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A Structured technique for data collection that consists of a series of questions, written or verbal , that a respondent answers.

Developing Questions
Shoulds of Question Wording

Question should be focused on a single issue or topic. Question should be brief. Question should be interpreted the same way by all respondents. Question should use respondents core vocabulary. Question should be a grammatically simple sentence if possible.

Screening questions
Screen questions are used to screen out respondents who do not meet the qualifications necessary to take part in the research study. Have you shopped at Lifestyle ? Yes or no

UNSTRUCTURED QUESTIONNAIRE Open-ended questions that respondents answer in their own words What do think about new promotion policy? What is your favorite brand What are your expectations from the service

Questions that pre-specify the set of response alternatives and the response format. A structured question could be multiple choice, dichotomous or a scale. What newspaper do you read most often for financial news? Economic Times Business Line Business Standard National newspaper Other (specify:______________ )

Avoid Double-barreled question

A single question that attempts to cover two issues. Such questions can be confusing to respondents. Do you think coca-cola is a tasty and refreshing soft drink? It should be ; Do you think Coca-cola is a tasty soft drink? Do you think Coca-cola is a refreshing soft drink?

Overcoming unwillingness to answer

Facilitate the respondents : How do you feel about the atmosphere of store? It should be ; How do you feel about the Lighting of a store? How do you feel about the Music of a store?

Use ordinary words

Address the Vocabulary level of the respondents. Never use Jargons Do you think the distribution of soft drinks is adequate? (In correct) It should be, Do you think soft drinks are readily available when you want to buy them

Use unambiguous words/ Be specific

How often do you shop in departmental store? (Incorrect) Never Occasionally Sometimes Often Regularly It should be, How often do you shop in in a month? Less than once 1 or 2 times 3 or 4 times

Avoid Leading questions

A questions that gives the respondents a clue as to what answer is desired or leads the respondents to answer in a certain way Do you think that patriotic Indians should buy Indian made goods when that would put Indian labor out of work? It should be, Do you think that Indians should buy only Indian made goods ?

Avoid generalizations and estimates

What is the annual per capita expenditure on groceries in your household It should be, What is the monthly or weekly or annual expenditure on groceries in your household?

Form of Question Response

Dichotomous questions have two possible opposing responses, for example, "Yes" and "No". Do you have plan to purchase a branded laptop in the next 12 months. Yes No

Multiple Choice Single-Response Scale

What newspaper do you read most often for

financial news?

Economic Times Business Line Business Standard National newspaper Other (specify:______________ )

Multiple Choice Multiple-Response Scale

Check any of the sources you consulted when

designing your new home: Online planning services Magazines Independent contractor/builder Developers models/plans Designer Architect Other (specify:__________________ )

Question Types Likert Scale

Indicate your level of agreement with the following statement: Nilgris give better service than Other shops. Strongly disagree Disagree Neither agree nor disagree Agree Strongly agree

The Semantic Differential Scale

7 point scale Bipolar adjectives/statements Can give quick comparative profile of objects

The Semantic Differential

Disadvantage: Not always easy to develop bipolar adjectives Use with several items to use space well Advantage : Can use for comparisons with competitors or with an ideal

The Fixed Scale

Re allocate a fixed number of points (usually 10 or 100) to choices

Fixed Sum Scale

Below are five characteristics of an automobile. Please allocate 100 points among the characteristics so that the allocation represents the importance of each characteristic to you. If the characteristic is not at all important, you may assign it zero points. If a characteristic is twice as important as some other characteristic, it should receive twice as many points. Characteristics Styling Ride Gas Mileage Warranty Closeness to Dealer Number of Points _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ 100

Fixed Sum Scale

Advantages: Scale facilitates comparisons interval level data Should not list too many items

Stapel Scale

(Company Name) +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 Technology Leader -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 Exciting Products -1 -2 -3 -4 -5 +5 +4 +3 +2 +1 World-Class Reputation -1 -2 -3 -4 -5

Graphic Rating Scales

Only limited by your creativity Typically easy to understand

The Happy Face Scale

Please circle the face that best describes how well you like this class.

The Thermometer Scale

How good was this years Swimsuit edition of Kingfisher calendar? (Put an X on the appropriate thermometer)

Paired-Comparison Scale

For each pair of two-seat cars listed, place a check beside the one you would most prefer if you had to choose between the two. ___BMW Z3 ___Porsche Boxster ___ Chevrolet Corvette ___ BMW Z3 ___ Chevrolet Corvette ___ Dodge Viper ___Chevrolet Corvette ___ Porsche Boxster ___ Porsche Boxster ___ Dodge Viper ___ Dodge Viper ___ BMW Z3

Forced Ranking


the factors you consider for preferring a branded salt Place the number 1 next to the most preferred, 2 by the second choice, and so forth.
__ Brand image

__ Quality __ Price __ Free coupons/discounts __ Color of the salt

Question Types Intention to Buy Scale

How likely are you ready to purchase Fast-foods in Nilgris ,If its introduced next month? Definitely buy Probably buy

Not sure
Probably not buy

Definitely not buy


The testing of the questionnaire on a small sample of respondents for the purpose of improving the questionnaire by identifying and eliminating potential problems


A learned predisposition to behave in a consistently favorable or unfavorable manner with respect to a given object.

A Simple Representation of the Tricomponent Attitude Model




The Tricomponent Model

Cognitive Component The knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources. Affective Component A consumers emotions or feelings about a particular product or brand. Conative Component The likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object.

Cognitive Component
Ariel is effective in salt water It is harmless for hands

Affective Component
I like the fragrance of Ariel I like the packaging color of ariel

Conative Component
I have been using ariel for about a year I will recommend the ariel to my friends

This Business magazine name will come to my mind when you mention any business magazine This business magazine is a reliable and credible source. I can get precise facts and market analysis. I learn effective business terminologies/ concepts. Printing format, legible fonts and color usage makes this magazine more attractive and easy to read. I love this magazine. I will buy special issues and other business publications coming from this Business magazine. I will recommend this magazine to my friends/ relatives