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Laser Anemometry

P M V Subbarao
Professor
Mechanical Engineering Department
True Measurement of Industrial Flows..
Importance of Turbulence
Measurement
I.C. Engine Design: A case Study
SI Engine : Mixture Burn Time
How does the flame burn all the mixture in the cylinder in the time available,
especially at high engine speeds?
l
comb
S
B
t
2 /
=
B
S
l
: Laminar Flame velocity
It is impossible to build an engine which runs more than 100 rpm with
laminar flames
s
s cm
cm
t
comb
2 . 0
/ 25
5
=
Turbulent Flames
Turbulent flames are essential for operation of high speed engines.
Turbulent flames are characterized by rms velocity flucuation, the
turbulence intensity, and the length scales of turbulent flow ahead of flame.
The integral length scale l
i
is a measure of the size of the large energy
containing sturctures of the flow.
The Kolmogrov scale l
k
defines the smallest structure of the flow where
small-scale kinetic energy is dissipated via molecular viscosity.
Important dimensionless parameters:
v
i rms
T
l u
= Re
rms
i
T
u
l
= t
Turbulent Reynolds Number:
Eddy turnover time:
Characteristic Chemical Reaction Time:
L
L
L
S
o
t =
The ratio of the characteristic eddy time to the laminar burning
time is called the Damkohler Number Da.
|
|
.
|

\
|

|
|
.
|

\
|
= =
rms
L
L
i
L
T
u
S l
Da
o t
t
Regimes of Turbulent Flame
Da
Re
1
10
8

10
-4
10
8

Weak Turbulence
Reaction Sheets
Distributed Reactions
In-Cylinder Motion & Turbulence
Gas motion within the engine cylinder is one of the major factors that
controls:
The combustion process in SI engines
The fuel-air mixing and combustion processes in Diesel engine.
Level of heat transfer.
Gas motion had two major parts: Bulk Motion & Turbulent Motion.
The engine intake process governs many important aspects of the flow
within the cylinder.

Intake Jet Flow: A Single cause of Generation of
Turbulence
Mean and RMS Velocity Fluctuations in intake valve
Control of Turbulence Level
Geometry of manifolds & Valves.
Geometry of Cylinder head.
Geometrical features of Piston head.
Geometrical Details of Injector Location & Orientation.
Optical Windows in IC Engine Cylinders
Laser Anemometry
Laser anemometry, or laser velocimetry, refers to any
technique that uses lasers to measure velocity.
The most common approach uses the Doppler shift principle to
measure the velocity of a flowing fluid at a point and is referred
to as Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) or Laser Doppler
Anemometry (LDA).
Another approach using two nonintersecting, focused laser
beams known as dual focus (also known as L2F) technique is
used to measure flow velocity at a point.
Laser illumination by light sheets is also used to make global
flow measurements and is referred to as particle image
velocimetry (PIV).
The strength of PIV lies in its ability to capture turbulence
structures within the flow and transient phenomena, and
examine unsteady flows.
Laser Doppler Anemometer
The concept of a Doppler shift is familiar to us from the
downshift in pitch that we hear as a siren moves towards
and then away from us.
The faster the moving source of sound, the greater the shift
in frequency.
This effect is also observed with light.
When light is reflected from a moving object, the
frequency of the scattered light is shifted by an amount
proportional to the speed of the object.
It is possible to estimate the speed by observing the
frequency shift.
This is the basis for LDA.
A flow is seeded with small, neutrally buoyant particles
that scatter light.
The particles are illuminated by a known frequency of
laser light.
The scattered light is detected by a photomultiplier tube
(PMT), an instrument that generates a current in proportion
to absorbed photon energy, and then amplifies that current.
The difference between the incident and scattered light
frequencies is called the Doppler shift.

Basic Principle of LDA
Laser Doppler Anemometry
The Doppler shift, f
D
, depends on the speed, V, and direction of
the particle motion, the wavelength of the light, , and the
orientation of the observer.
The orientation of the observer is defined by the angle between
the incident light wave and the photodetector.
The direction of particle motion is defined by , the angle
between the velocity vector and the bisector of ABC.
Then
|
.
|

\
|
=
2
sin cos
2 o
|

V
f
D
A direct way to estimate f
D
is to measure the incident
frequency, f, and the observed frequency, f
O
, and find the
difference.
The Doppler shift is a very small fraction of the incident
frequency, so this results in estimating a small value.
From the difference of two large values, a process with a high
degree of uncertainty.
To improve the estimate of f
D
, a method using two incident
beams has been developed.
In this configuration the incident beam is split into two beams
of equal intensity.
The beams are directed to intersect, and the point of
intersection is the measurement volume.
Particles that pass through the measurement volume scatter
light from both beams.
Let the Doppler shift for the two scattered beams be f
D1
and f
D2.

The scattered beam will have frequencies f + f
D1
and f + f
D2
.

f
D1
and f
D2
are both much smaller than f, the scattered light waves have
nearly equal frequency.
When waves of equal amplitude and nearly equal
frequency are superimposed, the amplitude of the resulting
signal periodically rises and falls.
This modulation is called a beat.
The beat frequency is one half the difference between the
two original frequencies.
Thus, when the two bursts of scattered light are
superimposed within the photodetector, the resulting signal
has a beat with frequency, |f
D1
- f
D2
|/2.
Dual-beam LDA system
Why Bragg Cell?
The technology has numerous advantages over other
techniques.
There is for instance no need for physical contact with the
flow, so no disturbances occur and the technique can be
applied to flows of highly reactive or extremely hot fluids
and the like.
Furthermore a relatively high spatial resolution can be
obtained by focusing the two laser beams.
These characteristics make LDA a valuable measuring
technique with many applications.

r

S
2

S
u

The frequency of the net


(heterodyne) signal output from the
photodetector system
is given by
Alternate Method to Interpret Data
Another useful way to interpret the signal recorded by the
photo detector is in terms of the interference fringe pattern
generated at the beam crossing.
The fringe pattern, consists of alternating zones of
brightness and darkness.
The fringe spacing, d
f
, is the distance between sequential
bright (or dark) zones.
Particle Interaction with Fringes
As a particle crosses the fringe pattern, the intensity of the
scattered light varies with the intensity of the fringes.
Thus, the amplitude of the signal burst varies with
timescale d
f
/V, where V is the velocity component
perpendicular to the fringe pattern.
The frequency of the amplitude modulation is thus,
Schematic of LDA or LDV
2u
d
f
=
0
/2sinu
Particle Image Velocimeter