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# Chapter 16 Thermal Energy and Heat

## 16.1 Thermal Energy and Matter

Heat transfer of thermal energy from one object to another because of temp. difference Heat flows spontaneously from hot objects to cold objects

## Temperature measure of how hot or cold an object is compared to a ref. pt.

Related to average KE of the particles in an object due to their random motion through space

## 3 Things that Thermal Expansion Depends Upon

Mass Temperature Phase-solid, liquid, or gas

Thermal contraction when the volume of a material decreases due to a decrease in temperature Thermal Expansion increase in the volume of a material due to increase in temp. Thermal expansion occurs because particles of matter tend to move farther apart as temperature increase.

Specific heat amount of heat needed to raise the temp. of 1g of a material by 1 degree Celsius

## Measurement of Thermal Energy

A calorimeter is an instrument used to measure changes in thermal energy. A calorimeter uses the principle that heat flows form a hotter object to a colder object until both reach the same temperature.

## Section 1 Assessment Activites

Quick lab: Cooling Air p. 476 Math Lab p. 477 1-6 Section Assessment Question 1-6 p. 476 CBL Lab: A Good Sock

## 16.2 Heat and Thermodynamics

Conduction transfer of thermal energy with no overall transfer of matter
Occurs within a material or between materials that are touching Occurs slower in gases than in liquids or solids

Thermal Conductor material that conducts thermal energy well Thermal insulators poor conductor of thermal energy

Convection
Convection transfer of thermal energy when particles of a fluid move from one place to another

Convection currents occur when a fluid circulates in a loop as it alternately heats up and cools down
Important in many natural cycles such as ocean currents, weather systems, and movements of hot rock in Earths interior

Heat (Q) = m x c x T mass x spec. heat x change in temp Math Practice p.477

## Radiation transfer of energy by waves moving through space

All objects radiate energy Rate at which energy radiates increases with temp.

Thermodynamics
The study of conversions between thermal energy and other forms of energy is called thermodynamics.

Laws of Thermodynamics
The first law of thermodynamics states that energy is conserved. The second law of thermodynamics states that thermal energy can flow from colder objects to hotter objects only if work is done on the system. The third law of thermodynamics states that absolute zero cannot be reached.

Section 2 Activities
Quick Lab: Observing Convection p. 481 Section Assessment Question 1-8 p. 483

Section 16-3
Using Heat

Heat Engines
The two main types of heat engines are the external combustion engine and the internal combustion engine.

Heat Engines
External combustion engine an engine that burns fuel outside the engine. Internal combustion engine a heat engine that burns fuel inside the engine

Heating Systems
Central heating systems heat many rooms from one central location. Most heating systems use convection to distribute thermal energy.

Types of Heating
Hot water heating - boiler heats water that is pumped to radiators in each room. Steam heating like hot water, but steam is used. Electric baseboard heating uses electrical energy to heat a room. Forced-air heating uses fans to circulate hot air through ducts to the rooms.

Cooling Systems
Most cooling systems are heat pumps. Heat pump reverses the normal flow of thermal energy. They circulate a refrigerant through tubing. Refrigerant is a fluid that vaporizes and condenses inside the tubing of a heat pump.

Heat Pumps
Heat pumps must do work on a refrigerant in order to reverse the normal flow of thermal energy.

Refrigerators & AC
A refrigerator is a heat pump it transfers thermal energy from the cold food compartment to the warm room. Air conditioners outside air is heated as a fan blows it through the condenser coil. Inside the room, a fan draws in warm air through the evaporator coil. The fan blows cooled air out into the room.

## Section 3 Assessment Activities

Data Analysis p. 491 Section 3 Assessment Questions 1-6 p. 492 Lab: Using Specific heat to Analyze Metals p. 493