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Dissertation On

Comparing Performance of Closed Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe With Different Working Fluids And various Inclination Angles

Guide

By

Mr. P. R. Pachghare

Tushar R. Mohod
Department of Mechanical Engg. Government College of Engg., Amravati 2010-11

Introduction
The basic structure of a typical pulsating heat pipe consists of meandering capillary tubes having no internal wick structure.

It can be designed in at least three ways:


(i) open loop system, (ii) closed loop system and (iii) closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) with additional flow control check valves. The closed passive system thus formed is evacuated and subsequently filled up partially with a pure working fluid.

Fig. Schematic of pulsating heat pipe and its design variations.

It work on two-phase, bubbleliquid slug system formed inside the tube-bundle due to the dominance of surface tension forces. This tube-bundle receives heat at one end and is cooled at the other. Temperature gradients give rise to bubble generation and growth in the evaporator and simultaneous collapse in the condenser.
The generating and collapsing bubbles act as pumping elements.

Literature Survey
P. Charoensawan et.al.[2003] have experimentally studied pulsating heat Pipes and providing information on the parameter dependency of their thermal performance. Work has been done for the variation of internal diameter, number of turns, working fluid and inclination angle. CLPHPs are made of copper tubes of internal diameters 2.0 and 1.0 mm. Heated by constant temperature water bath and cooled by constant temperature waterethylene glycol mixture.

The working fluids employed are water, ethanol and R-123. The number of turns in the evaporator is varied from 5 to 23. The results indicate a strong influence of gravity and number of turns on the performance.

The thermo physical properties of working fluids affect the performance

P. Meena et.al. [2009] have work on the effect of evaporator section lengths and working fluids on operational limit of closed loop oscillating heat pipes with check valves (CLOHP/CV). R123,Ethanol and Water were used as the working fluids. Set of CLOHP/CV was made of copper tubes 1.77 mm inside diameter: 10 turns: 5, 10 and 15 cm equal lengths for evaporator, adiabatic and condenser sections. The working fluid filling ratio of 50%.

Result
The results obtained that when the evaporator lengths increased from 5 cm to 10 and 15 cm the critical heat transfer flux decreased. There was working fluids change from R123 to Ethanol and water the critical heat flux decreased.

P. Meena et.al.[2008] have study the effect of inner diameter and inclination angles on operation limit of a closed loop oscillating heat pipes with check valves (CLOHP/CV). A set of CLOHP/CV was made of copper tubes. 1.77 and 2.03 mm inside diameter: 10turn, with R123 was used as the working fluid. The working fluid was filled in the tube at the filling ratio of 50%.

The inclination angles were 0, 20, 40, 60, 80 and 90 with 5 equal lengths for evaporator, adiabatic and condenser sections. It indicated result that when the inner diameter changed from 1.77-2.03 mm the critical temperature increased. And when increase the inclination angles from 0 until to 90 the critical temperature increased.

Proposed Work
It is proposed to develop experimental set up of closed loop pulsating heat pipe(CLPHP). To evaluate the performance of set-up with two or more different working fluids like water, ethanol, methanol, R-123, R-113, R-142, R-142b depending upon suitability of set-up and properties of fluids. It is also to evaluate performance of set-up at various inclination angles 20, 40, 60, 80 and 90 with horizontal. On these evaluation comparing the performance of different working fluids at various inclinations angles.

Set-up Description
From various references the primary set up parameters are fixed which are as follows:The height of copper U-turns in heater zone i.e. evaporator section (Le) is 25.0mm and cooler zone i.e. condenser section (Lc) is 20.0mm. Length of glass tube i.e. adiabatic section (La) is 100mm & inter-tube axial distance is 12mm. Glass tube (ID 2mm& OD 3.6mm), glass tube inter connected with copper tube (ID 2mm& OD 3mm). Number of turns is 10.

Working fluid filling ratio is 50%.

Heating power is not more than 15W in evaporator section and condenser section temperature 20 C
Nichrome resistance wires wrapped around the copper U-turns on one formed the heater section. On other side were routed through a cooling box, supplied by water.

References
[1]P. Charoensawan, S. Khandekar Manfred Groll , Pradit Terdtoon Closed loop pulsating heat pipes Part A: parametric experimental investigations. Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003) 20092020. [2] P. Meena, S. Rittidech and P. Tammasaeng Effect of Evaporator Section Lengths and Working Fluids on Operational Limit of Closed Loop Oscillating Heat Pipes with Check Valves(CLOHP/CV). Applied Sciences 6 (1): 133-136, 2009. [3] P. Meena, S. Rittidech and P. Tammasaeng Effect of Inner Diameter and Inclination Angles on Operation Limit of Closed-Loop Oscillating Heat-Pipes with Check Valves. Applied Sciences 1 (2): 100-103, 2008. [4] S. Khandekar , Nicolas Dollinger, Manfred Groll Understanding operational regimes of closed loop pulsating heat pipes: an experimental study. Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003) 707719. [5] S. Khandekar, Piyanun Charoensawan b,Manfred Groll a, Pradit Terdtoon Closed loop pulsating heat pipes Part B: visualization and semi-empirical modeling. Applied Thermal Engineering 23 (2003) 20212033. [6] S. Khandekar, M. Schneider, P. Schafer, R. Kuelenovic, Manfred Groll Thermal Fluid Dynamic Study of Flat plate closed loop pulsating heat pipe. Microscale Thermophysical Engineering , 6:303-317, 2002.

[7] Manfred Groll , S. Khandekar Pulsating Heat Pipes: Progress and Prospects. May 22-24, 2003, Shanghai, China. [8] Manfred Groll , S. Khandekar Closed And Open Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe. 2125, 2004, Shanghai, China. [9] Roger R. Riehl Characteristics of an Open Loop Pulsating Heat Pipe. 2004-012509. [10] G. Karimi t, J.R. Culham Review and assessment of pulsating heat pipe mechanism for high heat flux electronic cooling. [11] P. Sakulchangsatjatai a, P. Terdtoon a, T. Wongratanaphisan a, P. Kamonpet a, M. Murakami. operation modeling of closed-end and closed-loop oscillating heat pipes at normal operating condition. 14 November 2003. [12] Mohammad Hamdan, and Emad Elnajjar Loop Heat Pipe: Simple Thermodynamic. World Academy of Science, Engineering and Technology 52 2009.

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