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Presented by:

NAVINAR SAVAD K.Y S8ECE ROLL NO : 38 DATE: 16/03/2012

OVERVIEW
Introduction

What is Augmented Reality?


Motivation Displays

Characteristics
Registration Errors

Applications
Future Scope Conclusion
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INTRODUCTION
Augmented Reality systems
Combines real and virtual environments.

Interactive in real time.

Registered in 3-D.
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What is Augmented Reality?


Augmented Reality (AR) is a variation of Virtual Reality(VR/VE).
VR completely immerse a user inside a synthetic environment.

AR allows the user to see the real world with virtual objects.
AR supplements reality, rather than completely replacing it. AR can be thought of as the "middle ground between VE

(completely synthetic) and telepresence (completely real).


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A comparison between Reality, Augmented Reality & Virtual Reality

Reality

Augmented Reality

Virtual Reality

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MOTIVATION
AR enhances a users perception of interaction with the real world.
The virtual objects display information that the user cannot

directly detect with his own senses.


The information conveyed by the virtual objects helps a

user perform real-world tasks.


AR is a specific example of what is known as Intelligence

Amplification (IA): using the computer as a tool to make a task easier for a human to perform.
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COMPONENTS OF AR SYSTEMS
AR requires three main subsystems:
Scene Generator. Display Device. Trackers and Sensors.

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DISPLAYS
Optical see-through Head Mounted Display(HMD):
Lets the user see the real world, with virtual objects

superimposed by optical technologies.


Optical combiners are placed in front of users eyes. The combiners are partially transmissive and partially reflective. Reduces the amount of light that the user sees.

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Optical see-through HMD conceptual diagram

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DISPLAYS(contd)
Video see-through Head Mounted Display:

Works by combining a closed view HMD with one or two video cameras. Video cameras provide the user's view of the real world. Video from these cameras is combined with the graphic images created by the scene generator. The result is sent to the monitors in front of the user's eyes in the closed-view HMD.
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Video see-through HMD conceptual diagram

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DISPLAYS(contd)
Monitor based AR :
One or two video cameras view the environment. Cameras may be static or mobile. The video of the real world and the graphic images are combined

and displayed in a monitor in front of the user.


The user does not wear the display device.
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Monitor based AR conceptual diagram

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DISPLAYS(contd)

Some examples of Head Mounted Displays


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Advantages of optical approach over video approach.


Simplicity.

Resolution.
Safety. No eye offset.

Advantages of video approach over optical approach.


Flexibility in composition strategies. Wide field-of-view.

Real and virtual view delays can be matched.


Additional registration strategies.

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TRACKING & SENSING


Augmented Reality demands more from trackers and

sensors in three areas :


Greater input variety and bandwidth
Higher accuracy Longer range
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CHARACTERISTICS
Characteristics of AR systems and design issues encountered

when building an AR system.


Augmentation. Focus

Contrast.
Portability.
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Characteristics: Augmentation
Besides adding objects to a real environment, AR also has the

potential to remove them.


AR might apply to all senses, not just sight. AR could be extended to include sound.

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Characteristics: Focus
Focus can be a problem for both optical and video

components. Ideally the virtual should match the real.


Depending on video cameras depth-of-field (DOF) and

focus settings, parts of the real world may not be in focus.


To overcome this, graphics can be rendered to simulate a

limited DOF, and the video camera can have autofocus lens.
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Characteristics: Contrast
Contrast is a big issue owing to its large dynamic range in real

environments.
The eye is a logarithmic detector simultaneously handling

contrasts varying by 6 orders.


Thus optical devices are usually made dark-tinted to

reduce this range.


For video, everything must be clipped or compressed into

the monitors dynamic range.


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Characteristics: Portability
In VR systems, the user is not encouraged to walk around much.
Instead, the user navigates by "flying" through the environment,

or driving some mockup of a vehicle, etc.


The result is that the user stays in one place in the real world.

Some AR applications need a user to walk around a large area.


"Flying, as performed in a VR system, is no longer an option. Therefore, AR systems places a premium on portability.

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REGISTRATION
One of the most basic problems in AR.
Objects in the real and virtual worlds have to be properly

aligned with respect to each other.


Some applications demand accurate registration., e.g., virtual

surgery, where error can be fatal.


Registration errors can also cause motion-sickness. AR requires much more accurate registration than VR. Errors are difficult to control.

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ERRORS
Static Errors and Dynamic Errors.
Sources of Static Errors are of three types: Distortion in the optics. Errors in the tracking system. Mechanical misalignments.

Sources of Dynamic Errors are: System delays or lags. Unmatched temporal streams.
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APPLICATIONS
Main classes of applications:
1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Medical Manufacturing and repair

Annotation and visualization


Robot path planning Entertainment

6.

Military aircraft

There are several miscellaneous applications also.

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Applications- Medical

Surgeon X-ray vision: Minimally-invasive brain surgery

Real-time stereo HMD display with ultrasound volume display of needle inserted into the breast.
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Applications- Manufacturing & Repair

Augmented view of River Wear in Sunderland, Newcastle (U.K.) with a planned footbridge (UK)
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VR HUD set used in the wire shop to connect the wires by showing an image of the circuit and information about type of wire to be used (Boeing, US)
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Applications- Annotation

Virtual lines help display geometry of shuttle bay as seen in orbit (U. Toronto, Canada)
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Engine model part labels appear as user points at them (ECRC)

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Applications- Entertainment

Screenshot from the movieWho Framed Roger Rabbit? blending the real character and background with computer generated cartoon characters
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Applications- Aircraft

Boeing 737 cockpit with Headup Display (HUD) (Flight Dynamics Inc.)
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Head Up Guidance System (HGS) (Flight Dynamics Inc.)


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FUTURE SCOPE
Hybrid approaches.
Real-time systems and time-critical computing. Perceptual and psychophysical studies. Portability. Multimodal displays.
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CONCLUSION
AR is a relatively new field and is far behind VR in maturity. First deployed HMD-based AR system will probably be in the

application of aircraft manufacturing.


A breakthrough is required in real-time HMD tracking in the

outdoors at the accuracy required by AR for this technology to move ahead rapidly.
AR has a great future as it promises better navigation and

interaction with real and virtual world in ways which has previously been unimaginable.
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REFERENCES
1.

IEEE Journal - Augmented Reality: No Longer a Novelty? - VaughanNichols, S.J.; Volume: 42 , Issue: 12, Digital Object Identifier: 10.1109/mc.2009.380, Publication Year: 2009.

2.

James R Vallino Interactive Augmented Reality Submitted in partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree Doctor of philosophy. http://www.se.rit.edu/~jrv/research/ar/introduction.html
www.ieeexplore.ieee.org/ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Augmented _reality

3. 4.

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THANK YOU..

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