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Primary Objectives of Food Sanitation

Definition of Food Sanitation

Factors to consider to keep the food safe

Sources of food contamination

Classification of food borne illnesses Food borne hazards Fundamentals in Microbiology



To prevent spoilage of food and additional food cost To prevent food borne illnesses thus ensuring the safety of consumers Increase sales and patronage of customers

FOOD SANITATION is more than just cleanliness.

It includes all practices involved in protecting food from risk of contamination, harmful bacteria, poisons and foreign bodies.

Preventing any bacteria from multiplying to an extent which would result in illness of consumers. Destroying any harmful bacteria in the food by thorough cooking or processing.

1. Microbiological quality of food when purchased and the time-temperature control during its storage, preparation and service
2. Personal hygiene 3. Cleanliness of the facilities and equipment


is the presence of substances or conditions in food that can be harmful to humans. contamination occurs when microbes from raw foods are transferred to cooked or readyto-eat foods by contaminated hands, equipments and utensils.


2. 3. 4. 5.


Air, water and soil Food handlers Ingredients Food contact surfaces Animals, rodents and insects Packaging material

1. Food borne infection caused by eating food that contains living disease microorganisms (e.g. Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella bacteria )

2. Food borne intoxication caused by eating food that contains a harmful chemical or toxin produced by bacteria or other source ( e.g. Botulism caused by Clostridium botulinum )

3. Toxin-mediated infection caused by eating food that contains harmful microorganisms that will produce a toxin once inside the human body

Onset time number of hours between a time a person eats contaminated food and when they first show symptoms of the disease Factors: age body weight health status amount of toxin

1. Biological hazard caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites and fungi 2. Chemical hazard toxic substances which may occur naturally or added during processing in food

3. Physical hazard hard or soft foreign objects that can cause illness or injury

1. Beneficial bacteria

Kinds of bacteria

2. Undesirable bacteria
causes food spoilage

Food production Production of certain medicines and drugs

3. Disease causing bacteria or pathogens


Lag phase slow growth Log phase rapid growth Stationary rate of production = death Decline period of death




1. Food

2. pH level

In general, disease-producing bacteria like a neutral environment. Aerobic Anaerobic Facultative

3. Oxygen

4. Moisture
Water activity is a measure of the amount of water that is not bound to the food and is therefore available for bacterial growth .

5. Time
Bacteria needed about 4 hours to grow to high enough numbers to cause diseases.

6. Temperature

1. Psychrophilic - multiply a both room and refrigerated temperature 2. Mesophilic multiply at human body temperature 3. Thermophilic multiply above 1100F

A potentially hazardous food is any food or ingredient that will support the rapid growth of harmful bacteria.
Some examples are as follows:

Any food of animal origin - All meats (red meat, poultry, fish, shellfish, crustaceans, etc.), eggs, milk and dairy products;

Any food of plant origin that has been heat treated and has a history of foodborne disease potatoes, squash, pumpkin, rice, refried beans, mushrooms, onions, tofu; any untreated food of plant origin with a history of foodborne disease - seed sprouts, cut melons, tightly wrapped produce such as mushrooms and coleslaw
Synthetic foods (unless laboratory evidence proves otherwise) - artificial cream filling


Protection Against Bacteria

1. Stop bacteria from getting into food

1. 2. 3. 4.

Defrosting or thawing Food preparation Cooking / production Keeping food out of the temperature danger zone 5. Holding foods 6. Cleaning* and sanitizing**

If in Doubt Throw It out


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