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PROPERTIES OF ACIDS & BASES

WEEK OUTLINE:

Monday: Properties of Acids & Bases Tuesday: Acid Precipitation

Wednesday: Properties of Acids & Bases Lab Stations


Thursday: Neutralization Reactions Friday: Acid/Base Quiz

Making an Indicator Acids & Bases at Home Lab

NEXT WEEK:

Monday (Dec 14): Review Class Tuesday (Dec 15): Chemistry Test

Wednesday- Friday (Dec 16-18) Start Climate Change Unit

WHAT DO YOU THINK?


Page 265: True or False? Stomach acid can dissolve metals like a coin in a childs stomach? We all contribute to the production of acid precipitation? Even diet soda drinks can cause tooth decay? Medications for heartburn work by cooling the stomach? All acids are dangerous? Soft drinks can be used to make spilled drain cleaner safer?

PROPERTIES OF ACIDS AND BASES


Young children like to explore by putting things in their mouths Occasionally objects get swallowed! Coins are the most common object to be swallowed Once in the stomach, the coin in bathed in a corrosive mixture that includes hydrochloric acid (HCl (aq)) and other digestive juices The concentration of HCl in your stomach is about the same as ones we have used in class - what do you think happens to the coin?

PROPERTIES OF ACIDS
Chemists

classify substances by their properties Acids - are substances that react with metals and carbonates, conduct electricity, turns blue litmus red, and neutralize bases Acids also taste sour, but you should never taste chemicals in a lab! Very useful in food industry - act as preservatives (vinegar and lemon juice)

PROPERTIES OF ACIDS
Reaction

with Metals Acids react with metals to produce hydrogen gas Ex. hydrochloric acid + zinc hydrogen gas + zinc chloride 2HCl (aq) + Zn (s) H2 (g) + ZnCl2 (aq)

PROPERTIES OF ACIDS
Reaction

with Carbonates Acids react with carbonates to produce carbon dioxide gas Ex. acetic acid + sodium hydrogen carbonate carbon dioxide + water + sodium acetate HC2H3O2 (aq) + NaHCO3 (aq) CO2 (g) + H2O (l) + NaC2H3O2 (aq)

PROPERTIES OF ACIDS
Electrical

Conductivity Many acids are good conductors of electricity A solution can only conduct electricity if it contains ions Since acids are molecular compounds they do not contain ions

PROPERTIES OF ACIDS
Electrical

Conductivity (Continued) However, collisions with water molecules break acid molecules apart to form cations (hydrogen ions) and anions Ex. Hydrochloric acid forms hydrogen and chloride ions:

HCl (aq) H+ (aq) + Cl- (aq)

CHEMICAL FORMULAS OF ACIDS


All acids produce hydrogen ions when dissolved in water Hydrogen ions give acids their properties The chemical formula of an acid begins with an H and is usually followed by an (aq) This is because an acid shows its properties when dissolved in water Hydrogen chloride - gas that would dissolve in water in lungs when inhaled = forming highly corrosive hydrochloric acid

NAMES OF ACIDS
Two

common groups of acids: Binary Acids (Table 1 Page 269)


Chemical Formula HF (aq) HCl (aq) HBr (aq) H2S (aq)

Acid Name Hydrofluoric acid Hydrochloric acid Hydrobromic acid Hydrosulfuric acid

NAMES OF ACIDS

Oxyacids related to polyatomic ions (Table 2 Page 269)


Chemical Formula Related polyatomic ion Polyatomic ion name

Acid

Acetic acid Nitric acid Carbonic acid Sulfuric acid Phosphoric acid

HC2H3O2 (aq) HNO3 (aq) H2CO3 (aq) H2SO4 (aq) H3PO4 (aq)

C2H3O2- (aq) NO3- (aq) CO3-2 (aq) SO4 -2 (aq) PO4 -3 (aq)

Acetate Nitrate Carbonate Sulfate Phosphate

PROPERTIES OF BASES

Bases - conduct electricity, change the colour of acid-base indicators, feel slippery and taste bitter

PROPERTIES OF BASES
Electrical Conductivity Bases are electrolytes, meaning their solutions are good conductors of electricity Ex. NaOH (sodium hydroxide) is an electrolyte because in water it separates into ions as it dissolves

NaOH (s) Na+ (aq) + OH- (aq)

Many common bases are ionic compounds - they are made up of ions (unlike acids) As they dissolve in water, their ions are released

NAMES AND CHEMICAL FORMULAS OF BASES

Table 4 Page 271


Chemical Formula NaOH (aq) Ca(OH)2 (aq) NH4OH (aq) Mg(OH)2 (aq) Al(OH)3 (aq) NaHCO 3 (aq)

Base Sodium hydroxide Calcium hydroxide Ammonium hydroxide Magnesium hydroxide Aluminum hydroxide Sodium hydrogen carbonate (baking soda)

COLOUR WITH ACID-BASE INDICATORS

A substance that changes colour depending on the acidity or basicity of the solution is known as an acid-base indicator

COLOURS OF COMMON SYNTHETIC ACID-BASE INDICATORS

Table 3 Page 270


Colour in Acid Yellow Colourless Yellow Red Red Colour in Base Blue Pink Red/pink Blue Orange/Red

Indicator Bromothymol blue Phenolphthalein Pheol Red Litmus Methyl orange

THE PH SCALE
pH scale - a numerical scale of all the possible values of pH from 0 to 14 pH is a measure of how acidic or basic a solution is A solution with a pH of 7 is considered neutral A solution with pH of less than 7 is considered acidic A solution with pH of greater than 7 is considered basic

THE PH SCALE CONTINUED


Solutions with highest hydrogen ion concentration are near zero on pH scale Solutions with highest concentrations of hydroxide ions are near 14 on pH scale Can use the words acidity or basicity to describe the properties of acids or bases

ACID AND BASE HOMEWORK

Page 271 #1-5