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ENERGY CONSERVATION WITH ENERGY AUDITING

Presented by

Deepali S Mandwe

Ph. D. Scholar Department of Renewable Energy Sources, CTAE, MPUAT, Udaipur

Consumption

WHY ?

of direct commercial energy in the form of electricity and petroleum products in Indian agriculture has increased for 1.8 MTCR to about 35 MTCR. Consumption of commercial energy in total energy consumption in Indian agriculture is about 60%. Due to Increasing price of petro oil and other fuels and limitations on the supply of commercial energy coupled with rising demands have created a new awareness of the energy costs and returns of various production systems. Considering the vast potential of energy savings and benefits of energy efficiency, the Government of India enacted the Energy Conservation Act, 2001 (52 of 2001).

ENERGY AUDITING

It involves a methodical examination, reviewing and quantification of energy flows i.e. input and outputs. The audit is a detailed examination of how the facility uses energy, what it pays for that energy, and in conclusion a set of recommendations to reduce the energy costs by both equipment and operational changes. For such exercise the pre-requisite Energy Norms of various inputs and outputs are utilized. The Energy Norms make the studies noncomparable and thus limited the use of such studies for wider applications in the area of research, management and resource planning.

CLASSIFICATION OF ENERGY INPUTS

On the basis of having or not having financial transactions for the possession of the inputs as:

1 Non Commercial Energy: e.g. a) Indian farmer has traditionally used the organic manure and seeds produced on his own farm. b) Most of the farmers depend on the family labour and on draft animals raised on the farm for physical work. 2 Commercial Energy: e.g. a) The energy inputs made through electric motors, engines, tractors, fertilizers, chemicals and agricultural equipment, involve financial transactions and are, therefore, included in the category of commercial energy inputs.

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On basis of high and low rate of its replenishment.

3 Renewable Energy: e.g. a) The inputs having high rate of replenishment such as labour, draft animal, farmyard manure and seed. 4 Nonrenewable Energy: e. g. a) inputs having low rate of recharge, like petroleum products, coal, fertilizers, chemicals and machinery. Electricity is in the renewable as well as nonrenewable energy group depending upon its source of production i.e. Hydel or thermal (diesel, coal, nuclear, etc.).

METHODS OF DETERMINATION ENERGY NORMS


1.

Statistical Analysis: This method involves the determination of energy norm from statistical data and takes into account the lumped evaluation of the energy norm. Example of this type of energy norm is per capita consumption of commercial energy which was 0.2 and 11.9 MTCR respectively for Indian and USA (Anon., 1973).

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2.

Input output analysis: This type of analysis determines the total energy input per unit output of each production system and subsystem (Anon. 1973). It is preferred over statistical analysis as it gives slightly better estimates of energy flow. This type of analysis can be done for each commodity being produced in order to introduce precision in assessment. This method again remains in the category of macro-level study.

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3.

Process analysis: In this analysis, the network or processes required to make a final produce (type of energy input) for the system are identified. Each process is analyzed for material and energy flow to determine its norm. This type of analysis is systematic and gives better estimate but is laborious and time consuming

MEASUREMENTS
The

unit and location of measure measurement of inputs and outputs of agricultural sector greatly influence the energy norm. Most easiest and quickest method of measurement is direct methods. But in case direct value is not available. Some norms for estimating the quantity of input are given below. Diesel and petrol: Fuel consumption (Liter) = LCRPSFC/1000HOU Where, LCF = load coefficient for the operation RP = rated power of source, KW SFC = specific fuel consumption, ml/KW/h HOU = use hours of the power source
1.

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2.

Electricity:

EI = Rp HOU / 0.85 Where, EI = electricity input, kWh RP = rated power of the electric motor, KW HOU = use of electric motor, h 3. Machinery: The agricultural machinery is replaced after it becomes unserviceable or servicing is not cost effective. Assuming that the machinery weight is uniformly distributed over its useful life. MW= THW/LH x HOU Where, MW = mass contributed towards activity, kg THW = total mass of machinery , kg LH = total use full life of machinery, h HOU = hours of usage for the particular activity.

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Housing: Assuming that the energy contribution is uniformly distributed over the total life span of the structure HACS = THA/ TLY Where, HACS = housing area contribution for a system, Sq. m/year THA = Total housing area, Sq. m TLY = Total life of structure, years
4.

ENERGY NORMS OF VARIOUS INPUTS AND OUTPUTS

Energy norms reported in this review paper are based on the following basic assumptions:
1.

2.

3.

The accountable form of energy inputs are those energy inputs which are managed and planned from village, state and country level planning. indirect energy norm is sum total of all accountable form of energy spent for the production, processing, transport, distribution, storage and maintenance of materials or services during its useful life. Direct energy norm is the energy content, in the form of enthalpy for fuel and nutrient energy for food and feed materials.

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4.

5.

6.

7. 8.

Energy norms of goods or materials in uniformly distributed over the total life span of the material or service. Energy norms of goods composed of different materials is weighed sum total of energy norms of each materials considering the generalized system of material production and transformation. Only accountable forms of material and energy inputs to the system are identified as input of system. Only recoverable forms of material and energy outputs are identified as output of the system. When an activity like distribution, processing and manufacturing of a material is part of the agricultural sector, the energy spent on that activity is not included in the energy norm of that material.

Table 1 Energy norms of different inputs.


Inputs
Human Labours: Adult men Adult Womwn Children Animal Labour: Bullocks Large Medium Small

Units

Energy norms, MJ
Direct Indirect 0.18 0.15 0.09 Total 1.96 1.57 0.98

Man-h Woman-h Child-h

1.78 1.42 0.89

Pair-h -do-do-

13.91 10.00 7.99

0.14 0.10 0.08

14.05 10.10 8.07

He-buffaloes
Camel/house Mule & other small animals Diesel Petrol Kerosene Electricity Coal: Hard Soft

-doanimal-h -dolitre litre litre kWh Kg(dry) -do-

15.00
10.00 4.00 51.19 43.85 38.48 10.85 29.6 31.9

0.15
0.10 0.04 5.12 4.38 2.82 1.08 3.0 0.9

15.15
10.10 4.04 56.31 48.23 41.30 11.93 32.6 32.8

Fuel Wood: Hard Soft Saw dust Paddy husk Agro waste Dung or Dung cakes Feed & fodder: Barseem, Lucerne, oats, bajra Rice straw Wheat bhusa Grams Oil seeds & gur Oil cakes

-do-do-do-doKg (dry)

19.8 18.0 18.0 15.5 18.0 18.0

0.9 0.9 1.25 1.47 -

20.7 18.9 18.0 15.5 18.0 18.0 12.7 13.57 16.17 25.0 10.0

As per values for by products given in Table 2

-do-do-do-do-do-

12.5 12.5 14.7 25.0 10.0

Market feed
Minerals and salts Medicines Machinery: Electric motor

-do-doRs. Kg

25.0
-

10.0 1.5 64.8

25.0
10.0 1.5 64.8

Self propelled machine


Other primr movers

Kg
Kg

68.4
68.4

68.4
68.4

Farm machinery Steel Wood Stones Alluminium

Kg Kg Kg Kg

18.0 -

62.7 12.8 10.0 215.3

62.7 12.8 10.0 215.3

Chemical fertilizers Nitrogen P2O5 K2O Fram yard manure

Kg Kg Kg Kg (dry)

0.3

60.0 11.1 6.7 -

60.0 11.1 6.7 0.3-

Chemicals Superior Zink Sulphate Inferior

Kg Kg Kg

120.0 20.9 10.0

120.0 20.9 10.0

Table 2. Energy norms of different outputs


Output
A. Crop production system: Main product Cereals Pulses Oilseeds Sugarcane Vegetables: a. Roots or tuber vegetables i.High food values: sweet potatoes, tapioca, etc. ii.Medium foods values: Colocasia, etc. iii.Low food values: carrot, radish, onion, beetroot, etc. b. Fruit or seed vegetables: beans, lady finger, melons, etc. c. Gourd family vegetables: cucumbers, papaya, tomato chilies, etc. d. leafy vegetables: cabbage, spinach, green mustard leaves

Units

Energy norms, MJ
Direct Indirect Total

Kg (dry) -do-dokg -do-do-

14.7 14.4 25.0 5.3 5.6 3.6

14.7 14.4 25.0 5.3 5.6 3.6

-do-do-do-do-do-

1.6 1.9
0.8 1.2

1.6 1.9
0.8 1.2

Fruits: a. High food values: Grapes, Tamarind, etc. b. low food values: Guava, mango, apple, peach, pears, pine, chiku, ber, cashew, citrus, etc. Fibre crops: Cotton, Sunhemp, Jute, etc. Fodder crops: Berseem, Lucerne, Oats, maize, Bajra, cow pea, etc

-do-do-

1.2 11.8

1.2 11.8

-dokg(dry) -

1.9 11.8

1.9 11.8

Green manuring crops: Dhaincha, Energy equivalent to amount of nutrient added cawpeas, etc in soil through green manuring

Fuel Crops: sunhemp, Dhaincha, etc. By product : straw, vines, etc. Stalks, cobs, fuel wood Leaves, vines and straw from vegetables Cotton seed Fibre crop seed other than Cotton Sugarcane leaves & tops
B) Animal production system Milk Buffalo Cow, goat etc. Eggs (Whole) Duck Hen Meat (cleaned) Poultry Mutton Dung C) Household activities Adult men Adult Women Children

Kg (dry) -do-do-do-do-do-do-

18.0 12.5 18.0 10.0 25.0 10.0 16.1

18.0 12.5 18.0 10.0 25.0 10.0 16.1

Kg -do-do-do-do-dokg (dry)

4.9 2.8 7.58 7.41 4.56 4.94 18.0

4.9 2.8 7.58 7.41 4.56 4.94 18.0

Men-h Women-h Child-h

0.24 0.19 0.12

0.24 0.19 0.12

Note: kg (h) means kg of harvest mass

ENERGY CALCULATION

Energy Ratio = Input Energy / Output Energy Specific Energy = Input energy/ Yield Energy Productivity = Yield/ Input energy

REFERENCES
Anon, 1973. World Energy Supplies, 1970-73. UN series J. No 18 PP 13-55. Anon, 1978. Energy and agriculture. Reprinted from the state of Food and Agriculture 1976. Food and Agriculture Organization of united Nations, Rome. Bridge, T C and Smith, E M 1979. A method of determining the total energy input for agricultural practices. Trans. Of the ASAE 22(4); 78184. Fluck, R C 1981. Net energy sequestered in agricultural labour. Trans. ASAE 24(6); 1449-55. Fluck, RC and Baird, C D. 1980. Agricultural Energetic. AVI Publishing Co. INC., Westport Connecticut, USA. Pandya, A C 1979. Energy in Agriculture. Technical Bulleitin No. CIAE 81/20, Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering Nabibagh, Berasia Road, Bhopal. Panesar, BS; Sandhar, N S; Gill B S; Bakshi, R and Singh MP 1985. Annual report on energy requirements in agricultural sector, Dept. of Farm Power and Machinery, PAU Ludhiana.

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Pathak B S; Bhatanagar, A P; Salariya K S; Jindal, S L; Gupta M l and Singh, S 1980. Enrgy balance and utilization of agril. Waste on a farm. Final report of the Tata Energy Research Institute Project, PAU, Ludhiana. Pathak, B S and Singh, D 1980. Energy returns in agriculture with specific reference to developing countries. Energy 5 (3); 119-25. Pimentel, D 1978. Energy Needs, uses and resources in food systems of developing countries. Report 78-2. Department of Entomology and Section of Ecology and Systematics, cornell university, Ithaca, NYk 4850. Pimental, D 1980. Handbook of energy utilization in agriculture CRC press Boca Raton Florida, USA. Prasad, N B 1979. Report of the working group for policy planning commission, Government of India. New Delhi.