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Effective Communication

Communication
from the Latin word COMMUNIS meaning common, sharing or making common The process of transmitting information, thoughts, opinions, facts, ideas & emotions from a person to one or more persons, its understanding by them & getting the desired response
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Effective Communication

Objective
To identify various communication techniques, understand areas of possible weakness & seek to assess ones communication effectiveness.
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Three ways to think about communication


Communication as ACTION: the transmission of information from one person to another through the use of symbols and their accompanying meaning. Communication as INTERACTION: the exchange of information between two (or more) individuals through the symbols and their accompanying meaning. Communication as MEANING CONSTRUCTION: the process by which two or more individuals arrive at ostensibly shared (or common) meanings or understandings for symbolic actions. 4

Importance Of Communication
Organizational / Functional: greater information access and awareness

Improves coordination: reduces logical gaps


Encourages cooperation: helps bring everyone in the mainstream Gives a direction: to tasks and activities Morale and empowerment

.. Importance Of Communication

Decision making aid Speeds up the organizational processes Better focus on customer requirements Generates a greater sense of organizational commitment and involvement A problem solving tool: by clarity, preciseness and feedback

Effective Communication
The Communication Process
ACG XYZ K Medium

Sender Thought or Idea

Encode idea to words

Receive hearing reading seeing Feedback Response

Decode

Understand

Effective Communication

Problem with SENDER


Intentions of the Sender (Motive) Dynamism of the Sender Expertness

relevant to topic Reliability as an information source Majority opinion of credibility of sender


People want sources they like, trust & identify with
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Effective Communication
Problem with RECEIVER
Unable to understand Doesnt want to hear (Defensive) Preoccupied so unable to listen More interested in what he wants to say So sure what is going to hear so distorts it
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Effective Communication

The Questions to be asked


WHAT WHY HOW WHEN WHERE WHO is the message is it needed choice of medium appropriate time which place, environment intended receiver
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Effective Communication
Barriers in Communication

Difficult words, high speed, language


Culture, values & lifestyle Fear of having to change Fear of reprisal, misinterpretation, exposure

Emotion, Stress
Status or Hierarchy
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Effective Communication
Overcoming Barriers

Set aside fear, no preconceived ideas Simple, clear, precise language (be
consistent)

Status not to dominate Repeat message, get feedback frequently Learn about receiver, tailor the message Avoid sleepy time segments
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. Effective Communication
Remove barriers . build gateways DOs DONTs seek first to understand - remove all prejudices and then to be understood - overcome any distractions empathize with other people - reduce length of values, beliefs, needs & sentiments communication channel use a common language clarify ideas before communicating
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.. Effective Communication
Active Listening Listen with an open mind Make an effort to understand Empathize ..reflect understanding Be aware of what is said and what is not said Dont jump to conclusionsdraw conclusions

Feedback Check for accurate receipt of message Check action/outcome in relation with the intent of the message. Improve/alter message, if required.
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Dynamics of Communication
Get along with your Audience
Do not talk down (only you know) Do not embarrass /hurt any one (values,
beliefs)

Avoid

popularity)

unacceptable

language

(cheap

Do not be too serious (joke occasionally) Involve them, make them think, question, answer, suggest, ask suggestions Show your concern for them (lack of ulterior
motive)
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Understand your Audience


Age, Ethnic/culture, background, education, lifestyle, religion, commitment Attitudes-subject, issues, unknown, you They are active listeners, not passive They have certain values & beliefs They have needs (respond to those
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needs)

Dynamics of Communication

Empathy
The power of entering into anothers personality and imaginatively, experiencing his experiences ... entering into feeling & spirit and so appreciating it fully
-Chambers Centre of Focus moved Concise Dictionary from self other person (sensitive to his/her thoughts & feelings)
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Barriers to listening

93% feel it is most important, 50% are less effective than they think Are we good at it

(2 ears, 1 mouth-maintain proportion)

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Barriers to listening

Why skill of listening absent ?


Talkers get rewarded (if you make noise- you get) Listeners have nothing to say Ego dictates must be in command-talk (others listen) We feel we are experts (need humility)
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Improve Listening Skills


How will others listen to us if we do not listen to them Stop talking to yourself (or argue) Empathise with the speaker Smile & respond Concentrate (dont get distracted) React to the idea, not the speaker
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BODY LANGUAGE
Interpreting body language is vital in any communication process Observe the body movements and postures Match the other persons language

Some interesting interpretations of Rabbits


Sniffing: May be annoyed or just talking to you Grunts: Usually angry, watch out or you could get bit! Shrill scream: Hurt or dying Circling your feet: Usually indicates sexual behavior. He/She's in love.
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Two basic groups of body language


OPEN/CLOSED and FORWARD/BACK

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RESPONSIVE ENGAGED leaning forward open body open arms open hands EAGER (sprint position) open legs feet under chair on toes leaning forward READY TO AGREE closes papers pen down hands flat on table

REFLECTIVE LISTENING head tilted lots of eye contact nodding high blink rate

FUGITIVE BORED staring into space slumped posture doodling foot tapping

COMBATIVE LET ME SPEAK finger tapping foot tapping staring AGGRESSIVE leaning forwards finger pointing fists clenched DEFIANT (standing) hands on hips frown LYING

EVALUATING LET ME GO sucks glasses/pencil feet towards door strokes chin looking around looks up and right buttoning jacket legs crossed in REJECTION 4 pos. sitting/moving back (ankle on knee) arms folded legs crossed 11 pos ATTENTIVE (thigh on knee) head (standing) down frown arms behind back DEFENSIVE smile open feet (standing) feet pointing in hands clenched

touches face handover mouth pulls ear eyes down glances at you shifts in seat 23 looks down and to left

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Ways of Communication
Face to Face Telephone Letters/ Fax/ Telex / Email Circular / Notice Posters / Pamphlets Report Conference / Seminar Films / Books Facial expression / body language

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Types of Communications
ORAL
Advantages- Better understanding, immediate feed back, clarify doubts Disadvantages-Not suitable for large audiences or lengthy communication

WRITTEN
Advantages- Authentic, accurate Disadvantages- No scope for clarifications
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Types of Communications
FORMAL
Advantages- Accurate, within rules, follows organisation chart Disadvantages- Very slow

INFORMAL
Advantages- Better interaction, flow fast Disadvantages- No check, may lead to rumours
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Types of Communications
Upward
Travels from subordinate to superior Reports, results, Ideas, suggestions for improvement, request for help/data

Downward
From superior to subordinate Instructions, circulars, Notices, appreciation, rebuke
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Flow of communication

At the workplace

* Upward

From employee to superior

* Downward
From superiors to the employee

* Lateral
From one employee to another

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Communication types

Verbal Oral - the spoken language Non verbal Written Body language Expressions - facial, gestures, signs

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Types of Communications
Lateral/Horizontal
Between people on same level Promotes coordination, facilitates work

Diagonal
Between two persons neither same dept or same level of hierarchy Should obtain permission or infor superior Quickens work
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Presentations (Formal talk)


Structured (prepared) Synopsis (key points, time) point by point Illustrations for clarity (parables) Audible to all (modulation) Eye contact (feel targeted) Summarise (emphasise key points) Clarification / Interaction
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Secrets of good performance


Be physically at ease & mentally relaxed Maintain eye contact Converse naturally Keep track of time Keep moving, dont stand at one place Stand erect, face audience, do not lean Keep hands moving (not jerky, not
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Counseling
Get advance info about person & subject Create sympathetic environment Make subject open (talk common subject) Probe gently for hidden causes Offer alternatives Show concern not criticism Keep goal clear always

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Motivation through Communication

Make people feel valued


Monitor/appreciate their work (dont overdo) Share interest on what they hold important Be approachable at all times (Physical &
to listen)

Create good, pleasant environment Make sure everyone understands importance of their contribution to the team objectives, teams direction
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Provide scope for development Set targets in consultation & review Provide relevant training/data Help with internal/external contacts Restructure groups to utilise skill best Rotate job/ responsibility to widen experience Provide scope for higher responsibility
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Give Recognition
Praise success (in private & public) Report progress & team success (higher up Individually monitor & counsel Rebuke in private Encourage ideas, suggestions-LISTEN Delegate-decisions & implementation Explain decisions & assist in acceptance

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