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If If

present simple , present simple present simple , future {will + infinitive}


past simple
past perfect

, would + infinitive
, would have + past participle

Correct the verbs:

1. If you (clean) ___________the window , you would have seen the plane. 2. If you understand the question, you (answer) ___________It. 3. If you understood the question, you (answer)___________ it. 4. If you had understood the question, you (answer) ___________It. 5. If he had a holiday , he (go) ___________To Cairo. 6. If he had helped me , I (get) ___________high mark 7. If he (send) ___________a message , I will send him the reply at once . 8. If he had put the money in the bank , he (not lose) ___________it. 9. If he had lived near us , we (help) ___________him . 10. If he (not advise) ___________us , we would make a bad mistake . 11. If he (not take) _________the medicine , he would have become ill . 1: had cleaned 2:will answer 3:would answer 4:would have answered 5:would go 6: would have got 7:sends 8:wouldnt have lost 9: would have helped 10: didnt advise 11:hadnt taken

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14.

If you (boil) ___________water , it (turn) ___________ into steam. If he (play) _________well yesterday , he (win) ___________the match. If he had hurried, he (catch) ___________the train . If he (not go) ___________home, he would have no rest . If the doctor cant see me, I (go) ___________to another one. If the car (cost) ___________ too much, I will not buy it. If you(do) ___________ that you would have been mistaken. If I had known that, I (not go ) ___________ there at all. If you came, we (go) ___________ together. If I (see) ___________ him ,I would tell him. If I (know) ___________his number, I would telephone him. He (go) ___________ at once ,if you ask him to. He will be ill if he (not eat) ___________. I (be) ___________ very happy if he had come.

1: boil / turns 2: played- would win 3: would have caught 4: didnt go 5:will go 6: costs 7: had done 8: wouldnt have gone 9:would go 10 : saw 11: knew 12: will go 13 : doesnt eat 14:would have been

Key Words: Present simple: usually, often, never, always, every, sometimes, twice a year Present Continuous: now, at the moment, at present, tonight, Look! , Listen! Past Continuous: When past simple, past continuous. While past continuous , past simple. Past simple: yesterday, ago, once, in the past, last, this morning, when, while . Present perfect: Just, yet, for, since, ever, never, already, recently, lately. Past perfect: WHEN / AFTER / AS SOON AS PAST PERFECT , PAST SIMPLE. WHEN / BEFORE / BY THE TIME PAST SIMPLE , PAST PERFECT.

Relative pronouns WHO : WHEN: WHERE: WHICH/THAT: WHOSE:

WHOM: IS USUALLY USED AS THE OBJECT PRONOUN IT IS NECESSARY AFTER PREPOSITION: To whom should I address the letter? (written) Who should I address the letter to? (spoken)

Some cofusing strustures and vocabulary: Too & To & Two Two = the number 2 Its T W O not tow Tow is a verb that means :to pull a vehicle or ship along behind another vehicle, using a rope or chain The ship had to be towed into the harbor.

To :used after a verb, noun, or adjective when an infinitive.

The manager asked them to leave.

Too :used at the end of a sentence or clause to mean 'also

'I'm feeling hungry.' 'Me too.'

More examples To We tried to explain. It was starting to rain. Have you got permission to stay here? Our team's certain to win. Are you ready to start? This delicious dessert is easy to make. I could have helped, but nobody asked me to. I know where to go but I don't know how to get there. She wondered whether or not to trust him. They left early to catch the 7.30 train. To find out more about university courses, write to this address. We need more money to improve transport in London. It's nice to be wanted. He's finding it hard to cope.

The simplest solution would be to increase the price. He did not have the energy to resist. I'm too tired to go out tonight. He arrived there to find that the last train had already left. I've never heard of him, to be quite honest.

More examples Too Do you think the music's too loud? You've put too much salt in the soup. There are too many cars on the road. Amanda is far too young to get married. My boots were three sizes too big for me. He was too ill to travel. The box was too heavy for me to lift. There were people from all over Europe, and America too. Can I come too? 'I'm feeling hungry.' 'Me too.' It's a more efficient system and it's cheaper too. She doesn't seem too upset about it. 'What was the weather like?' 'Oh, not too bad.

'You're not smart enough to use a computer.' 'I am too! Working full-time was too much for her. Thank you. You are too kind.

very (adverb) [+ adjective/adverb]: to emphasize an adjective, adverb It feels very cold today. The fishing industry is very important to the area. The traffic's moving very slowly this morning. The garden's not very big, is it? Too (adverb) [+ adjective/adverb] more than is acceptable or possible Do you think the music's too loud? You've put too much salt in the soup. There are too many cars on the road. Amanda is far too young to get married. He was too ill to travel. The box was too heavy for me to lift. So (adverb) [+adjective/adverb]used to emphasize how great a feeling or quality is, or how large an amount is It was so embarrassing! Why didn't you call? We were so worried. I've never seen so many people here before! ever so British English . [+adjective/adverb] used when emphasizing the degree or amount of something by saying what the result is so ... (that) He was so weak that he could hardly stand up.

1. The chair is made of wood You can still see the wood. 2. The juice is made from oranges You cannot see the oranges anymore! "Made of" refers to what something consists of. It usually refers to individual parts that are still recognizable. This desk is made of plastic.

"Made from" refers to a mixture of things from which something is made . These are usually some materials or things that are no longer recognizable. The cake is made from sugar , eggs and butter.

what when

asking for information about something asking about time

What is your name? When did he leave?

where which who

asking in or at what place or position asking about choice asking what or which person or people(sub)

Where do they live? Which colour do you want? Who opened the door?


asking what or which person or people (obj)

Whom did you see?


asking about ownership

Whose are these keys? is it?

Whose turn

why why don't

asking for reason, asking what...for making a suggestion

Why do you say that? Why don't I help you?

what how

asking for information about something asking about manner asking about condition or quality

What is your name? How does this work? How was your exam? see examples below How far is Alex from Cairo ?

how + adj/adv how far

asking about extent or degree distance

how long
how many how much
how old

length (time or space)

quantity (countable) quantity (uncountable)

How long will it take?

How many cars are there? How much money do you have?
How old are you?


This where I will be during the summer (ISA) see you there.