=


load W where
5)  (12 tan
x
axial
W W
t x
=
Bevel gears
Refer to chapter 10 to review the formulas for the
three components of the total force on bevel gear
teeth in the tangential, radial, and axial directions.
Worms and wormgear
Chapter 10 also gives the formulas for computing
the forces on worms and wormgears in the
tangential, radial, and axial directions.
Chain sprockets
The upper part of the chain is in tension,referred to the tight side,
and produces the torque on either sprocket.
The lower part of the chain, referred to as the slack side, exerts no
force on either sprocket.
Forces in chain
sprocket the of diameter pitch D where
6)  (12 ) 2 / /(
=
= D T F
c
Fc acts along the direction of the tight side of the chain.
Because of the size difference between the two sprockets, that
direction is at some angle from the centerline between the
shaft centers. A precise analysis would call for the force,Fc, to
be resolved into components parallel to the centerline and
perpendicular to it. That is
u u sin F F and cos
c cy
= =
c cx
F F
Where the angle u is the angle of inclination of the tight side of the
chain with respect to the xdirection
These two components of the force would cause bending
in both the xdirection and the ydirection. Alternatively,
the analysis could be carried out in the direction of the
force Fc, in which single plane bending occurs.
If the angle u is small, little error will result from the
assumption that the entire force, Fc, acts along the x
direction. Unless stated otherwise, this book will use this
assumption.
Vbelt sheaves
Both sides of the Vbelt are in tension. The tight side
tension,F1, is greater than the slack side tension,F2, and
thus there is a net driving force on the sheaves equal to
8)  (12 ) 2 / /( F
ed transmitt torque the from computed be can
force driving net the of magnitude the
7)  (12
N
2 1
D T
F F F
N
=
=
But notice that the bending force on the shaft carrying the
sheave is dependent on the sum,
B
F F F = +
2 1
But unless the two sprockets are radically different in diameter,
little error will result from
2 1
F F F
B
+ =
To determine the bending force,FB, a second equation involving
the two forces F1 and F2 is needed. This is provided by assuming a
ratio of the tight side tension to the slack side tension. For vbelt
drives, the ratio is normally taken to be
5 /
2 1
= F F
A relationship between FN and FB is derived as following:
11)  (12
F
F
C
determined be o constant t C where
10)  (12
2 1
2 1
N
B
F F
F F
CF F
N B
+
= =
=
=
From equation (129), then
C=1.5
FB=1.5FN=1.5T/(D/2) (1212)
Flatbelt pulleys
The analysis of the bending force exerted on shafts by flat
belt pulleys is identical to that for Vbelt sheaves except
that the ratio of the tight side to the slack side tension is
typically taken to be 3 instead of 5. Using the same logic as
with Vbelt sheaves, we can compute the constant C to be
2.0, then for flatbelt drives.
13)  (12 ) 2 / /( 0 . 2 0 . 2 D T F F
N B
= =
Flexible coupling
More detailed discussion of flexible coupling was
presented in chapter11.
A flexible coupling is used to transmit power
between shafts while accommodating minor
misalignment in the radial, angular, or axial
directions. Thus, the shafts adjacent to the
couplings are subjected to torsion, but the
misalignment cause no axial or bending loads.
124 stress concentrations in shafts
In order to mount and locate the several types of machine
elements on shafts properly, a final design typically
contains several diameter,keyseats,ring grooves, and other
geometry discontinuities that create stress concentrations.
These stress concentrations must be taken into account
during the design analysis. But a problem exists because
the true design values of the stress concentration factors,Kt,
are known at the start of the design process. Most of the
values are dependent on the diameters of the shaft and on
the fillet and groove geometries, and these are the
objectives of the design.
You can overcome this dilemma by establishing a
set of preliminary design values for commonly
encountered stress concentration factors, which can
be used to produce initial estimates for the
minimum acceptable shaft diameters.
Then you can analyze the final geometry to
determine the real values for stress concentration
factors after the refined dimensions are selected.
Comparing the final values with the preliminary
values will enable you to judge the acceptability of
the design.Figures A151 and A154.
preliminary design values for Kt
Considered here are the types of geometric discontinuities
most often found in powertransmitting shafts: keyseats,
shoulder fillets, and retaining ring grooves. In each case, a
suggested design value is relatively high in order to
produce a conservative result for the first approximation to
the design.
The final design should be checked for safety. That is , if
the final value is less than the original design value, the
design is still safe. Conversely, the stress analysis must be
checked.
keyseats
A keyseat is a longitudinal groove cut into a shaft for the
mounting of a key,permitting the transfer of torque from
the shaft to a powertransmitting element, or vice versa.
Two types of keyseats are most frequently used: profile
and sled runner.
The profile keyseat is milled into the shaft, using an end
mill having a diameter equal to the width of the key. The
resulting groove is flatbottomed and has a sharp, square
corner at its end. The sled runner keyseat is produced by a
circular cutter having a width equal to the width of the key.
As the cutter begins or ends the keyseat, it produces a
smooth radius. For this reason, the stress concentration
factor for the sled runner keyseat is lower than that for the
profile keyseat.
Normally used design values are
runner) (sled 6 . 1 K
(profile) 0 . 2
t
=
=
t
K
Each of these is to be applied to the bending stress calculation for
the shaft, using the full diameter of the shaft. The factors take into
account both the reduction in cross section and the effect of the
discontinuity.
See reference 5
Shoulder fillets ()
When a change in diameter occurs in a shaft to create a
shoulder against which to locate a machine element, a
stress concentration dependent on the ratio of the two
diameters and on the radius in the fillet is produced. It is
recommended that the fillet radius be as large as possible
to minimize the stress concentration.
We can classify fillets into two categories: sharp and well
rounded, sharp describes a shoulder with a relatively small
fillet radius.
We use the following values for design for bending:
) fillet ( 5 . 1
) fillet ( 5 . 2
rounded well K
sharp K
t
t
=
=
Referring to the chart for stress concentration factors in figure
A151,these values correspond to ratio of r/d of
approximately 0.03 for the sharp fillet case and 0.17 for the
wellrounded for a D/d ratio of 1.50
Retaining ring grooves
Retaining rings are used for many types of locating tasks in
shaft applications. The rings are installed in grooves in the
shaft after the element to be retained is in place. The
geometry of the groove is dictated by the ring
manufacturer. Its usual configuration is a shallow groove
with straight side walls and bottom and a small fillet at the
base of the groove. The behavior of the shaft in the vicinity
of the groove can be approximated by considering two
sharpfilleted shoulders positioned close together. Thus,
the stress concentration factor for a groove is fairly high.
When bending exists, we will use Kt =3.0 for
preliminary design as an estimate to account for
the fillets and the reduction in diameter at the
groove to determine the nominal shaft diameter
before the groove is cut.
When torsion exists along with bending, or when only
torsion exists at a section of interest, the stress
concentration factor is not applied to the torsional
shear stress component because it is steady.
To account for the decrease in diameter at the
groove,increase the resulting computed diameter
by approximately 6%, a typical value for
commercial retaining ring grooves. But after the
final shaft diameter and groove geometry are
specified, the stress in the groove should be
computed with the approximate stress
concentration factor for the groove geometry.
125 design stresses for shafts
In a given shaft, several different stress conditions can exist at
the same time. For any part of the shaft that transmits power,
there will be a torsional shear stress, while bending stress is
usually present on the same parts. There may be other parts
where only bending stresses occur. Some points may not be
subjected to either bending or torsion but will experience
vertical shearing stress. Axial tensile or compressive stresses
may be superimposed on the other stresses. Then there may be
some points where no significant stresses at all are created.
The decision of what design stress to use depends
on the particular situation at the point of interest.
In many shaft design and analysis projects,
computations must be done at several points to
account completely for the variety of loading and
geometry conditions that exist.
Several cases discussed in chapter 5 for computing
design factors,N, are useful for determining design
stresses for shaft design. The bending stresses will
be assumed to be completely reversed and
repeated because of the rotation of the shaft.
Ductile materials perform better under such loads.
Design shear stresssteady torque
The best predictor of failure in ductile materials
due to a steady shear stress was the distortion
energy theory in which the design shear stress in
computed from
shaft. a in stress shear direct or stress, shear vertical
stress, shear sional steady tor for value this use can we
14)  (12 / ) 577 . 0 ( ) 3 /( N s N s
y y d
= = t
Design shear stressreversed vertical shear
Points on a shaft where no torque is applied and where the
bending moments are zero or very low are often subjected
to significant vertical shearing forces which then govern
the design analysis. This typically occurs where a bearing
supports as end of a shaft and where no torque is
transmitted in that part of the shaft.
The stress decreases in a roughly parabolic
manner to zero at the outer surface for the special
case of a solid circular cross section can be
computed from
) 3 / 4 (
, considered be to are factor ion concentrat stress where
section cross the of area A
force shearing vertical V
3 / 4
max
max
A V K
where
A V
t
=
=
=
=
t
t
15)  (12
) (
433 . 0
) 4 (
) 3 ( 0.577S
N
gives N for
577 . 0
3
) 4 ( K
gives , 3 / ) 4 (
let
/ 577 . 0
is this stress, design a as exp
/ 577 . 0
577 . 0 s
is shear in strength endurance then the
recommed is ory energy the distortion the
15)  (5 /
' '
n
'
t
max
'
d
max
'
' '
sn
max
'
V k
s
V K
A
solving
N
s
A
V
A V k
now
N s
ressed
s N
then
s
s N
t
n
t
n
t d
n
n
n
sn
= =
=
= =
=
=
=
=
t t
t
t
t
Now, solving for the required area gives
16)  (12 / ) ( 94 . 2
4 / D A
diameter. required the determine to
shaft the of design the is objective usual our
) ( 31 . 2
433 . 0
) (
'
2
' '
n t
n
t
n
t
S N V K D
but
s
N V K
S
N V K
A
=
=
= =
t
This equation should be used to compute the required
diameter for a shaft where a vertical shearing force V is the
only significant loading present. In most shafts, the
resulting diameter will be much smaller than that required
at other parts of the shaft where significant values of
torque and bending moment occur.
Also, practical considerations may require that shaft be
somewhat larger than the computed minimum to
accommodate a reasonable bearing at the place where the
shearing force is equal to the radial load on the bearing.
But values for vertical shearing stress are rarely reported.
As an approximation, we will use the values for Kt for
torsional shear stress when using these equations.
Design normal stressfatigue loading
For the repeated,reversed bending in a shaft caused
by transverse loads applied to the rotating shaft, the
design stress is related to the endurance strength of
the shaft material. The actual conditions under
which the shaft is manufactured and operated should
be considered when specifying the design stress.
Procedure for computing estimated endurance
strength and design stress
1.determine the ultimate tensile strength of the
material,su,from test results,supplier specifications, or
published data. The most accurate and reliable data
available should be used. When there is doubt about the
accuracy of the data, larger thanaverage design factors
should be used.
Determine the estimated endurance strength,sn, of the
material from figure 59, recall that the data in this figure
consider the manner in which the shaft is produced in
addition to the relationship between the basic endurance
strength and the ultimate strength. If the ultimate strength
is higher than the limit of figure 59, use the values for
su=220Ksi.
3. Apply a size factor Cs to account for the stress
gradient within the material and for the probability
of a given section having a damaging occlusion that
can serve as a place for initiation of a fatigue crack.
19 . 0
s
19 . 0
s
068 . 0
s
068 . 0
s
85 . 1 C
mm) in (D than250mm less diameters
C
inches) in (D 10in than less diameters
) 6 . 7 / ( C
mm) in (D 50mm than less diameters
) 3 . 0 / ( C
Inches) in (D in 2.0 than less diameter
=
=
=
=
D
f or
D
f or
D
f or
D
f or
Table 121 reliability factors, CR
Desired reliability Reliability factor,CR
0.50 1.00
0.90 0.90
0.99 0.81
0.999 0.75
4. Apply a reliability factor,CR. Endurance strength data
typically reported are average values over many tests, thus
implying a reliability of 0.50 (50%). Assuming that the actual
failure data follow a normal distribution, the factors from table
121 can be used to adjust for higher levels of reliability.
Any stress concentration factor will be accounted for in the design
equation developed later. Other factors, not consideration here, that
could have an adverse effect on the endurance strength of the shaft
material, and therefore on the design stress, are temperatures above
approximately 400F(200C);variation in peak stress levels above
the nominal endurance strength for some periods of
time;vibration;residual stresses; case hardening; interference fits;
corrosion; thermal cycling; plating or surface coating; and stresses
not accounted for in the basic stress analysis.
5. Compute
6. For parts of the shaft subjected to only reversed
bending, let the design stress be
R s n n
C C s s =
'
17)  (12 /
'
N s
n d
= o
Design factor,N
Under typical industrial conditions, the design
factor of N=3 is recommended. If the application
is very smooth, a value as low as N=2 may be
justified. Under conditions of shock or
impact,N=4 or higher should be used, and careful
testing is advised.
126 shafts in bending and torsion only
Examples of shafts subjected to bending and torsion only
are those carrying spur gears, vbelt sheaves, or chain
sprockets. The power being transmitted causes the torsion,
and the transverse forces on the elements cause bending. In
the general case, the transverse forces do not all act in the
same plane. In such cases, the bending moment diagrams
for two perpendicular planes are prepared first. Then the
resultant bending moment at each point of interest is
determined.
A design equation is now developed based on the
assumption that the bending stress in the shaft is
repeated and reversed as the shaft rotates, but that
the torsional shear stress is nearly uniform. The
design equation is based on the principle shown
graphically in figure 1210 in which the vertical
axis is the ratio of the reversed bending stress to
the endurance strength of the material. The
horizontal axis is the ratio of the torsional shear
stress to the yield strength of the material in shear.
The points having the value of 1.0 on these axes indicate
impending failure in pure bending or pure torsion,
respectively.experimental data show that failure under
combinations of bending and torsion roughly follows the
curve connecting these two points, which obeys the
following equation:
1 ) / 3 ( ) /s N (k
only, first term in the bending for factor ion concentrat stress a int ,
1 ) / 3 ( ) /s (N
then
ory. energy the distorsion for the 3 / s use will we
18)  (12 1 ) / ( ) / (
2 2 '
n t
2 2 '
n
ys
2 2 '
= +
= +
=
= +
y
y
y
ys n
s N
roduce then
s N
s
s s
t o
t o
t o
T/(2S)
therefore
modulus section polar the is 16 / Z where
21)  (12 T/Z
is stress shear torsional the
modulus. section recangular the is 32 / D S
where
20)  (12 M/S
is M, moment, bending a to due stress bending the
shafts, circular solid, rotating,
3
p
p
3
=
=
=
=
=
t
t
t
t
o
D
f or
Substituting these relationships into equation(1219) gives
24)  (12
4
3 32
[
32 / S let
22)  (12 1 ]
2
3
[ ] [
3
2
2
'
3
2 2
'
(
(
+
(
=
=
= +
y n
t
y n
t
s
T
s
M k N
D
D
Ss
NT
Ss
NM K
t
t
128 recommended basic shafts
In U.S. Customary Unit System,diameter are usually
specified to be common fractions or their decimal ()
equivalents.
Appendix 2 lists the preferred basic sizes that you can use
for dimensions over which you have control in decimal
inch, fractionalinch, and metric units.
1
1
 
T
T
T
n d
P
W
T
t t s
~ =
3
6
3
2 . 0
10 55 . 9
10
MPa 713
t
T
MPaT
NmW
T
mm
3
n
rpmPkWd
mmt
T
MPa81
   
3 3
3
6
3
6
2 . 0
10 55 . 9
2 . 0
10 55 . 9
n
P
A
n
P
n
P
d
T T
=
>
t t
 
T
A
3
6
2 . 0 / 10 55 . 9 t =
81
t
T
At
T
A
3%7%
714
=d
1
/dd
1
d
2
431
M
ca
2 2
) ( T M M
ca
o + =
715
o
0.30.6
1.0
7
M
ca
  MPa
W
T M
W
M
ca
ca 1
2 2
) (
s
+
= = o
o
o
Wmm
3
82
o
1

3
1
S
ca
S
S
S S
S S
S
ca
>
+
=
2 2
t o
t o
717
S
K
S
m a
>
+
=
o o
o
o o
o
1
S
K
S
m a
>
+
=
t t
t
t t
t
1