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Reduced Thrust Takeoff

REDUCED THRUST TAKEOFF

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Reduced Thrust Takeoff


Objective

Principle

Flexible Takeoff

Derated Takeoff

Flex Temperature Calculation

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Objective
To explain the two different ways to reduce thrust during takeoff
Flexible takeoff Derated takeoff To compare the two takeoff techniques

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Reduced Thrust Takeoff


Objective

Principle

Flexible Takeoff

Derated Takeoff

Flex Temperature Calculation

weight

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Principle

weight

weight

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Principle

weight

You need less Thrust

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Principle
When your Actual Takeoff Weight is lower than the Maximum takeoff Weight, it is possible to perform a takeoff with less than the maximum takeoff thrust. This thrust reduction improves engine life and reduces maintenance costs.

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Principle
Which part of the aircraft is concerned ?
engine

aerodynamics

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Principle
Benefits of thrust reduction
saves the engine life ( engine stress)

improves engine reliability ( Probability of engine failure)


reduces maintenance costs

Two methods are available:

Flexible Takeoff

Derated Takeoff

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Principle
Thrust levers : 5 positions on Airbus aircraft
TOGA : Takeoff / Go-Around thrust Maximum thrust available . Limited to 5 min with all engines operative . Limited to 10 min with one engine out MCT : Maximum Continuous Thrust No time limit with one engine out FLX : Flexible T/O Thrust DRT : Derated T/O thrust CL : Max Climb Thrust or Max Cruise Thrust Idle Max reverse

Power

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Principle
Thrust levers : 5 positions on Airbus aircraft
TOGA : Takeoff / Go-Around thrust Maximum thrust available . Limited to 5 min with all engines operative . Limited to 10 min with one engine out MCT : Maximum Continuous Thrust No time limit with one engine out FLX : Flexible T/O Thrust DRT : Derated T/O thrust CL : Max Climb Thrust or Max Cruise Thrust Idle Max reverse

Power

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Reminder about engines and thrust


Thrust levers TOGA thrust variation with OAT
Thrust

EGT Limit

Tref

OAT

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

TOGA thrust variation with OAT Weight Thrust

EGT Limit

Tref

OAT

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Reduced Thrust Takeoff


Objective

Principle

Flexible Takeoff

Derated Takeoff

Flex Temperature Calculation

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Principle
Flex temperature

Flex Take Off : what for ? To enable takeoff without engines at full rate reduces :

Weight
Max TOW

Thrust

the probability of a failure (safety aspect), the engine deterioration rate and associated maintenance costs (economic aspect).
Flat rated Thrust

Available Thrust
Needed Thrust

Actual TOW

Flex Take Off : The pilot enters the Flex. Temp. in the MCDU: EGT Limit Setting thrust levers on FLX will provide necessary thrust for takeoff.

OAT

Tref

Flex Temp

OAT

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Principle
Flex temperature

Weight
Max TOW

Thrust
Available Thrust
Needed Thrust
Flat rated Thrust EGT Limit

Actual TOW

25 %
reduction max

Thrust reduction mustn't exceed 25 %, to quickly recover full available TOGA thrust if necessary. TOGA Thrust (daN)
OAT

T Flex max

Tref

Flex Temp

OAT

Reduced Thrust Takeoff Conditions of application: Flex. take off is to be made only if : 1) TREF < Tflex. Flex temperature 2) OAT < Tflex. 3) Tflex Tflex max Weight Thrust Available Thrust
Flat rated Thrust EGT Limit Actual TOW

Principle

Max TOW

Needed Thrust

T Flex max

OAT

Tref

Flex Temp

OAT

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature

Thrust
TOGA Thrust Flexible Thrust
Flat rated Thrust

Flexible Takeoff procedure: at any moment, pilot can recover TOGA

EGT Limit

OAT

Tref

Flex Temp

OAT

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature

Thrust
VMCG/VMCA based on maximum TOGA thrust
EGT Limit

Tref

OAT

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Conclusion : Which one shall be favored ?

Flexible Takeoff
Thrust level is less than TOGA. Performance for a flex T/O is computed by adjusting the max T/O thrust performance (use of a single T/O chart calculated for TOGA). At any moment it is possible to recover TOGA (same minimum control speeds as TOGA). Thrust setting parameters for flex T/O are not considered as T/O operating limits. Flex T/O is forbidden on contaminated runways. No performance improvement.

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Reduced Thrust Takeoff


Objective

Principle

Flexible Takeoff

Derated Takeoff

Flex Temperature Calculation

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Derated Takeoff
Each derate level is certified and is associated to a new set of performance data
Certified Certified Certified Certified Certified

engine engine
engine engine
engine

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Derated Takeoff Weight Thrust


It consists in decreasing the TOGA thrust by steps of 4%

!
Max. thrust available

The TOGA thrust can not be selected any more during T/O.

OAT

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Derated Takeoff
Derated Takeoff benefits :

Weight

Thrust

Reduction of engine stress Reduction of minimum control speeds (VMCG/VMCA)

Max. thrust available

Derated Takeoff benefits :


Performance improvement on short runways Allowed on contaminated Runways OAT

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Derated Takeoff

Thrust
TOGA Rating
Derated Rating

6 amounts of derate are certified : 4%, 8%, 12%, 16%, 20%, 24%.

Derated Takeoff procedure : pilot cannot recover TOGA.

Derated Thrust

!
OAT

OAT

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Derated Takeoff
On a short or a contaminated runway, the main limitation is most of the time the accelerate-stop distance. In order to reduce the ASD, V1 is reduced, till reaching VMCG Min V1 limited by VMCG V1V1V1V1 V1V1V1

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Derated Takeoff
TOGA : VMCG = 111 kts

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Derated Takeoff
TOGA : VMCG = 111 kts DERATE (4%) : VMCG = 109 kts DERATE (8%) : VMCG = 107 kts

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

A319 aircraft // YBHM ATIS : - Takeoff runway 14 - Runway condition Water - CONF 2 - Wind 0 kt - Temperature 20C - QNH 1,013 hPa - Air conditioning OFF - Total Anti-ice OFF

Which of derate levels gives the best TOW ?

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Derated Takeoff

Thrust
TOGA Rating Derated Rating

VMCG/VMCA based on derated thrust

Tref

OAT

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Conclusion : Which one shall be favored ?

Flexible Takeoff
Thrust level is less than TOGA.

Derated Takeoff
Thrust level is less than TOGA.

A new set of performance data is Performance for a flex T/O is provided in the Flight Manual for computed by adjusting the max T/O each derate level (use of a specific thrust performance (use of a single T/O chart for each derate level). T/O chart calculated for TOGA). At any moment it is possible to TOGA selection is forbidden. recover TOGA (same minimum control speeds as TOGA). Thrust setting parameters for flex T/O are not considered as T/O operating limits. Flex T/O is forbidden on contaminated runways. No performance improvement. Thrust setting parameters are considered as operating limits for T/O. Derated T/O is allowed on contaminated runways. Increase of T/O weight on short and VMCG limited runways.

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Reduced Thrust Take Off


Objective

Principle

Flexible Takeoff

Derated Takeoff

Flex Temperature Calculation

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


EXAMPLE

YMML ATIS provides the following data : Takeoff runway 09 Takeoff configuration : CONF 2 Runway condition WET Wind 0 kt Temperature 25C QNH 1010 hPa

BLEEDS STATUS : Air conditioning ON Total Anti-ice OFF Actual Takeoff Weight : ATOW = 67 000 Kg

Determine whether ATOW is lower than MTOW or not (calculate the MTOW with optimized corrections)
If ATOW is lower than MTOW, calculate the flexible temperature (with interpolation) and the take-off speeds

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


YMML ATIS : - Takeoff runway 09 - CONF 2 - Runway condition WET - Wind 0 kt - Temperature 25C

- QNH 1010 hPa - Air Conditioning ON - Total Anti-Ice OFF

MTOW = 75600 Kg

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


YMML ATIS : - Takeoff runway 09 - Runway condition WET - CONF 2 - Wind 0 kt - Temperature 25C - QNH 1010 hPa - Air conditioning ON - Total Anti-ice OFF Now, lets consider optimized corrections !

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


- RWY WET - QNH 1010 hPa - Air conditioning ON

Wind = 0 kt

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


- RWY WET - QNH 1010 hPa - Air conditioning ON

68C = Tvmc : OAT above which takeoff is limited by minimum control speeds Vmcg and Vmca If OAT Tvmc, apply correction of the 2 top lines If OAT > Tvmc, apply correction of the 2 bottom lines

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


- RWY WET - QNH 1010 hPa - Air conditioning ON

OAT = 25C < Tvmc = 68C Top lines

Wind = 0 kt

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


- RWY WET - QNH 1010 hPa - Air conditioning ON

Wet correction = - 0.9 t

Wind = 0 kt

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


- RWY WET - QNH 1010 hPa - Air conditioning ON

1010 - 1013 = - 3 hPa Wind = 0 kt

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


- RWY WET - QNH 1010 hPa - Air conditioning ON

OAT = 25C < Tvmc = 68C Top lines Wind = 0 kt

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


- RWY WET - QNH 1010 hPa - Air conditioning ON

1013 - 1010 = 3 hPa 3 hPa x - 0.7t/10hPa = - 0.21 t Wind = 0 kt

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


- RWY WET - QNH 1010 hPa - Air conditioning ON

Wind = +0 kt

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


- RWY WET - QNH 1010 hPa - Air conditioning ON

OAT = 25C < Tvmc = 68C Top lines

Wind = +0 kt

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


- RWY WET - QNH 1010 hPa - Air conditioning ON

AC ON correction = - 1.1 t

Wind = +0 kt

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


TOTAL OPTIMIZED CORRECTION

WET Correction = - 900 Kg

QNH Correction = - 210 Kg AC Correction = - 1 100 Kg MTOW = 75 600 - 2 210 MTOW = 73 390 Kg

Total Correction = - 2 210 Kg

MTOW = 73 390 Kg > ATOW = 67 000 Kg OK !

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


YMML ATIS : - Takeoff runway 09 - CONF 2 - Runway condition WET - Temperature 25C - Wind 0 kt - ATOW= 67 t - QNH 1010 hPa - Air Conditioning ON - Total Anti-Ice OFF

Conservative method : Tflex = 59C With interpolation : Tflex = 60C

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


YMML ATIS : - Takeoff runway 09 - CONF 2 - Temperature 25C - Wind 0 kt - ATOW= 67 t

- Runway condition WET - QNH 1010 hPa - Air Conditioning ON - Total Anti-Ice OFF

Corrections must be applied !

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation Weight Thrust


Flat rated Thrust

QNH < 1013 hPa or/and Bleeds ON


EGT Limit

ATOW

Tref
Tflex decreases, hence necessary corrections

Tflex

Tflex

OAT

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


2 types of corrections are possible :

- Conservative corrections (FCOM 2.02.24 P1)

- Optimized corrections (RTOW chart)

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


QNH correction

Anti-Icing correction
Air Conditioning Correction Only to be applied A/C OFF to A/C ON

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation

Flex. take off is to be made only if : Tflex > OAT Tflex > Tref and Tflex Tflex max Tflex max = ISA+55

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation

Tmax = 54C : take-off is not possible if OAT > 54C

Tflex max = ISA+55 Elevation = 395 ft Tflex max = 14+55=69C

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


YMML ATIS : - Takeoff runway 09 - CONF 2 - Temperature 25C - Wind 0kt - ATOW= 67 t

- QNH 1010 hPa - Air Conditioning ON - Total Anti-Ice OFF - Runway condition WET

QNH correction : 1013 - 1010 = 3 hPa 3 hPa x -1C/3hPa = -1C QNH correction = -1C

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


YMML ATIS : - Takeoff runway 09 - CONF 2 - Temperature 25C - Wind 0kt - ATOW= 67 t

- QNH 1010 hPa - Air Conditioning ON - Total Anti-Ice OFF - Runway condition WET

Air Conditioning ON correction : -3C

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


YMML ATIS : - Takeoff runway 09 - CONF 2 - Temperature 25C - Wind 0kt - ATOW= 67 t

- QNH 1010 hPa - Air Conditioning ON - Total Anti-Ice OFF - Runway condition WET

Wet runway correction :


-8C

With reversers TODA=2436m and TORA=2286m

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


Summary :

- Chart Tflex = 60C - Wet correction = - 8C - QNH correction = -1C - AC ON correction = -3C - Corrected TC = 48C
CT = 48C > OAT = 25C OK! CT = 48C > Tref = 45C OK ! CT = 48C ISA+55 CT = 48C 14+55 = 69C OK!
Flex takeoff is possible

and Tflex = 48C

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


2 types of corrections are possible :

- Conservative corrections (FCOM 2.02.24 P1)

- Optimized corrections (RTOW chart)

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


- RWY WET - QNH 1010 hPa - Air conditioning ON

Wet correction for Tflex = - 2 C Wind = 0 kt

For each correction,


compare TFLEX with TVMC

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


- RWY WET - QNH 1010 hPa - Air conditioning ON

QNH correction for Tflex = - 2 C Wind = 0 kt

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


- RWY WET - QNH 1010 hPa - Air conditioning ON

AC ON correction for Tflex = - 3 C Wind = 0 kt

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


Summary :

- Chart Tflex = 60C - Wet correction = -2C - QNH correction = -2C - AC ON correction = -3C - Corrected TC = 53C
CT = 53C > OAT = 25C OK! CT = 53C > Tref = 45C OK! CT = 53C ISA+55 CT = 53C 14+55 = 69C OK! Flex takeoff is possible and Tflex = 53C

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


YMML ATIS : - Takeoff runway 09 - CONF 2 - Temperature 25C - Wind 0 kt - ATOW= 67 t

- QNH 1010 hPa - Air Conditioning ON - Total Anti-Ice OFF - Runway condition WET

Speeds : V1 = 136 kt Vr = 137 kt V2 = 140 kt

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


YMML ATIS : - Takeoff runway 09 - CONF 2 - Temperature 25C - Wind 0 kt - ATOW= 67 t

- QNH 1010 hPa - Air Conditioning ON - Total Anti-Ice OFF - Runway condition WET

Only wet corrections for speeds !

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


- RWY WET - QNH 1010 hPa - Air conditioning ON

Wind = 0 kt

Wet correction: V1/ VR/ V2 = - 8 / - 1 / - 1 V1 =136 - 8 = 128 kt Vr = 137 - 1 = 136 kt V2 = 140 - 1 = 139 kt

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


EXERCISE YMML ATIS provides the following data : Takeoff runway 09 Takeoff configuration : 2 Runway condition DRY Wind 20 kt Temperature -5C QNH 1003 hPa

BLEEDS STATUS : Air conditioning ON Total Anti-ice OFF


Actual Takeoff Weight : ATOW = 69 000 Kg

Determine whether ATOW is lower than MTOW or not (use optimized corrections)
If ATOW is lower than MTOW, calculate the flexible temperature and the takeoff speeds

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


EXERCISE : ANSWER

MTOW = 78 200 Kg > ATOW = 69 000 Kg

Flex Temperature = 55C > TREF (45C)


Flexible takeoff is possible V1 = 141 kt, VR = 142 kt, V2 = 145 kt

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


YMML ATIS : - Takeoff runway 09 - CONF 2 - Temperature -5C - Wind 20 kt - ATOW= 69 t

- QNH 1003 hPa - Air Conditioning ON - Total Anti-Ice OFF - Runway condition DRY

MTOW = 79 900 Kg

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


- RWY DRY - QNH 1003 hPa - Air conditioning ON

Correction : = - 600 - 1100 = 1700 kg

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


YMML ATIS : - Takeoff runway 09 - CONF 2 - Temperature -5C - Wind 20 kt - ATOW= 69 t

- QNH 1003 hPa - Air Conditioning ON - Total Anti-Ice OFF - Runway condition DRY

Conservative result : Chart Temp = 59 C With interpolation : Chart Temp = 60 C

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


- RWY DRY - QNH 1003 hPa - Air conditioning ON

Conservative result : Corr. Temp = 59 - 5 = 54C


With interpolation : Corr. Temp = 60 - 5 = 55C

Correction : = - 2 - 3 = - 5 oC

Reduced Thrust Takeoff

Flex Temperature calculation


Conservative result : Corr. Temp = 54C With interpolation : Corr. Temp = 55C

CT > OAT = - 5C CT > TREF = 45C CT T FLEX MAX = 69C

Flexible takeoff is possible and Tflex = 55C

Reduced Thrust Takeoff