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Fluidized Bed Technologies for High Ash Indian Coals A Techno-Economic Evaluation

Dr. D.N. Reddy, Director Dr. V.K. Sethi, Research Adviser Centre for Energy Technology, University College of Engineering (Autonomous) Osmania University, Hyderabad 500 007, India.

INDIAN POWER SECTOR - TOWARDS SUSTAINABLE POWER DEVELOPMENT


Total Installed Capacity 103,000 MW Thermal Generation over 70 % Although no GHG reduction targets for India but it has taken steps through adoption of Combined cycles, Co-generation, Coal beneficiation,Plant Performance optimization Long term measures like adoption of Clean coal technologies; IGCC, FBC, Supercritical technologies Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) conceived to reduce cost of GHG mitigation, while promoting sustainable development as per Framework Convention on Climate change (FCCC) is being implemented

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE PRESENT STUDY...

Environmentally benign Clean Coal Technology of advanced Fluidized Bed Combustion is an ideal technology for high ash coals Statutory use of washed coal for TPS >1000 km from the pit head calls for setting up of washeries > 85 Million tons / annum. Use of Washery rejects & Middling for Power generation calls for adoption of CFBC technology The present paper deals with the techno-economic and transfer of technology aspects of Clean coal technology in general and CFBC in particular for inferior coals & in refurbishment of old polluting plants

Energy Efficient Technologies


Technologies on Anvil for Power generation using high ash Indian coals:
(SCR) & Ultra supercritical (USC) Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) Fluidized Bed Combustion
Supercritical

VISION 2020 PROGRAM


Gasification using + fluidized bed, moving bed or Entrant bed Gasifiers In-combustion Clean-up Fluidized bed combustion (CFBC, PFBC, AFBC)
Post combustion Clean-upDesulfurization (FGC systems) Supercritical

Pre combustion Cleanup beneficiation/washing

CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES


Technologies for utilization of Coal for Power Generation with minimal pollutants discharged to the atmosphere (Reduced CO2, Sox, Nox, SPM) at high conversion efficiency.W.C.I.

Super Critical PC Power Plant (15 oC Amb.) 60 Super Critical PC Power Plant (Indian Condition) IGCC (15 o Amb) C IGCC (Indian Condition) Sub Critical PC Power Plant (Indian Condition) 1500 oC 1300o C 623 o C oC 600

Net Thermal Efficiency (%)

55

50
45 566 oC

40
1184o C

650o C
540oC

Ceramic gas turbine

35 30 1990

1995

2000

2005

2010

Year of commercial use

Fig.5 EFFICIENCY IMPROVEMENT FORECAST CONVENTIONAL Vs IGCC(Courtesy BHEL)

The Principal advantages of supercritical steam cycles are :Reduced

fuel costs due to improved thermal efficiency CO2 emissions reduced by about 15%, per unit of electricity generated, when compared with typical existing sub-critical plant Well proven technology with excellent availability, comparable with that of existing sub-critical plant Very good part-load efficiencies, typically half the drop in efficiency experienced by sub-critical plant Plant costs comparable with sub-critical technology and less than other clean coal technologies. Very low emissions of nitorgen oxides (Nox) sulfur oxide (Sox) and particulate achievable using modern flue gas clean-up equipment etc.

Front line issues are to be reolved


Development

of high temperature creep resistant alloy steels Turbine material development

Super Critical TechnologyIndian Perspective


Mega

power policy of setting up of coal fired supercritical/Ultra Supercritical units at pit-head Cost of generation is least for pithead washed coalfired unit amongst all other supercritical units. The optimum parameter for Indian conditions is suggested as 246 kg/cm2 & 538/566C. Based on transfer of technology model as per logic diagram (shown next) the velocity of transfer of technology for supercritical units is 2 from the year 2000.

IGCC

TECHNOLOGY ...

Gasification of coal is the cleanest way of utilization of coal, while combined cycle power generation gives the highest efficiency. Integration of these two technologies in IGCC power generation offers the benefits of very low emissions and efficiencies of the order of 44-48%. The comparative indices show that in case of IGCC, emission of particulate, NOx and SOx are:

7.1%, 20% and 16%, respectively, of the corresponding emissions from PC plant.

Environmental performance of IGCC thus far exceeds that of conventional and even supercritical plants. Three major areas of technology that will contribute to improvements in IGCC are : hot gas de-sulfurisation hot gas particulate removal advanced turbine systems

Commercialization of IGCC needs technology demonstration at an intermediate scale of about 100 MW to address the issues such as: hot gas clean ups and system optimization and to establish reliability and performance. This would also enable to design an optimum module for air blown gasification, which in multiples would constitute a commercial size plant in the range of 300-600 MW.

Technology transfer related issues and techno-economic analysis vis--vis CFBC are covered in the paper

Identified R&D Areas in IGCC are:


Process optimization of selected gasification process
Improvement of design and reliability of plant components & Resource Optimization Optimization of overall plant heat integration and layout Hot gas cleanup

COAL GASIFICATION SELECTION OF GASIFICATION PROCESS


The fluidised bed process has many technical and environmental advantages over the moving bed process, such as,

The fluidised bed can use any amount of fines whereas in the moving bed only 10% of fines can be used.
In the fluidized bed process, hydrocarbon, liquid byproducts such as tar, oil and gas-liquor are not produced and, hence, the pollution is reduced. High ash coals can also be successfully gasified in the fluidised bed.

Experience on the fluidized bed process is, very limited in the country. Internationally, the experience gained so far is only for low ash coals. Thus there is a need for taking up extensive R&D on IGCC Pilot Plant using high ash (4050% Ash) Indian Coal

Technology-related issues in IGCC

Design of Advanced gasifiers (optimum gas


composition, optimum scale-up etc.) Hot gas cleaning (de-sulphurisation and particulate

removal)

Advanced gas turbines (blade design to sustain ash laden gas)

CO2 emission abatement in IGCC Power Plants


Operating conditions of IGCC plants in transient stage Configuration of an optimized system for IGCC

Fuel related issues


In a Raw Pet-Coke and refinery residue based IGCC Plant

System optimization, particularly the balance of plant Optimized Heat balance diagrams Scaling up of gasifiers to optimum size

In a Coal/Lignite based IGCC Plant


Process & Plant conceptual design De-sulfurization of syngas of high sulfur coal and lignite Optimized Heat balance diagrams Super critical Vs IGCC in Indian context Application of ASME PTC-47 code for IGCC for high ash coals and lignite

SOME IMPORTANT FINDINGS ON TECHNOLOGY ASPECTS OF IGCC...

Reactive solid sorbent de-sulfurization combined with hot gas cleaning through ash and sorbent particle removal provides for higher energy efficiency to the extend of 4-7%.

The current Capital cost of building an IGCC power plant is of the order of Rupees 6 Crore/ MW.
Improvements in hot gas cleaning coupled with Cycle optimization shall bring down the cost drastically to a level of $ 1000/kW or about Rupees 4.5 crore/MW

The efficiency of refinery bottom based IGCC unit will be about 2% higher than that of coal based IGCC unit. Refinery based IGCC plants - Advantages Co-generation of steam Co-production of hydrogen gas & recovery of sulfur element No use of limestone, as required for CFBC technology No requirement of extra land for disposal of solid waste In the long run the refinery based IGCC technology is equally attractive to coal based IGCC from economic and environmental considerations.

A GENERALIZED SCHEME FOR TRANSFER OF TECHNOLOGY

The first step in the scheme is to disintegrate the Power plant concept into components, sub systems, production chain, production technologies Next step is the Value addition to each element of the production chain Assessment of necessity of Import and Calculation of indigenous production share Calculation of Velocity of the Transfer of Technology both at normal pace as well as accelerated pace

Typical results of the velocity of TOT are : (With year 2000 as base)

IGCC (oxygen blown) - Pet coke Normal pace ---Accelerated ---IGCC (Air Blown) Normal pace Accelerated ----------

5 years 2 years Coal 7 years 5 years )

SOME FINDINGS RELATED TO TRANSFER OF TECHNOLGOY (TOT)

At present it may be prudent to implement the project in phased manner to absorb the risk of gasifier in the total project wrap-up guarantees A Technology Transfer model for determination of velocity of Transfer of Technology (TOT) is an useful tool for TOT of a frontier technology from a developed economy to a developing economy

PHASED CONSTRUCTION

16

Circulating fluidized Bed Combustion


Circulating

Fluidized Bed Combustion (CFBC) technology has selectively been applied in India for firing high sulphur refinery residues, lignite, etc. In the overall terms the CFBC is superior to PC as follows: - Lower NOx formation and the ability to capture SO2 with limestone injection the furnace. - Good combustion efficiencies comparable to PC -The heat transfer coefficient of the CFB furnace is nearly double that of PC which makes the furnace compact. - Fuel Flexibility: The CFB can handle a wide range of fuels such as inferior coal, washery rejects, lignite, anthracite, petroleum coke and agricultural waste

CFBC Vs Other Clean Coal Technologies


ITEM CFBC PF+FGD/SCR IGCC

Cycle Eff. %

34.8

36.7

41-42

Relative Cost/kW

Capital

1.0

1.03-1.19

1.15-1.42

Relative Cost/kW

O&M

1.0

1.49

0.8-0.98

At present pulverized fuel firing with FGD are less costly than prevailing IGCC technology. However, firing in CFB Boiler is still more economical when using high sulfur lignite and low-grade coals and rejects.

Revamping of Old Polluting PC Boilers by CFBC Boilers


Renovation & Modernization (R&M) and Life Extension (LE) of old power plants is a cost-effective option as compared to adding up green field plant capacities.

Growing environmental regulations would force many utilities within the country to go for revamping of these polluting old power plants using environmentally benign technology.
A

mere refurbishment by the same type of new boiler would not provide the right solution today. There is desperate need to revamp aging power boilers in India with environmentally friendly technology, which will improve the thermal as well as environmental performance. CFBC offers a promising technology on this front. This calls for boiler sizing within the constraints of an old polluting plant

Some

representative results follow ...