital Computer Signal: 1011001101010 Analog Telephone Signal:

Telephone Modem

Telephone Line 6-57

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6-20: Traditional Technologies for the Last Mile


Telephone modems
Limited to 33.6 kbps sending / 56 kbps receiving
Cannot use your telephone for calls while using the telephone modem

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6-21: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)

ADSL

Like telephone modems, ADSL also uses the existing 1-pair voice-grade UTP line going to the home; but it offers higher speeds than telephone modems
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Telephone Modems and ADSL


Both use the 1-pair VG UTP line running to the subscribers home
Already installed, so no extra cost of running a new line

Telephone modems send analog signals


This is what the traditional telephone system expects

ADSL
Send digital signals for data (digital subscriber line) Requires special equipment at the end office switch (DSLAM)
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6-21: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)

Unlike telephone modem services, ADSL provides simultaneous voice and data. The phone line is not tied up
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6-21: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)

Speed is asymmetric. Faster downstream (to home) speed than upstream (from the home) speed. This is ideal for World Wide Web downloads. Speeds are increasing rapidly in both directions.
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6-21: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)

Home user needs a splitter for each telephone outlet


Connects a phone to the splitter voice port Connects an ADSL modem To the splitter data port

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6-21: Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL)

End office switch needs a DSLAM (DSL access multiplexer)


Connects voice calls to the PSTN Connects data calls to a data network

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6-22: Cable Modem Service

Cable Modem

Cable modem service is provided by the cable television company, not by a telephone company Generally is faster than ADSL but also more expensive
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6-22: Cable Modem Service

Optical fiber brings signals to and from the neighborhood. Thick coaxial cables carry signals in the neighborhood.
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6-22: Cable Modem Service

Thin coaxial drop cables carry signals from the trunk cable to individual residences. Subscriber needs a cable modem to receive data service. 6-67

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ADSL Versus Cable Modem Service


Generally, cable modem service is somewhat faster and more expensive than ADSL service
However, price and performance ranges overlap And performance is increasing rapidly

In cable modem service, all subscribers in a neighborhood must share the speed
However, cable modem speed to the neighborhood is very high, so cable modem subscribers usually still get higher-than-ADSL speeds And other subscribers cannot read a subscribers transmissions, which are encrypted
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Fiber to the Home


Some carriers are beginning to replace their 1-pair voice grade UTP residential wiring with optical fiber This is called fiber to the home or fiber to the premises

Download speeds of 100 Mbps or more


Substantially more expensive than DSL service

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Wireless Access Service


Figure 6-23: Wireless Technologies for the Last Mile

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6-23: Wireless for the Last Mile


3G Cellular Data Transmission
2G cellular service was for voice, texting, and photographs Could send data via a cellular modem, but only at 10 kbps

3G cellular was created to send data faster Most current services offer low DSL speeds at higher prices 2 Mbps to 3 Mbps speeds are even more expensive Consumer usage is dominating with downloading music, videos, and games
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6-23: Wireless for the Last Mile


Cellular companies are using many 3G technologies Cellular companies are introducing faster 4G service
100 Mbps or more mobile (up to 1Gbps for stationary applications)
Beginning to converge on Long-Term Evolution (LTE)

Is IP-based

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6-23: Wireless for the Last Mile


More about 4G networks:
Long Term Evolution (LTE) is a 4G wireless broadband technology developed by the Third Generation Partnership Project (3GPP), an industry trade group
4G uses orthogonal frequency-division multiplexing (OFDM) for speed When fully implemented, 4G is expected to enable pervasive computing - a mobile broadband solution to laptop computer wireless modems, smartphones, and other mobile devices including ultra-broadband Internet access, IP telephony, gaming services, and streamed multimedia
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6-23: Wireless for the Last Mile


WiMAX Metropolitan Area Networks
Designed to compete with DSL, cable modem service, and 3G and 4G cellular service Designed to serve a metropolitan area Users can get service anywhere, not just at hotspots

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6-23: Wireless for the Last Mile


WiMAX Metropolitan Area Networks
Promises to be faster than 3G service at lower cost
Beginning with 1 to 4 Mbps and will be faster Mobile subscribers with omnidirectional antennas will receive speeds at the lower end Fixed subscribers in homes will have directional antennas and speeds will be at the higher end

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6-23: Wireless for the Last Mile


WiMAX Metropolitan Area Networks
Standards created by the WiMAX Forum WiMAX depends on the IEEE 802.16 standard but goes beyond it A single MAC-layer standard for all service bands between 2 GHz to 11 GHz WiMAX forum is initially developing profiles for the 2.3, 2.5, 3.5, and 5.8 GHz licensed bands WiMAX carriers want licensed bands for higher quality service
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6-23: Wireless for the Last Mile


WiMAX Metropolitan Area Networks
Uses advanced technologies Scalable OFDM, MIMO, adaptive antennas systems (AAS) that do beam forming, and cellular organization for its base stations
WiMAX technology provides high-quality service TDM gives each subscriber its fair share of the capacity

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6-23: Wireless for the Last Mile


Satellite Access Service
Very expensive because of long transmission distance to satellites Hundreds to thousands of miles from the user site One-way transmission, which is used in television delivery, is not too expensive Two-way data transmission is complex and therefore expensive
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The Market Situation

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6-24: The Market Situation


The Triple Play
The goal of access carriers Telephony companies Cable television companies Wireless access companies
Provide telephony, data, and video in a package Video is the hardest

People want multiple incoming TV signals They also want HDTV


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6-24: The Market Situation


The International Situation
United States ranks 16th internationally in broadband speed and availability
Korea and Japan provide 50 Mbps speeds or faster at prices comparable to U.S. prices (for lower speeds) Leadership in speed brings leadership in applications

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Topics Covered

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Telecommunications
Access Lines
For residences, 1-pair voice-grade UTP

DSL uses existing residential access lines to carry data by changing the electronics at each end (DSL modem in the home and DSLAM at the end office switch) DSL is cheap because 1-p VG UTP is already in place
For businesses, 2-pair data-grade UTP for speeds up to a few Mbps

Optical fiber for faster speeds Usually must be pulled into place, so expensive
Coming: fiber to the home (FTTH)
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PSTN Transmission
Circuit Switching
Reserved capacity end-to-end
Acceptable for voice, but not for bursty data transmission Dial-up and leased line circuits

Analog and Digital Transmission


Analog signals on the local loop ADC and DAC at the end office switch

ADC: bandpass filtering and sampling for 64 kbps


DAC: sample values are converted to sound levels
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Cellular Telephony
Cells Allow Channel Reuse
Channel reuse allows more customers to be served with a limited number of channels

GSM: most widely used technology for cellular telephony CDMA for greater channel reuse, growing in popularity (especially frequency-hopping code division
multiple access FH-CDMA)

Handoffs and Roaming


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VoIP
To allow voice to be carried over data networks

Converge voice and data networks


Phone or users computer contains a codec

Transport: UDP header followed by RTP header


Signaling: H.323 and SIP

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Last Mile Services


Wired Access
Telephone Modems Asymmetric Digital Subscriber Line (ADSL) Cable Modem Service Fiber to the home

Wireless Access
3G and 4G Cellular Data Service

WiMAX (based on 802.16 and 802.16e)


Satellite service (expensive and so rare)
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The Market Situation


Triple Play
Traditional telephone companies, cable companies, and even wireless companies want to provide voice, data, and television

International Situation
U.S. is not a leader in broadband data service or cellular telephone service

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End Of Lesson 6
For next meeting: Read Chapter 7 in the textbook Prepare Group Activity 7A (Current Event)

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