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DESIGN OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM

BY G. KRISHNAN

Design of Sewerage System


Sewage Mixture of water and waste products Types of Sewage: Domestic sewage - consists of liquid wastes originating from urinals, latrines, bath-rooms, kitchen sinks, wash basins etc. of the residential, commercial or institutional buildings. Industrial Sewage - consists of liquid wastes originating from the industrial processes of various industries, such as dyeing, paper making, brewing etc. The sum of domestic and industrial sewage, may be termed as sanitary sewage or simply sewage

SEWAGE COMPOSITION
SEWAGE

Liquid 99.7 to 99.9%

Solids 0.1 to 0.3%

Micro-organisms in millions

Organic 70%
(derived from living things)

Inorganic- 30%

Carbohydrate 25%

Proteins 65%

Fats 10%

Grit

Salts

Metals

TYPICAL WASTE WATER SYSTEM


Raw Sewage Collection System

Reuse for industrial application

Pumping station

Raw Sewage pumping main

Sewage Treatment Plant

Disposal to water bodies

Design of Sewerage System


Difference in the Design of water supply pipes and sewer pipes: 1. The water supply pipes carry pure water without containing any kind of solid particles, either organic or inorganic in nature. The sewage, on the other hand, does contain such particles in suspension and the heavier of these particles may settle down at the bottom of the sewers, as and when the flow velocity reduces, thus ultimately resulting in the clogging of the sewers. 2. The water supply pipes carry water under pressure, and hence within certain limits, they may be carried up and down the hills and the valleys, whereas the sewer pipes carry sewage as gravity conduits and they must therefore be laid at continuous gradient in the downward direction up to the outfall point, from where it will be lifted up, treated and disposed of.

Hydraulics of Sewers
MANNINGS FORMULA

V = [ (1/n) (R2/3 S1/2)]


Where S = Bed slope of the sewer (1 in 100) D = internal diameter of sewer in mm R = Hydraulic mean depth in m = Area / wetted Perimeter V = velocity in mps n = Mannings coefficient of roughness

Mannings Coefficients (n)


Values of an full depth for S.No. Pipe Material Good interior Fair interior surface surface condition condition * 0.014 0.012 0.013 0.012 0.013 0.011 0.011 0.015 0.013 0.015 0.012

1 2 3 4 5 6

Salt glazed stoneware pipes Cement concrete pipes Cast iron pipes Brick, unglazed sewers/drains Asbestos cement

Plastic (smooth) pipes

0.011

Partially filled Circular Sewer Section

Hydraulic Elements of Partial flow Sewers


d/D
1.0
0.9 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.4

v/V
1.000
1.124 1.140 1.120 1.072 1.000 0.902

q/Q
1.000
1.066 0.968 0.838 0.671 0.500 0.337

0.3
0.2 0.1

0.776
0.615 0.401

0.196
0.088 0.021

Design Criteria

Diameter of the sewers and the slope should be decided to meet the following conditions

Minimum size of the sewer should be not less than 150mm. If any future development is anticipated beyond the head reach, the starting sewer can be of 200mm diameter.

The velocity of flow and slopes (grade) of sewers are very important criteria in the sewer design. A self-cleansing velocity of 60cm/s and 80cm/s should be maintained at the present peak flow, and at the ultimate peak flow respectively. Sewer section should be designed to run at partial full condition always not exceeding 0.80 full depth at the ultimate peak flow.

Velocity of flow in the Sewers


Should neither be less than 0.3mps nor greater than 3mps. Optimum velocity of flow for self-cleansing, is 0.6mps for the present flow. Larger velocity will involve steeper slope and extra excavation. Some important facts about velocity of flow are as follow:

Velocity of flow is equal to full flow velocity when the flow is half full, Velocity of flow is more than full flow velocity when the flow is more than half full, Velocity of flow is rapidly decreasing when the flow is less than half full, Velocity of flow is maximum when the depth of flow is 0.82 D, The carrying capacity of the sewer is the maximum when the depth of flow is approximately 0.9D.

Velocity of flow has to be checked for minimum self cleansing velocity whenever the sewer is flowing less than half full,

SHAPES OF SEWER PIPES


The sewer pipes are normally circular in section, although some other sections such as basket handle shape, egg shape, horse shoe shape, parabolic shape, semicircular shape, semi elliptical shape, rectangular shape etc.

SHAPES OF SEWER PIPES

SHAPES OF SEWER PIPES

FORCES ACTING ON SEWER PIPES


The structural design of the sewer pipes should be such as to enable them to withstand the various forces likely to come on them. The following forces generally come into play in the sewer pipes:
1.

2.
3. 4.

Internal pressure of sewage Pressure due to external loads Temperature stresses Flexural stresses.

SEWER MATERIALS
Vitrified clay (or stone ware), cement concrete, asbestos cement and cast iron are the most common materials used for constructing sewer pipes. While selecting a particular material for constructing sewer pipes, the important factors which must be considered are:
i. ii. iii. iv.

v.
vi. vii.

Resistance to corrosion Resistance to abrasion Strength and durability Light weight Imperviousness The economy and cost Hydraulically efficient

MANHOLES
Manholes are masonry or R.C.C. chambers, constructed at suitable intervals along the sewer lines, for providing access into them. The manholes, thus help in joining sewer lengths, and also help in their inspection, cleaning and maintenance. Location and spacing of Manholes: The manholes are generally provided at every bend, junction, change of gradient, or change of sewer diameter. Unless there are practical difficulties, the sewer line between two manholes is laid straight with even gradient. Even when the sewer line runs straight, the manholes are provided at regular intervals. The spacing between the manholes, in such a case, however, depends mainly upon the size of the sewer line.

The manhole spacing's, generally adopted, on straight sewer reaches, are given below:
S.No.
1 2 3 4 5 6

Size of the Sewer


Dia up to 0.3 m Dia up to 0.6 m Dia up to 0.9 m Dia up to 1.2 m Dia up to 1.5 m Dia greater than 1.5 m

Recommended Spacing's of Manholes on straight reaches of sewer lines as per IS 1742-1960

45 m
75 m 90 m 120 m 250 m 300 m

CLASSIFICATION OF MANHOLES
Depending of their depth, the manholes may be classified as:
i.

ii.

iii.

Shallow manholes is about 0.7 to 0.9 m in depth, and is constructed at the start of a branch sewer or at places, which are not subjected to heavy traffic. Such a manhole is provided with a light cover at its top, and is called an inspection chamber. Normal manholes is about 1.5 m in depth and is constructed either square (1m x 1m) or rectangular (1.2m x 1m) in cross section. Its section is not changed with depth, as its done in a deep manhole. Deep manholes is having depth more than 1.5m. The section of such a manhole is generally not kept the same. The size in the upper portion is reduced by providing an offset as shown in the figure below.

ORDINARY MANHOLE

DEEP MANHOLE

CIRCULAR DROP MANHOLE

DESIGN OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM

Select sewage treatment and disposal location depending up on the availability of land or water courses, Divide the town into number of zones, Factors to be considered in zoning:

Special features such as railway line, NH, river etc., can be treated as zone boundaries since gravity sewer crossing of these features is expensive. An area of the town having a descending slope can form a zone To restrict the depth of cutting to the pre-determined level (5 to 6m) since excavation under ground water table condition and / or in hard rock is difficult and expensive. The site is available for the pumping station. Exceeding the maximum depth of cutting for short lengths to avoid introduction of lift station is permitted.

DESIGN OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM

Decide the location of the sewage pumping station (SPS) for each of the zones at the lowest elevation and also considering the site available. SPS shall have facility for pretreatment to remove floating large particles and grit; about 30m x 30m land may be required. When adequate extent of land is not available lift station can be provided instead of SPS. Lift station is a small pumping station without facility for pretreatment

DESIGN OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM

Main pumping station (MPS) is located nearer to the STP site. MPS will collect sewage from all zones and pump to STP SPS of one of the zones nearer to STP may be converted as MPS Prepare a map of sewer network by aligning the sewer lines in roads along the natural slope of the terrain to drain into the collection well, Dont align sewers against the slope and across the ridges In exceptional case, aligning across a small ridge is permitted

DESIGN OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM - contd

Adequate number of Manholes are necessary to facilitate cleaning


Maximum spacing for small diameter sewers: Maximum spacing for larger diameter sewers:

30m 60m to 100m

Mark the positions of the manholes in the sewer layout map. Assess the number of anticipated HSCs; Ensure at least 50% of the properties will have connections Assume correct Peak Factor (based on the contributing population to the section under consideration) to assess Peak Flow. Peak factor of 3 is preferable for all sections. Sewers are designed as a gravity system for partial flow condition only

DESIGN OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM -Contd.

Consider subsoil condition and level of ground water table and fix the maximum depth of cutting, which may be 5 to 6m, For the assumed zoning, by rough calculation considering the maximum length of the zone and assuming a grade of 1 in 200 calculate the depth of excavation and check with the maximum depth of cutting If the calculated depth is within the permissible depth of excavation proceed further for the detailed designing of sewers adopting the zoning. If the calculated depth of cutting exceeds the permissible cutting, revise the zoning of the town, by shifting the location of pumping station or introducing additional pumping station/lift stations.

Lift stations

Lift stations are required to elevate and transport sewage in sewerage systems when continuation of gravity flow is no longer feasible. In flat terrain, area close to seashore, sewers enroute to a pumping/treatment plant may increase in depth to the point where it is impractical to continue gravity flow economically because of the high cost of excavation. Here, a lift station can be installed to lift the sewage to the Bellmouth chamber in a sewer at a higher level Lift station is an enlarged size MH fitted with submersible pump with float control operation Provide Submersible non-clogging pump of 2 2.5 DWF (2Nos., 1 No. stand by) Lift station may be adopted when the design peak flow is less than 1000 lpm Overflow arrangement from the lift station to the nearby drain is necessary to avoid surcharging of sewers

LIFT STATIONS

DESIGN OF SEWERAGE SYSTEM -Contd.

Sufficient grades should be adopted to maintain a minimum self-cleansing velocity

0.6mps for the present peak flow 0.8mps for the ultimate peak flow

Minimum depth of cutting

800mm to 1000mm; Minimum depth is fixed in such a way to have the house sewer is safely connected to the street sewer. Minimum depth should also provide necessary cover to the sewer to protect it from load from the traffic

Maximum depth of cutting

5.0 to 6.0m depending up on water table condition and type of substrata

Use Mannings formula for computing velocity and flow in the section

Steps in the design of Sewerage system

Review the performance of the existing sewerage systems in operation Insufficient flow due to lack of connections leading to silting and clogging in sewers Flow of sewage in the open drains even after installation of sewerage system and fail to protect the environment (land and water) from pollution and make them for beneficial uses Inadequate O&M of STP (Even simple maintenance of WSP is not carried out properly) Study the various options available with reference to capital and O&M cost Collection systems: 1.Conventional sewerage system 2.Small bore sewerage system Sewage treatment: 1.Conventional methods 2. Low-cost methods Select Appropriate collection system and Sewage treatment method

Steps in the design of Sewerage network

The sewage generated from an area is collected through a sewer network consists of sewers and conveyed to the sewage pumping station for onward conveyance to the sewage treatment plant for further treatment and disposal. The sewer network is formulated with the help of contours. Generally, the sewage pumping station (SPS) is located at low-lying area of the catchments. In addition to the contour levels, the distance of the farthest point of the network from the SPS is also taken into consideration while deciding the number of subcatchment areas or zones of the sewage collection system.

Steps in the design of Sewerage network

After formulation of the zones with networks, manholes are marked at every 30 metres apart from junctions and change in directions. The network consists of trunk sewer, main sewer, submain, branch, sub-branch and laterals etc. and the line numbers were given accordingly. Manhole numbers are assigned based on the line number. The nomenclatures of manhole numbers are generally as per the guidelines specified by Central Public Health & Environmental Engineering Organisation (CPHEEO) Manual.

Steps in the design of Sewerage network

The Sewer system has been designed by forming segments comprising of 3-4 manholes. A contributory area is assigned to each segment depending on various types of land use in the segment. The contributing area for the segment is then converted to an Equivalent Residential Area (ERA). The ward density is applied while calculating segmentwise population based on contributing ERA. This exercise is repeated for whole network to arrive segment - wise population.

Steps in the design of Sewerage network

Contributory area of a segment of a stretch of 100 m length of sewer is calculated. This area is then converted into Equivalent Residential Area (ERA) by applying suitable factors to various land uses as indicated below:

Residential Area (RA) Institutional Commercial Area Industrial

= = = =

1.0 0.25 0.25 0.1

The total ERA therefore is calculated as:

ERA = 1.0 x Residential area + 0.25 x Institutional area + 0.25 x Commercial area + 0.1 x Industrial area

Multiplying ERA by population density of the corresponding ward gives the number of persons in that contributing area. A return of 80% of the rate of water supply is treated as waste water generation from each individual. Further, infiltration of ground water into the system is also considered.

Design Approach -Contd.

Consider subsoil condition and level of ground water table and fix the maximum depth of cutting, which may be 5 to 6m, For the assumed zoning, mark the trunk sewer alignment By rough calculation assuming an average grade of 1 in 200 calculate the depth of excavation and check with the maximum depth of cutting If the calculated depth is within the permissible depth of excavation proceed further for the detailed designing of the collection system adopting the zoning. If the calculated depth of cutting exceeds the permissible cutting, revise the zoning of the town, by shifting the location of pumping station or introducing additional pumping station/lift stations. Mark the positions of the manholes in the sewer network map.

Numbering of Manholes and Sewers

Manholes are generally numbered from the pumping station end backwards along the Main sewer. Numbering of manholes and sewers can be done in many ways. The sewer shall be designated by the manhole to which it joins. Numbering manholes is furnished in Fig. In case of design of sewer network using computer programme, manholes are considered as nodes. Node numbers are assigned in any sequence and the sewer is designated as a link with connecting node numbers.

SEWER NETWORK AND DATA

G.L. @ Man Holes


1 92.15m 2 92.35m 3 92.50m 4 92.80m 5 92.90m 6 93.10m 7 93.20m 8 93.20m 9 93.65m 3A 92.60m 3B 92.65m 4A 92.90m

4B 93.05m
4C 93.10m 7A 93.60m 7B 93. 65m

HYDRAULIC CALCULATION TABLE OF SEWER NETWORK


Section LINE NO Full Bore discharge Cumulative Sewerage Population Generation(ltr/se 2040 c) 2010 2040 2010 2040 Slope 1 in (Mtr) Vf
from mannings formula

Q/Qf QF (lps)

d/Df

v/Vf

v (m/s) Q/Qf

d/Df

v/Vf

v (m/s)

GROUND LEVEL (m)

Dia (mm)

Slope

Length

INVERT LEVEL (m) EDRC Start End

Start

End

2010 0.6 0.8

2040 0.8

Start

End

A467

A638 A1-001 91490 150435 328.792 540.626

675.782 593.935 229.057 226.406 218.869 212.281 190.269 160.820 150.239 135.614 135.265 106.165 107.453 88.286 105.117

1000

1.00

2030

0.000492 6 0.000540 5 0.001

240

0.801 0.839 0.812 0.812 0.820 0.828 0.880 0.804 0.824 0.795 0.795 0.880 0.895 0.885 0.992

628.5728 0.53 658.4424 0.47 229.3543 0.38 229.3543 0.33 231.6829 0.32 234.0838 0.31 248.7697 0.26 157.6928 0.35 161.7894 0.32 126.3886 0.36 126.3886 0.36 139.8373 0.26 142.3125 0.22 111.1302 0.23 124.5656 0.16

0.58 0.54

0.874 0.69984 0.87 0.7889 0.9973 0.79857 78.729 0.842 0.70625 0.69 0.6867 0.9437 0.79156 78.529 0.8 0.75 0.9775 0.79333 78.596

78.529

72.381

72.499

A638

A637 A1-002 85140 132215 305.972 475.148

1000

1.00

1850

86

78.596

72.499

72.546

A637

A573 A1-003 17730 50990

84.956

183.245

600

0.60

1000

293

0.4786 0.7892 0.6405

78.612

72.946

73.239

A573

A575 A1-004 15770 45360

75.565

181.125

600

0.60

1000

60

0.001
600 0.60 980

0.4429 0.7546 0.61242 0.79 0.7444 0.9747 0.79105 78.612 0.4357 0.7476 0.6129 0.76 0.7278 0.9662 0.79212 78.793 0.4286 0.7407 0.61354 0.73 0.7111 0.9577 0.79328 78.876 0.3917 0.704 0.61972 0.62 0.64 0.9148 0.80529 79.304

78.793

73.239

73.299

A575

A576 A1-005 15250 43850

73.073

175.095

0.001020 4 0.001041 7 0.001176 5 0.00125

18

78.876

73.299

73.317

A576

A578 A1-006 14790 42530

70.869

169.825

600

0.60

960

146

79.304

73.317

73.469

A578

A579 A1-007 13270 38120

63.585

152.215

600

0.60

850

73

79.613

73.469

73.555

A579

A581 A1-008 11210 32220

53.715

128.656

500

0.50

800

93

0.4571 0.7684 0.61743 0.82 0.7611 0.9832 0.79003 79.613 0.4357 0.7476 0.61633 0.75 0.7222 0.9633 0.79415 80.268 0.4643 0.7754 0.61651 0.86 0.7833 0.9945 0.79071 80.298 0.4643 0.7754 0.61651 0.86 0.7833 0.9945 0.79071 80.298 0.3917 0.704 0.6193 0.61 0.6333 0.9107 0.80113 79.766 0.3583 0.668 0.59803 0.61 0.6333 0.9107 0.81531 79.617 0.3667 0.677 0.59901 0.64 0.6533 0.9231 0.81675 79.933 0.3083 0.614 0.60894 0.68 0.68 0.9396 0.93186 79.786

80.268

73.655

73.772

A581

A582 A1-009 10470 30100

50.169

120.191

500

0.50

760

0.001315 8 0.001408 5 0.001408 5 0.001724 1 0.001785 7 0.002040 8 0.002564 1

132

80.298

73.772

73.945

A582

A583 A1-010 9460

27170

45.329

108.491

450

0.45

710

80.298

73.995

74.005

A583

A584 A1-011 9430

27100

45.185

108.212

450

0.45

710

138

79.766

74.005

74.199

A584

A585 A1-012 7400

21270

35.458

84.932

450

0.45

580

209

79.617

74.199

74.560

A585

A586 A1-013 6240

17940

29.900

85.963

450

0.45

560

46

79.933

74.560

74.642

A586

A587 A1-014 5120

14740

24.533

70.629

400

0.40

490

53

79.786

74.692

74.800

A587

A588 A1-015 4010

17550

19.215

84.094

400

0.40

390

76

79.896

74.800

74.995

PROBLEMS IN THE SEWERS

The settleble solids are likely to settle in the sewer when the flow is very less and the velocity is less than self cleaning velocity. Settled solids should be flushed at least once in a day by maintaining self cleansing velocity Self cleansing velocity could be achieved only during the peak flow. If self cleansing velocity is not achieved in any section of the sewers even with peak flow, artificially self cleansing velocity should be achieved by flushing

TYPICAL SEWAGE PUMPING STATION

TYPICAL SEWAGE PUMPING STATION

Survey and Investigation

Survey and investigation are pre-requisites both for framing the feasibility report and the preparation of sewerage project The engineering designs are dependent on the correctness of the data collected and its proper evaluation The survey for data collection includes the following two steps

Collection of basic information Project surveys

Basic information should be collected on the following aspects


Physical Aspects Development Aspects Other Aspects

Physical Aspects

Topography or elevation difference of the town and the adjoining area for deciding location of disposal works Subsoil conditions, depth of groundwater table and its fluctuations. In the absence of any records, preliminary data should be collected by putting at least 3 trial bores or trial pits per hectare Underground facilities like storm water drains, house service connections of water supply/drainage, electrical and telephone cables, and Location of streets and adjoining areas likely to be merged Possible sources of information are:

Existing maps and plans from revenue or town surveys or Survey of India Topographical map of survey of India Aerial photographs Existing instrumental surveys by Municipalities

Development Aspects

Type of land use such as commercial, industrial, residential and recreational Census population, density of population, trends of population growth Types and number of industries and location of their wastewater discharge points Rainfall details Details of existing drainage and sewerage facilities Basis of design and information on the maintenance of the existing sewerage system if available; effluent disposal sites and their conditions Possible sources of information

Census records Town and metropolitan Master plans and Land use plans Meteorological data Pollution Control Board

Other Aspects

Changes in political boundaries by merger of adjacent communities Feasibility of multi-municipal systems Prevailing water pollution prevention regulations, and other rules relating to discharge of industrial and domestic wastes Present status of the government or municipal authority sponsoring the project, its capacity, and adequacy to satisfactorily implement and maintain the project The impacts likely to be caused to the community during execution and feasibility of minimizing them Possible sources of information

National Acts State and Municipal Laws and Byelaws

Project Surveys

Preliminary Project Surveys Collect data on capacity required, basic arrangement and size, physical features affecting general layout Data on cost and the escalation of prices of basic materials and methods of financing; All the basic data obtained must be reliable but need not be in precise and detail Detailed Project Surveys These surveys form the basis for the engineering design as well as for the preparation of plans and specifications Must be precise and contains contours of all areas to be served with all details that will facilitate the designer Include network of bench marks and traverse surveys to identify the nature and extent of the existing underground structures Construction Surveys Establish all control points such as base lines and bench marks for sewer alignment and grade with reference to permanent objects

Data to be collected in a detailed survey

The layout plan of the town with contours showing the roads and drainage courses, The municipal map showing ward boundaries Levels along the road at interval of 10m. The levels at street junctions, lowest plinth level of the building and the sullage outlet The width of the street and the road formed The location and extent of vacant municipal sites available within the town as well as on the periphery of the town for locating pumping station and STP. The availability of Revenue poramboke land on the outskirt of the town and/or dry lands at reasonable cost for locating the treatment plant and disposal works,

Data to be collected in a detailed survey -Contd

The hydrology of water courses if any, with details of minimum flow and maximum water level The level of groundwater table in summer and winter and subsoil conditions, collected from the existing open wells, The subsoil particulars along the alignment of the sewers by putting trial pits and trial bores, Population of the town as per the latest census and present population, Future population estimated based on other projects such as water supply project or by forecast method,

Data to be collected in a detailed survey -Contd


The details of existing water supply and proposed water supply improvements projects if any. Elevations of the sills of building and the depth at which the house drainage is existing Character, age and condition of the pavement of street/road The details of underground facilities like cables of telephone and electricity; When good information is lacking, it may be advisable to have pits excavated in streets to obtain the require data.