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Cognitive Psychology

Mental representations of information and knowledge

Learning / Conditioning
Definition Demonstrated by a Relatively Permanent Chang in behavior that occurs as the result of practice or experience. Thorndike introduces the Laws of Learning Law of Exercise: i.e. Practice makes man perfect Law of Effect: i.e. the effects of learning. Positive Regard Law of Readiness: i.e. A persons will mentally/physically for the exercise


Learning by Modeling e.g. ? Learning by Insight e.g.? Learning by Trial & Error e.g.? Learning by Conditioning A. Classical Conditioning B. Operant Conditioning Conditioning:
Relation ship between two or more than two stimulus that brings Association


A. Food (US)

B. Bell (CS)

B. Saliva (UR)

Bell (CS)

Saliva (CR)

A. Food

C. Saliva

Classical Conditioning
Learning in which an originally neutral stimulus comes to evoke a new response after having been paired with a stimulus that reflexively evokes that same response Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS) A stimulus (food) that reflexively and reliable evokes a response (UCR) Unconditioned Response (UCR) A response (Salivation) reliably and reflexively evoked by a stimulus (UCS) Conditioned Stimulus (CS) An originally neutral stimulus (Bell) that, when paired with an UCS, comes to evoke a new response (CR) Conditioned Response(CR) The learned response (Salivation) evoked by the CS after conditioning

Behaviors that operate on the environment to produce reinforcement or punishment

Operant Conditioning Changing the rate of a response on the basis of the consequences that result from that response Positive and Negative Reinforcement Reward and Punishment

Difference between Classical and Operant Conditioning

1. In OC the stimulus that leads to a Voluntary Response is really just a Cue --- It does not evokes the response in the same way as unconditioned stimulus evokes an unconditioned response.

2. An Operant Response is Voluntary not the Reflex-Type of Response as in Classical Conditioning.

Definition: The Cognitive ability to encode, store, and retrieve information Stages of Memory A. Encoding: The active process of putting information into memory B. Storage: The process of holding encoded information in memory until the time of retrieval C. Retrieval: The process of locating, removing and using information that is stored in memory


Types of Memory
Sensory Memory:
The type of memory that holds large amount of information registered at the senses for very brief periods of time of information and limited duration 15-20 seconds)

Short-term Memory A type of memory with limited capacity (7+ - 2 bits

Long-term Memory A type of memory with virtually unlimited capacity
and very long, if not permanent, duration

Theories of Forgetting

Decay Theory:

Involvement of Decay that fade the information day by day Interference Theory: New information can interrupt the old information if there is no rehearsal or recall. Motivated Forgetting: A loss of memory in case of painful experiences that creates anxiety Retrograde Amnesia: Loss of memory due to trauma and the material can not be retrieved before 10 minutes of the trauma Anterograde Amnesia: Loss of memory due to trauma and the material after trauma cant be recalled Alzimers Disease: Degeneration of brain cells

Improving Memory
1. Mnemonic System (by. Marcus Tullius Cicero 106-143 B.C)
Method of making associations between stimulus. e.g. in words, places and organization

2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Law of Priority (Previous and Latest Information) Education and Experience Interest Short VS Long Material Meaningful VS Meaningless