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Definition of Sexuality

Everything that related to human as sexual creature (emotion, personality, attitude, etc). (BKKBN,2008) Sexual expression that socially acceptable and contain broad insight of personality aspects. (APNET, 1996) Combination of feelings and behaviors that not only based on biologically sex traits, but also inseparable with the other human life's aspects. (Semaoen, 2000) A strength and life encouragement between male and female, where both are a system that able to regenerating so human existence will never be extinct.
(Depkes RI)

Definition of Sexuality
According to Masters, Johnson &Kolodny (1992), sexuality is very broad:

Biology dimension Psychology dimension Social dimension Moral & Cultural dimension

According to Marti Blanch&Merri Collier (1993), sexuality means:


Sensuality Intimacy Identity Lifecycle Exploitation

Definition of Sexuality
WHO define:

Sexuality as a central aspect of being human throughout life and encompasses sex, gender identities and roles, sexual orientation, eroticism, pleasure, intimacy and reproduction. Sexuality is experienced and expressed in thoughts, fantasies, desires, beliefs, attitudes, values, behaviors, practices, roles and relationships. While sexuality can include all of these dimensions, not all of them are always experienced or expressed. Sexuality is inuenced by the interaction of biological, psychological, social, economic, political, cultural, ethical, legal, historical, religious and spiritual factors.

Aspects of Sexuality
Narrow Understanding

Sexuality means the genitalia:


Reproductive system Organs that differentiate male and female KNPI Fertilization, etc

Broad Understanding

Sexuality means everything which caused by the differences of sex between male and female:
Differences of acts (gentle, rude, flirty, strong, weak, etc) Differences of attributes (clothes, names, etc) Role differences, etc

Cognitive
Cognitive affect sexual decision-making by boys and girls. Young people were mostly unprepared for, and lack information about the physical changes they undergo during puberty and throughout adolescence. Community values and fears about sexuality in young people tend to limit the availability of the basic information and education they need to understand and appreciate their changing bodies, leaving the transfer of knowledge about sex and sexuality to parents, families and professionals. Unfortunately, parents, health workers, and teachers themselves were lack such information, or did not feel comfortable communicating about sexuality due to the image of taboo-ness.

Gender Identities
Gender identity defines for most people what it means to become a man or a woman or none of them. A process of interpreting and accepting (or not accepting) what family, community, culture and society, say about the appropriate roles, responsibilities and behaviors of men and women. Male were expected to be masculine, while female were expected to be feminine. Trans people were hiding their identities very carefully because trans people were not accepted by society at all, or else they will stigmatized and discriminate by others.

Gender Roles
Although gender identity is constructed over time, in adolescence gender roles (and their disparities, stereotypes, and inequities) are often solidified and intensified through observation of adults and peers. All cultures assign meaning to the onset of puberty. The social meaning of puberty was different for boys and girls. In many cultures, the onset of puberty for a boy lead to greater freedom, mobility, and opportunities. For girls, in many places, it meant an end to schooling, restricted social or physical mobility, and the beginning of married life and childbearing.

Traditional practices, rites, ceremonies and celebrations often accompany this transition from childhood to adulthood, some of which, such as female genital mutilation/cutting, may have lasting effects on sexual health and well-being. Girls were often married early to transfer their economic burden to the husbands family and to fulfill the familys duty to protect the daughter until marriage when she becomes the responsibility of her husbands family. Male Female What society Productive Reproductive assume:
Public Outside Priority to education Trusted to a high job position High salary Domestic Inside Priority to homework (pregnant, cook, wash,etc) Seldom placed on a high job position Low salary

Sexual Orientation
Traditionally, the only orientation that acceptable in society was heterosexual. Homosexual and bisexual were hiding their status and concealed it because society were rejecting them, even some were get rid from the neighborhood. Some of homosexual and bisexual were getting married with another sex but it was only to keep the orientation as a secret and to regenerating.

Sexual Behavior and Sensuality


(Eroticism&Pleasure)
Social assumptions about gender identity and sexuality often carry the assumption, either implicitly or explicitly (depending on culture), that women should not want sexual activity or find it pleasurable, or have sexual relations outside of marriage. Sexual activity should be for procreative purposes and motherhood is a marker of social status. On the other hand, men and boys are often socialized to feel entitled to have sexual relations and pleasure and that their self-worth is demonstrated through their sexual prowess and notions of authority and power.

The dating styles were: 1. First seeing: by sharp glance, introduced by parents or best friend, best friend since childhood, school, work place (more close field than open field) 2. First meeting: male come to females house, made a match by parents, meet in a public places, etc 3. First dating: face to face in a public places or at females house, by letter, etc 4. First intercourse: mostly after married

Eroticism was so called taboo, very restricted and very limited. Eventhough sex workers already exist, but their existence were so closed and concealed. There were small numbers of erotic movies and only played on a movie theatre and only for adult. Contraception were rejected due to religious reason.

What Happened?
On 20th century, attitude toward sexuality and premarital sex became more permissive in USA. During the 60s and 70s, it was considered as the sex resolution, where sexual standard to dating became more permissive. (Darling, Kallen, 1984) Change since the world war II, technologies innovation could reduce pregnancy risk or control the pregnancy easily (King, Walsh, 1997) The morality role of sexuality is set by culture. However, culture change due to the enhancement of technologies and the society itself, so the morality role of sexuality would also change.

The Modernization of Sexuality


(Technologies, Human Development, Socio-culture, Economy)

COGNITIVE
Influenced by the development of social, political, economic and cultural contexts in which decisions are made. Modern technologies force a modern way of thinking that ask for more freedom to act cause positive and negative impacts. People nowadays are more open to new knowledge, even what were called taboo it is now accepted as a knowledge that needed by society lots of young people tend to enter into sexual relations with the necessary knowledge or skills to negotiate for their own sexual health and welfare, reduce risk to HIV and STDs

GENDER IDENTITY

Male are still expected to be masculine and female are still expected to be feminine, but people nowadays feel more free to be what they wanted to be, as what they feel. Trans people are more open about their status, even show up on a public television show and talking about their condition.

GENDER IDENTITY Society nowadays accept the existence of trans peopleeventhough not all of the societysince human rights were fought to be fulfilled. The disclosure of trans people to the society resulted in an easy way for NGOs or government to monitor their health, to give knowledge about health and to prevent the spread of infected disease such as HIV and STDs.

GENDER ROLE
The movement of feminist for the gender equality were resulted to a new form of sexuality to women. Male are more likely respect female to work as they wanted to be a carrier women. Women get education as far as they need it. Some women are considered to be trusted in a high job position.

SEXUAL ORIENTATION
Homosexual and bisexual are acceptable in society, eventhough in some countries or areas are still rejected. They are more open about their status to the society. Even they have their own club or association to gather. The disclosure of gay/lesbian and bisexual to the society makes government and NGOs to monitor their health easier, to give knowledge about health and to prevent the spread of infected disease such as HIV and STDs.

SEXUAL BEHAVIOR & SENSUALITY Contraception is acceptable, even almost every couple (husband and wife) need contraception. Women nowadays are more aggressive to men. Some of them started to be the initiator on a dating. Eroticism still called taboo and restricted in some community, but the developing technologies make erotic things way easier to be accessed. There are huge numbers of erotic movies, clips, comics, magazines and accessible no matter how old you are free sex

SEXUAL BEHAVIOR & SENSUALITY


Sex workers increase in a huge number due to the economical reason. In some prostitution place like lokalisasi, the government could do some intervention and monitor sex workers health, but unfortunately prostitution nowadays has developed in a dangerous way. Some of sex workers are spreading all over the city, cafes, hotels, etc. This will complicate the government to handle health problem related to sexual disease, such as HIV and STDs.

SEXUAL BEHAVIOR & SENSUALITY

The dating styles: 1. First seeing: close field (campuss, schools, seminars, apartment complexes, workplaces, internet such as blogs, facebook, twitter, skype, etc) & open field (cafes, bars, malls, etc) a. First meeting: introduce themselves, provide non-verbal cues and waiting for others to introduce, have a friend to make an introduction 1. First dating: some women started to be the initiator on a dating. 2. First intercourse: before married (vary), after married.

Sexuality in Asia
Sexuality in the Asian region is defined by differences but dominated by similarities. Differences in gender roles, socio-economic status and sexual orientation can be observed throughout the region. Despite these, however, in all countries sexual activity is dominated by heterosexual penetrative intercourse and performance anxiety among both men and women is significant.

Problems related to sexuality in the region include widespread recourse to commercial sex workers, patriarchy character in marital sexual relations in some religious traditions, and violence motivated by sexual conflicts, including violence against both men and women as a result of their sexuality, sexual preferences, or decisions related to sexual behavior. In addition, recent evidence has shown that harmful sexual practices, such as dry sex using herbs, astringents and diet management, penis inserts intended to increase pleasure or performance, and male and female genital mutilation/cutting, are more widespread than had previously been thought. These sexual behaviors, and the increasing use of antiimpotence drugs and vaginal tightening operations, reflect widespread performance anxiety among men and women.

Not surprisingly, those practices have resulted in a high prevalence of sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections. Some regional efforts to combat STIs and HIV have proven successful. Organization and regulation of the sex industries in some Asian countries have slowed HIV transmission in certain populations. In addition, in certain circumstances, relatively open discussions about sexual activity and sexuality are possible, allowing researchers and program managers to identify and target areas for intervention.

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