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ATTITUDE-MODELS & MEASURING TECHNIQUES

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Contents
Introduction Models and its application Measuring methods Scaling technique Case study: Application Conclusion

Introduction
Attitudes have an object, direction, degree, intensity, structure and are learned. Functions: Adjustment, egodefensive, value-expressive and knowledge functions. Sources of attitude development : personal experience, group associations, influential others.

Katz: attitudes exist because they serve some function


UTILITARIAN FUNCTION: Relates to rewards and punishments EGO-DEFENSIVE FUNCTION: Protect ourselves from external threats or internal feelings VALUE-EXPRESSIVE FUNCTION: Expresses consumers values or self-concept

Functional Theory of Attitudes

KNOWLEDGE FUNCTION: Need for order, structure, or meaning


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ABC Model of Attitudes


Attitude has three components: Affect: the way a consumer feels about an attitude object. Behavior: persons intentions to do something with regard to an attitude object. Cognition: beliefs a consumer has about an attitude object.
Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 7-5

Hierarchies of Effects
Impact/importance of attitude components depends on consumers motivation toward attitude object

Prentice-Hall, cr 2009

Figure 7.1

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Hierarchy of Effects
Standard Learning Hierarchy
Results in strong brand loyalty Assumes high consumer involvement

Low-Involvement Hierarchy
Consumer does not have strong brand preference Consumers swayed by simple stimulusresponse connections

Experiential Hierarchy
Consumers hedonic motivations and moods Prentice-Hall, cr 2009 Emotional contagion
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Multi-Attribute Attitude Models


Multi-attribute models: consumers attitudes toward an attitude object depends on beliefs she has about several or many attributes of the object Three elements
Attributes of AO (e.g., college)
Example: scholarly reputation

Beliefs about AO
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Example: University of North Carolina is

The Cognitive Response Model


According to Hoyer and McInnis (1997), The basic idea behind the cognitive response model is that consumers reactions to the message, does affect their attitudes. Cognitive response are, simply, the thoughts that we have when we are exposed to a communication (they can be recognitions, elaborations,

The Cognitive Response Model


Counterarguments (CAs): These are thoughts that express disagreement with the message e.g. goodness!, it will never work, he's been paid to do this etc. Support arguments (SAs): These are thoughts that express agreement with the message e.g. this sounds great, I need

Source derogations (SDs): These are thoughts that discount or attack the source of the message. e.g. the guy is lying, I dont believe this. According to the cognitive response model, these responses will affect consumers attitudes. In other words, CAs and SDs will result in a less favorable initial attitude or resistance to change.

This is applied to explain how attitudes form and change. According to this model, attitudes are based on (a) beliefs, or knowledge consumers have about an object or action and (b) their evaluation of these particular beliefs e.g. how good or bad the object/action is thus we might like Volvo because of its durability and reliance?

The Expectancy-Value Model

The Theory of Reasoned Action


The theory of reasoned action (TORA) has been successfully used in understanding attitudes. The model provides an expanded picture of how, when, and why attitudes predict behavior. The newer version of extended Fishbein model.

TORA
Theory of reasoned action: considers other elements of predicting behavior Intentions versus behavior: measure behavioral intentions, not just intentions Certain uncontrollable factors inhibit prediction of actual behavior. Social pressure: acknowledge the power of other people in purchasing decision

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The Marketing Implications about TORA Model The TORA model helps marketers
understand why consumers/customers like or dislike an offering and whether they want to engage in or resist performing a behavior. It can help in perceiving the strength of a brand, its weakness and other target markets for the offering.

Devising Strategies for Attitude Change


1.Changing Beliefs (positive or lessen bad) about the offering. Ads such as its good for your body, it reaches the parts that other beers cannot reach.... 2. Changing Evaluations (make it more positive or less negative). For example although one may not like a vacation in Libya, marketers might try to convince people about

3.Adding a new Belief- Example Marketers might include in the ad for a vacation to Libya that one will make new friends and learn of a different culture. 4. Targeting Normative Beliefs The model provides information about how normative beliefs influence people. (action should be taken or

Measurement techniques
MEASUREMENT CAN BE DEFINED AS A STANDARDIZED PROCESS OF ASSIGNING NUMBERS OR OTHER SYMBOLS TO CERTAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF THE OBJECTS OF INTEREST

Research perspective
RESEARCHERS ENGAGE IN USING THE MEASUREMENT PROCESS BY ASSIGNING EITHER NUMBERS OR LABELS TO PEOPLES THOUGHTS, FEELINGS, BEHAVIORS, AND CHARACTERISTICS THE FEATURES OR ATTRIBUTES OF OBJECTS THE ASPECTS OF CONCEPTS / IDEAS

Research modes
For investigation two things are important namely qualities and quantities of the object..

MEASUREMENT PROCESS
CONSISTS OF CONSTRUCT DEVELOPMENT SCALE MEASUREMENT

CONSTRUCT DEVELOPMENT
THE GOAL IS: TO PRECISELY IDENTIFY AND WHAT IS TO BE MEASURED, MEASURED INCLUDING ANY DIMENSIONALITY TRAITS

SCALE MEASUREMENT
THE GOAL IS TO DETERMINE HOW TO PRECISELY MEASURE EACH CONSTRUCT

Object
IT REFERS TO ANY TANGIBLE ITEM IN A PERSONS ENVIRONMENT THAT CAN BE CLEARLY AND EASILY IDENTIFIED THROUGH THE SENSES SIGHT SOUND TOUCH SMELL TASTE

Properties of an object
Objective properties Subjective properties

Objective properties
RESEARCHERS DO NOT MEASURE THE OBJECTS PER SE BUT RATHER THE ELEMENTS THAT MAKES UP THE OBJECT OBJECTIVE PROPERTIES ARE USED TO IDENTIFY AND DISTINGUISH AN OBJECT FROM ANOTHER

Objective properties
can be DIRECTLY OBSERVABLE (SUCH AS THE PHYSICAL AND DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF A PERSON like AGE SEX OCCUPATION STATUS COLOR OF EYE ETC.) PHYSICALLY VERIFIABLE (THE ACTUAL NUMBER OF PURCHASES MADE OF A PARTICULAR PRODUCT) MEASURABLE IN NATURE(THE TANGIBLE FEATURES OF THE OBJECT )

CONSUMER
OBJECTIVE PROPERTIES : AGE, SEX, MARITAL STATUS, INCOME, BRAND LAST PURCHASED, RUPEE AMOUNT OF PURCHASES TYPES OF PRODUCTS PURCHASED COLOR OF EYES AND HAIR

Subjective properties
SUBJECTIVE PROPERTIES ARE ABSTRACT, INTANGIBLE CHARACTERISTICS THAT CAN NOT BE DIRECTLY OBSERVED OR MEASURED BECAUSE THEY ARE THE MENTAL IMAGES (ASPECTS) A PERSON ATTACHES TO AN OBJECT, SUCH AS ATTITUDES, FEELINGS, PERCEPTIONS, EXPECTATIONS

CONSUMER
SUBJECTIVE PROPERTIES
ATTITUDES TOWARDS A PRODUCT

BRAND LOYALTY HIGH INVOLVEMENT PURCHASES EMOTIONS (LOVE, FEAR, ANXIETY ETC) INTELLIGENCE, PERSONALITY, RISK TAKER

SCALE MEASUREMENT
SCALING IS THE PROCESS OF CREATING ACONTINUUM ON WHICH OBJECTS ARE LOCATED ACCORDING TO THE AMOUNT OF THE MEASURED CHARACTERISTIC THEY POSSESS. SCALE DEVELOPMENT IS DESIGNING QUESTIONS TO MEASURE THE SUBJECTIVE PROPERTIES OF AN OBJECT

Characteristics of a scale
DESCRIPTION ORDER DISTANCE ORIGIN

DESCRIPTION
ANY DESCRIPTOR CAN BE USED FOR RESPONSE

FOR INSTANCE, YES OR NO, AGREE OR DISAGREE AND THE NUMBER OF YEARS OF A RESPONDENTS AGE
ARE DESCRIPTORS OF A SIMPLE SCALE

Order
ORDER REFERS TO THE RELATIVE SIZES OF THE DESCRIPTORS OR RELATIVE MAGNITUDE BETWEEN THE DESCRIPTORS, OR LABELS, USED AS SCALE POINTS HERE THE KEY WORD IS RELATIVE AND INCLUDES SUCH DESCRIPTORS AS GREATER THAN LESS THAN AND EQUAL TO

Example
1 IS LESS THAN 5 EXTREMELY SATISFIED IS MORE INTENSE THAN SOMEWHAT SATISFIED MOST IMPORTANT HAS GREATER IMPORTANCE THAN ONLY SLIGHTLY IMPORTANT WHEN ORDER CHARACTERISTIC IS INCORPORATED INTO SET OF SCALE POINTS, IT ALLOWS THE RESEARCHER TO ESTABLISH EITHER A HIGHEST TO LOWEST OR LOWEST TO HIGHEST RANK ORDER AMONG THE NEW RESPONSES

Distance
A SCALE HAS THE CHARACTERISTIC OF DISTANCE WHEN ABSOLUTE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE DESCRIPTORS ARE KNOWN AND MAY BE EXPRESSED IN UNITS

Example
A THREE CAR FAMILY OWNS A ONE MORE AUTOMOBILE THAN A TWO CAR FAMILY WHEN THE CHARACTERISTIC OF DISTANCE EXISTS WE ARE ALSO GIVEN THE ORDER
WE KNOW NOT ONLY THAT THE THREE CAR FAMILY HAS MORE THAN THE NUMBER OF CARS OF THE TWO CAR FAMILY,

BUT WE ALSO KNOW THE DISTANCE BETWEEN THE TWO (1 CAR)

Origin
THE ORIGIN PROPERTY RELATES TO A NUMBERING SYSTEM WHERE ZERO IS DISPLAYED OR REFERENCED STARTING POINT IN A SET OF POSSIBLE RESPONSES Example: NUMBER OF MILES TRAVELED TO THE STORE

Other side..
FOR INSTANCE, WHEN A RESPONDENT SAYS, NO OPINION, TO A QUESTION DO YOU AGREE OR DISAGREE WITH THE STATEMENT, THE INDICA IS THE BEST CAR IN THE SMALL CAR SEGMENT ON THE ROAD TODAY? WE CANNOT SAY THAT THE PERSON HAS A TRUE ZERO LEVEL OF AGREEMENT

Scale type
Nominal Ordinal Interval Ratio

NOMINAL SCALE
NOMINAL SCALES ARE DEFINED AS THOSE THAT USE ONLY LABEL; THAT IS, THEY POSSESS ONLY THE CHARACTERISTIC OF DESCRIPTION THE RESPONSE DOES NOT INCLUDE ANY LEVEL OF INTENSITY

EXAMPLES
DESIGNATIONS AS TO RACE, RELIGION, TYPE OF DWELLING GENDER BRAND LAST PURCHASED ANSWERS THAT INVOLVE YES-NO, AGREEDISAGREE OR ANY OTHER INSTANCE IN WHICH DESCRIPTORS CAN NOT BE DIFFERENTIATED EXCEPT QUALITATIVELY

DO YOU LIKE OR DISLIKE CHOCOLATE ICE CREAM? I. LIKE II. DISLIKE

ORDINAL SCALE
AN ORDINAL SCALE IS OBTAINED BY RANKING OBJECTS OR ARRANGING THEM IN ORDER WITH REGARD TO SOME COMMON VARIABLE

THE QUESTION IS SIMPLY WHETHER EACH OBJECT HAS MORE OR LESS THAN SOME OTHER OBJECT

ORDINAL- SCALED QUESTIONS


PLEASE RANK EACH BRAND IN TERMS OF YOUR PREFERENCE PLEASE PLACE 1 BY YOUR FIRST CHOICE, A 2 BY YOUR SECOND CHOICE, AND SO ON
I. II. III. IV. V. VI. SONY VIDEOCON SAMSUNG LG BPL PHILLIPS

INTERVAL SCALE
INTERVAL SCALES ARE THOSE IN WHICH THE DISTANCE BETWEEN EACH DESCRIPTOR IS KNOWN
IT DEMONSTRATES ABSOLUTE DIFFERENCES BETWEEN EACH SCALE POINT

THE DISTANCE IS NORMALLY DEFINED AS ONE SCALE UNIT FOR EXAMPLE, A COFFEE BRAND RATED 3 IN TASTE IS ONE UNIT AWAY FROM ONE RATED 4

ASSUMED INTERVAL
THE RESEARCHER WOULD PROBABLY ASSUME THAT EACH DESIGNATION WAS ONE UNIT AWAY FROM THE PRECEDING ONE

RATIO SCALE
RATIO SCALES ARE THE ONES IN WHICH TRUE ZERO ORIGIN EXISTS
SUCH AS -ACTUAL NUMBER OF PURCHASES IN A CERTAIN TIME PERIOD, -RUPEES SPENT, MILES TRAVELED ETC.

APPROXIMATELY HOW MANY TIMES IN THE LAST MONTH HAVE YOU PURCHASED ANY THING OVER Rs.1000 IN VALUE AT NANZ STORE?
0 1 2 3 4 5 MORE ( SPECIFY_ )

TYPICALLY THE ISSUES LIKE QUANTITY SOLD NUMBER OF CONSUMERS PROBABILITY OF PURCHASE ETC. FORM RATIO SCALE MEASUREMENT

Nominal, Ordinal, Interval, and Ratio Scales Provide Different Information

ASSESSING A RESPONDENTS LIKING OF SOFTDRINKS WITH NOMINAL ORDINAL, INTERVAL AND RATIO SCALES

NOMINAL SCALE
WHICH OF THE FOLLOWING SOFT DRINKS ON THE FOLLOWING LIST DO YOU LIKE? CHECK ALL THAT APPLY COKE THUMS UP MOUNTAIN DEW PEPSI SEVEN UP SPRITE

ORDINAL SCALE PLEASE RANK THE SOFT DRINKS ON THE FOLLOWING LIST ACCORDING TO YOUR DEGREE OF LIKING FOR EACH, ASSIGNINIG MOST PREFERRED DRINK RANK=1 AND YOUR LEAST PREFERRED DRINK RANK=6 COKE THUMS UP MOUNTAIN DEW PEPSI SEVEN UP SPRTIE

INTERVAL SCALE PLEASE INDICATE YOUR DEGREE OF LIKING OF EACH OF THE SOFTDRINKS ON THE FOLLOWING LIST BY CHECKING THE APPROPRIATE POSITION ON THE SCALE
DISLIKE A LOT DISLIKE LIKE LIKE A LOT

COKE THUMS UP MOUNTAIN DEW PEPSI SEVEN UP SPRTIE

RATIO SCALE PLEASE DIVIDE 100 POINTS AMONG EACH OF THE FOLLOWING SOFT DRINKS ACCORDING TO YOUR DEGREE OF LIKING FOR EACH COKE THUMS UP MOUNTAIN DEW PEPSI SEVEN UP SPRTIE

The Scaling Techniques


THE COMPARATIVE SCALESComparative scales involve the direct comparison of stimulus object. THE NON- COMPARATIVE- One of the two types of scaling techniques in which each stimulus object is scaled independently of the other object in the stimulus set

THE COMPARATIVE SCALING


It is a scale format that requires a judgment comparing one object, person, or concept against ANOTHER ON THE SCALE For example, the respondents might be asked whether they prefer coke or pepsi COMPARATIVE SCALE DATA MUST BE INTERPRETED IN RELATIVE TERMS AND HAVE ONLY ORDINAL OR RANK ORDER PROPERTIES hence referred as NON-

Non-comparative scales refer to a scale format that requires a judgment without reference to another object, person, or concept These scales are also referred to as monadic or metric scales The resulting data are generally assumed to be interval or ratio scaled

NON COPARATIVE SCALES

For example, respondents may be asked to evaluate coke on a 1 to 6 preference scale (1= not at all preferred; 6 = greatly

TYPES OF COMPARATIVE SCALES


PAIRED COMPARISON RANK ORDER CONSTANT SUM Q-SORT AND OTHER PROCEDURES

TYPES OF NONCOMPARATIVE SCALES


CONTINUOUS RATING SCALES ITEMIZED RATING SCALES
I. II. III. IV. LIKERT SCALE SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE STAPEL SCALE THURSTONE SCALE

Paired Compared Rating Scale


a. TRUST b. COMPETENCE a. TRUST a. TRUST a. COMPETENCE a. COMPETENCE b. COMMUNICATION SKILLS b. PERSONAL SOCIAL SKILLS b. COMMUNICATION SKILLS b. PERSONAL SOCIAL SKILLS

a. COMMUNICATION SKILLS b. PERSONAL SOCIAL SKILLS

RANK ORDER SCALE


Rank order scaling is commonly used to measure preferences for brands as well as attributes Rank order data are frequently obtained from respondents in conjoint analysis because rank order scaling forces the respondent to discriminate among the stimulus objects

CONSTANT SUM SCALE


This scale provides a better perspective of distance between the points on a continuum With this type of scale, the respondent is asked to divide or allocate
a number of points, percentages, or rupees,

The amounts that are allocated to each alternative indicates the ranks assigned to them by the respondents, but it also indicates the amount of difference the respondents set between each alternative

Non-comparative scale
THESE CONSIST OF CONTINUOUS RATING SCALES ITEMIZED RATING SCALES

CONTINUOUS RATING SCALE:


A scale measure that uses a scale point format that presents the respondent with some type of graphic continuum as the set of possible responses to a given question It is also referred to as graphic rating scales

Respondents rate the objects by placing a mark at the appropriate position on a line that runs from one extreme of the criterion variable to the other Once the respondent has provided the ratings, the researcher divides the line into as many categories as desired and assigns scores based on categories into which the ratings fall These scores are treated as interval

EXAMPLE:
HOW WOULD YOU RATE RELIANCE RETAIL AS A DEPARTMENT STORE?
VERY BAD NEITHER GOOD NOR BAD
PROBABLY THE WORST---------------I---------------------------------------PROBABLY THE BEST 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

VERY GOOD

ITEMIZED RATING SCALE


Used as BECAUSE OF ITS SIMPLICITY AND Adaptability This form of rating scale requires a respondent to indicate his or her attitude by selecting a position on a continuum that reflects a range of possible views

TYPES OF ITEMIZED SCALES


SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE LIKERT SCALE STAPEL SCALE THURSTONE SCALE

SEMANTIC DIFFERENTIAL SCALE


A unique bipolar ordinal scale (good/bad, like/dislike, competitive/noncompetitive, helpful/unhelpful, etc.) format that captures a persons attitudes or feelings about a given object

Individual items on a semantic differential scale may be scored on either A +3 to - 3 Or a 1 to 7 scale The resulting data are commonly analyzed through profile analysis Means or median values on each rating scale are calculated and compared by plotting statistical analysis

It is widely used in comparing BRANDS PRODUCTS COMPANY IMAGES DEVELOP ADVERTISING AND PROMOTIONAL STRATEGIES NEW PRODUCT DEVELOPMENT STUDIES

The actual design of a semantic differential scale can vary from situation to situation

EXAMPLE:
A semantic differential scale for measuring Self concepts Person concepts Product concepts

ORGANIZED RATIONAL YOUTHFUL FORMAL ORTHODOX COMPLEX COLORLESS MODEST

NO-ORGANIZED EMOTIONAL MATURE INFORMAL LIBERAL SIMPLE COLORFUL VAIN

RUGGED EXCITABLE UNCOMFORTABLE DOMINATING THRIFTY PLEASANT CONTEMPORARY CONTEMPORARY

DELICATE CALM COMFORTABLE SUBMISSIVE INDULGENT UNPLEASANT NON-

Image Profile of Commuter Airlines versus Major Airlines

Source: J. Richard Jones and Sheila I. Cocke, A Performance Evaluation of Commuter Airlines: The Passengers View, Proceedings: Transportation Research Forum 22 (1981), p. 524. Reprinted with permission.

Example
Semantic differential scale format for Sushmita sen as a credibility spokesperson in TV or print advertisements for Revlon brands of grooming products We would like to know your opinion about the Expertise, Trustworthiness, and Attractiveness

EXPERTISE:
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

KNOWLEDGEABLE EXPERT SKILLED QUALIFIED EXPERIENCED

UNKNOWLEDGEABLE NOT AN EXPERT UNSKILLED UNQUALIFIED INEXPERIENCED

TRUST WORTHINESS
1 2 3 4 5 6 7

RELIABLE SINCERE TRUSTWORTHY DEPENDABLE HONEST

UNRELIABLE INSINCERE UNTRUSTWORTHY UNDEPENDABLE DISHONEST

ATTRACTIVENESS

SEXY BEAUTIFUL ATTRACTIVE UNATTRACTIVE CLASSY ELEGANT

NOT SEXY UGLY

NOT CLASSY PLAIN

LIKERT SCALE
An ordinal scale format that asks the respondents to indicate the extent to which they agree or disagree with a series of mental belief or behavioral belief statements about a given object

A likert scale usually consists of two parts: ITEM PART- Is essentially a statement about a certain o product o Event o Or attitude EVALUATIVE PART- Is a list of response categories ranging from strongly agree to strongly disagree

An important assumption of this method is that each of the items (statements) measures some aspect of single common factor In other words, the resulting scale is uni dimensional The analysis can be conducted on:
An item by item basis (profile analysis) Or a total (summated) score can be calculated for each respondent by summing up across items

EXAMPLE: Flyer perception about Indian airlines


Ia is always on time The seats are very comfortable I love the food they provide Their air hostesses are very beautiful My boss/friend flies with ia IA has younger aircrafts I get advantage of frequent flier program It(the flight timing) suits my schedule My wife/mom feels safe when i fly ia Flying ia complements my life style and social standing in the society

Flyer shall evaluate each statement and assign a value ranging from 1 to 5 depending upon his agreeing or disagreeing with the statement Then a score can be arrived at for - Each individual - And total score given to each statement by fliers

STAPLE SCALE
Unipolar scale with 10 categories numbered from - 5 to +5, without a neutral point (zero), With values progressions ranging from positive to negative which measure direction and intensity simultaneously Usually presented vertically

The main virtue of this scale is that it is easy to administer and construct because there is no need to provide adjectives or phrases to assure bipolarity The higher the positive score, the better the adjective Describes the object

EXAMPLE: APPLICATION OF STAPEL SCALE FOR THE RETAIL STORE IMAGE STUDY +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 WIDE SELECTION -1 -2 -3 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 LESSER KNOWN BRAND -1 -2 -3 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 HIGH QUALITY -1 -2 -3 -4 -5

-4 -4 -5 -5 _____________________________________________

Summary of Advantages and Disadvantages of Rating Scales

Attitude towards online shopping


To ensure the success of online business, it is important for the retailers to understand their targeted customers. To understand consumers online shopping orientations and factors that influence attitude toward online shopping and online shopping intention.

Eight components, referring to online shopping orientation and online shopping perceived benefits, were found to explain 97 % of the variability in consumers online shopping orientation. They were subsequently labeled: Utilitarian online shopping orientation, Hedonic online shopping orientation, Fun, Convenience, Customer service, Homepage, Wider selection and Price.

The reliability of data and scale was tested by computing Cronbachs Alpha. Alpha values were 0.874 for online shopping orientation, 0.921 for perceived benefits, and 0.853 for attitude. These alpha values exceed the 0.80 recommended

Effective interactions between websites and consumers is one of the main concerns of every ecommerce company as a means of ensuring success of the online business. According to Mohd Suki et al 2006 showed that internet shoppers are more likely to be young, affluent, highly educated

In the context of online shopping, benefits are what consumers think an online store. The benefits that encourage consumers to purchase through the internet. Therefore, understanding how consumers perceive benefits of online store is important in choosing and making a purchase decision.

Generally, research indicates that 81% of those who browse Internet for goods and services do not actually make an online purchase.

Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) is


a theoretical approach which has been used extensively as a tool to help explain consumer actions, in both online and offline contexts. which accentuates an individuals behavior, is an outcome of attitudes that is formed by perceptions or norms. New technology is influenced by

Utilitarian and Hedonic Shopping Orientations Consumers who are utilitarian have goal-oriented shopping behaviors, shop online based on a rational necessity that is related to a specific goal. Hedonists have experiential shopping behaviors .The hedonists do not only gather information to shop online but also seek fun, fantasy, arousal, and enjoyable experiences.

The differences between utilitarian and hedonic Utilitarian Hedonic


Extrinsic Motivation Instrumental orientation Situational Involvement Directed (pre-purchase search) Goal-oriented choice cognitive Work Planned purchase; repurchasing Intrinsic Motivation Ritualized orientation Enduring involvement Nondirected (ongoing) search; browsing Navigational (experiential) choice affective fun Compulsive shopping; impulse buys

Online shopping The benefits can be physiological, Perceived benefit

psychological, sociological, or material in nature. Consumers perceived benefits are the sum of online shopping advantages or satisfactions that meet their needs or wants. Online shopping have established two categories of benefits; intrinsic and extrinsic. Extrinsic benefits include features such as

Reason why people shop online

Methodology
A five-level Likert scale ranging from strongly disagree to strongly agree is used. Reliability and validity were used to assess the internal consistency and content validity of instrument. Specifically, internal consistency reliability, i.e. how well items reflecting the same construct yield similar results. It was tested using Cronbachs alpha coefficient which is the most frequently used estimate of internal consistency. The higher the score is, the more reliable the generated scale is, meaning that its

Demographic characteristics of respondents Variables and category


Gender:-Male, Female Age(Years):-20-25years(43.8%) Level of education:- Master (78%), Ph.D. Monthly Income :-RM 1001-2000(37.3%) Ethnicity :-Malay(44%) ,Chinese(40%) , Indian(13%) Product purchase :-Food & beverage, Clothing/ Accessory/Shoes,Toy23,Computer/Electronics/

shopping orientation, online shopping perceived benefits and attitude toward online shopping were computed to assess inter-item reliability for each of the multiitem variables. Cronbach's alpha coefficient is high in all scales, ranging from 0.853 to 0.965. These alpha scores exceed the .80 recommended acceptable inter-items reliability limit, indicating that the factors within each multi-item variable are, in fact, inter-related. Variable Alpha Online Shopping Orientations .874 Online shopping Perceived benefits .921

Exploratory factor analysis

Conclusion
consumer satisfaction of online shopping experiences, that utilitarian online shopping orientation, hedonic online shopping orientation, fun, convenience, customer service, homepage, wider selection and price are dominant factors which influence consumers attitude toward online shopping, survey instrument specified the consumer characteristics (consumers

Cont..
Consumer engaged in online shopping are affecting by different motivators than consumer engaged in traditional shopping. Internet shopping is perceived or believed to offer relative benefits over traditional face-to-face. Main determinants consumers attitudes toward online shopping are convenience, wider selection and price. Online purchase are more likely utilitarian rather than hedonist.

Conclusion
Utilitarian online shopping orientation, hedonic online shopping orientation, fun, convenience, customer service, homepage, wider selection and price are dominant factors which influence consumers attitude towards online shopping. Consumer engaged in online shopping are affecting by different motivators than consumer engaged in traditional shopping. The study of attitude provides the marketer an estimate of his or her readiness to act toward or to purchase the

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