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CARL ROGERS

AND PERSON-CENTERED COUNSELING

Born on January 8, 1902 in Oak Park, Illinois Fourth (4th) child born of WALTER AND JULIA ROGERS His father was a successful Civil Engineer His mother was a housewife and devout Christian Carl learned to read at the age of 4 At the age of 6 and a half, he begun in the (2nd) He majored agriculture and history and he received a PhD in Psychology

The Development of Person Centered Counseling



First stage The book of Counseling and Psychotherapy This field was dominated by two system of treatment : Psychoanalytic /psychodynamic approaches Behavioral approaches

He proposed nondirective in which the primary role of the clinician is to help people express, clarify, and gain insight

into their emotions. Primary tools Acceptance Reflection Genuineness

Second Stage- Client Centered therapy Emphasis on the importance of peoples emotions Clinicians role as more active and important and believed that by communicating accurate empathy, congruence, and acceptance Clinicians also create an environment that is conducive to helping people make positive changes Three core facilitative conditions: Empathy Congruence Acceptance

Third Stage On Becoming a Person Conception of healthy and fully functioning people: those who are open to experience, appreciate and trust themselves, and are guided by inner locus of control rather by an effort to please or impress others.

Client Centered replaced by person centered


Because the focus was no longer only on the clinical relationship but his concern with all of humanity. It is now used not only in treatment of individuals but also in families, business and administration, education, crosscultural settings conflict resolution and the promotion of world peace.

Important Theoretical Concepts

Ultimate Goals Understanding, appreciating, and relating to others in positive ways.

Six Important Theoretical Concepts


A. Humanism Focus on emotions rather than background or cognitions, including clientcentered, existential, Gestalt, emotion-focus therapy. -is phenomenological, believing that every person is unique and individual and has his/her own subjective reality, based on life experiences. -emphasized the positive nature of human beings Goal of treatment: to affirm and empower people

B.

Human Potential and Actualization

Human potential- the inherent tendency of people develops positive ways that enhance and maintain themselves as well as humanity. -peoples natural inclination toward actualization, expansion, growth, and health

Actualization- is a process that occurs across the life span, manifesting itself as movement toward self-awareness and self-realization, autonomy, and self-regulation. C. Conditions of Worth- it is the selfconcepts are shaped through interaction with important people in their lives and the messages they received from those people. -restrict authenticity so that the people cannot respond with honesty in their emotion thoughts or behavior.

E. The Fully Functioning Personreflects his idea of emotional health. Characteristics of fully functioning person:
Openness to experience Living with a sense of meaning and purpose Trust and congruence in self Unconditional positive self-regard and regard of others Internal locus of evaluation Being fully aware in the moment Living creatively

Goals: to provide that climate of acceptance, free of conditions of worth, counteract negative messages that people have received, and enable them to have complete freedom to be choose for themselves, and to realize their potentials as fully functioning selfactualizing people

D. Organismic Valuing Process-refers to peoples innate ability to know what is importance to them, what is essential for a more fulfilling life.

The Necessary and Sufficient Conditions of Therapeutic Process


1. A relationship exists- two persons are in psychological contact. 2. The client is in a state of incongruence, which causes him or her to be vulnerable or anxious. 3. The therapist is congruent (genuine or authentic) in the relationship.

4. The therapist experiences unconditional positive regard for the client. 5. The therapist experience and attempts to express an emphatic understanding of the clients internal frame of reference. 6. The therapists unconditional positive regard, emphatic understanding and congruence must be perceived by the client, at least to some degree.

F. Phenomenological Perspective-each person has his/her unique perception of the world. The organisms react to field as it is experienced and perceived.

5.

The therapist experience and attempts to express an emphatic understanding of the clients internal frame of reference. 6. The therapists unconditional positive regard, emphatic understanding and congruence must be perceived by the client, at least to some degree.

Goals By the end of treatment, how ever, people were able to live in and experience the present and trust both themselves and the therapeutic process.

Central Goal of Person Centered Counseling


to facilitate peoples trust and their ability to be in the present moment. Therapeutic Alliance-promoting selfawareness, congruence and autonomy Three facilitative conditions:

First element-genuineness, realness, or congruence- the more the therapist s himself or herself in the relationship, putting up no professional front or personal faade the greater is the likelihood that the client will change and grow in a constructive manner. Transparent-the client can see right through what is the therapist is in the relationship. Second element- acceptance, or caring, or prizingexperiencing a positive acceptant attitude toward whatever the client is at that moment. Third element- emphatic understanding- therapist senses accurately the feelings and personal meanings that the client is experiencing and communicates understanding to the client.

Facilitative Conditions -this qualities help create a positive clientclinician relationship and promote client selfawareness and ability to direct their in positive ways. Congruence-refers to clinicians ability to be genuine and authentic well integrated and aware of themselves and ho they are perceived by others. Unconditional Positive Regard- caring about, respecting, linking, and accepting people for who they are without placing any requirements on them to act, feel, or think in certain ways to please their clinicians.

According to Anderson and Anderson (1989)

Thee types of therapist self- disclosure 1. Information related to the personal identity and experiences of the therapist. 2. Emotional responses of the therapist to the client. 3. Professional experiences and identity of the therapist.

Empathy- it involves being sensitive, moment by moment, to the changing felt meanings which flow in this other person, to the fear or rage or tenderness or confusion or what ever that he or she is experiencing. NOTE: The heart of person-centered counseling is the therapeutic relationship. Nondirective Therapy-Emphasizes the importance of the client taking the lead and being the focus of the treatment process.

Application and current use of person-centered counseling.


Three factors 1. Outcome research on the core conditions continues to verify that Rogers was correct. 2. The broad application of this approach in case of integration into other treatment models. 3. The positive and optimistic nature of person-centered counseling.

Emotion-Focused therapy- Is an empirically supported neohumanistic theraphy that consider emotions as crucial to the experiencing and understanding of self.

Goal of EFT
To help clients become more proficient at accessing, identifying, understanding, and regulating their emotion so they can live more fully. EFT involves three step process A. Bonding B. Emotion evoking C. Emotion restructuring Experiential focusing- the therapist invites client to pay attention to the source of feelings in their bodies. It assumes that the felt sense is a source of information relating to current issues.

Six steps in the process of focusing


Step 1. Clearing a space Step 2.Felt sense Step 3. Handle Step 4. Resonating Step 5. Asking Step 6. Receiving

Motivational Interviewing- It incorporates the values of humanistic psychology and the principles of person-centered counseling with interviewing techniques that helps promote behavioral change.
Application to diagnostic groups-it is applied successfully to crisis intervention; to training programs for pastoral counseling, nursing, and first responders; and across myriad environments from education to business management, human resources and piece negotiations.

Aspects of application to multicultural group


The emphasis on peoples right to their own opinions and thoughts The importance placed on respect, genuineness, acceptance, and empathy The focus on peoples own experience and frames of reference The emphasis on personal growth and selfactualization The interest relationship and commonalities among people The attention to present moment awareness and the immediacy if the counseling situation

Strengths and Contribution


Carl Rogers developed one of the most comprehensive theories of the self ever created He believed in the dignity and worth of each individual and in peoples innate movement toward actualization and growth. Although his theory first started to evolve in the 1940s and 1950s, it is still appropriate and relevant todaynearly 70 years later

Rather than a fixed theory with proscribed techniques, Rogers created a solid foundation on which future theories can build The theory is optimistic, affirming, and has a positive perspective on human nature Psychotherapy outcome research supports the major tenets of person-centered therapy Psychotherapy-centered therapy can be easily integrated into other treatment approaches

Emphatic Responding- help to facilitate a compassionate and safe environment in which a person can feel free to explore deeper emotions. Three types of responses: N= No responses in which no empathy is expressed I= interchangeable responses in which the therapists captures the essence of what the clients have said, but nothing more was added. E= emphatic response.

Thank you so much!!!!


Prepared by: Jackielyn B. De Mesa Eva Feline Allarey