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INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY

The study of Biology


The word Biology comes from Greek Words bios and logos

Bios meanslife
Logos means study BIOLOGY is the study of life or living things.

Living things are also called organisms

Living thing organisms share certain common characteristic


The scope of Biology is very wide It comprises the study of biosphere to the study of the microscopic world of cells and molecules

COMMON CHARACTERISTICS
Growth Organisms develop and increase in size and weight when they grow.

Movement

animals are able to move from one place to another (locomotion). Plants or plant parts move in response to stimuli.
Living organisms need food for growth and to carry out daily activities. Plants make their own food when they photosynthesise. Animals depend on plants or other kinds of animals for food.

Nutrition (feeding)

Respiration

All living organism respire. They break down the food consumed to release energy for growth, movement, reproduction and other activities.

COMMON CHARACTERISTICS
Excretion Organisms produce waste or toxic products as a result of chemical activities in their bodies. These waste or toxic materials needs to be removed from the organism.
Organism ensure the survival and continuity of their own kind by producing new generations of offspring. Organisms are sensitive and respond to changes in their surroundings (for example, temperature, sound, light and touch).

Reproduction

Sensitivity

The Importance of Biology


The study of Biology enables us to understand living organisms and the environment

Biology also has brought about many benefits

Some of these include :


1 finding cures for diseases 2 saving endangered species 3 understanding how human body functions

Biology enables us to know more about how our bodies work and how other organisms function.
Biological knowledge and techniques could be applied to identify and control diseases by discovering new medicines and treatments Combining the knowledge acquired in biology with technology; we could improve agricultural methods for better quality agricultural products and increase food production.

The different fields of study in Biology


Biology is also a subject related to other fields of science such as a Chemistry, Physics and information Technology.

Relatively new branches of biology include Biophysics and Bioinformatics.

Career Related To Biology


There are many jobs or careers related to biology Students who study Biology can choose from a wide range of career

E.g Doctors, Nurses, Forensic scientists and Nutritions

Biotechnology apply biotechnological knowledge and techniques or use living organisms to develop useful product Biomedical scientist applies biological and principles to clinical practice Bioinformatic applies computer technology to the management of biological information http://alpha.furman.edu/~synder/careers/ careerlist.html

The Scientific Investigation


The learning of biology requires the method of scientific inquiry which involves the use of scientific skills It can divided into two components: 1 science process skills 2 manipulative skills

Science process skills are critical, analytical and creative thinking skill which enable a scientist to formulate questions and find out the answers and explanations to a phenomenon in a systematic manner Manipulative skills are psychomotor skill that enable scientists to carry out a scientific investigation

The scientific method


Biologists use a variety of methods in their investigations. The scientific method is often used in investigations. Many process skills can be demonstrated when using this systematic approach.

The scientific method usually consists of the following basic steps:


Identifying a problem Forming a hypothesis Planning an investigation Identifying and controlling variables Conducting the experiment Collecting data or experimental results Recording data Analysing and interpreting data Making conclusion. Writing a report

How to write a report?

Scientific attitudes and noble values


Besides having good scientific skills, biologist must possess good scientific attitudes and noble values in order to be successful in his studies and research.

Some of these attitudes and values are as follow :

Having an interest and curiosity towards the environment. Being honest and accurate in recording and validating data. Being diligent and persevering. Being responsible about the safety of oneself, others and the environment. Realizing that science is a mean to understanding nature. Appreciating the balance of nature.

Appreciating the contribution of science and technology. Being respectful, well-mannered and cooperative. Having critical and analytical thinking. Being flexible and open-minded. Being kind-hearted and caring. Being objective, rational and systematic. Daring to try. Being confident and independent.