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Proposed by Dr. Eric Berne in mid 1960s in his book Games People Play Popularized by Thomas A. Harris, author of the book I'm OK - You're OK, and , author of Born to Win.

Our Brain (according to Berne)

Determines what we think and how we act Acts like a tape recorder while recording
1) 2)

Events Associated feelings Parent Adult Child

Has 3 distinct parts or ego states

1) 2) 3)

Transactional Analysis

Nurturing parent - comforts, praises and helps others Critical parent finds faults, displays prejudices, disapproves and prevents others from feeling good about themselves A major goal is to figure out which ego state a person is using

Transactional Analysis
Structural analysis Natural child spontaneous, impulsive, feeling oriented, self-centered & pleasure loving Adaptive child compliant, conforms to the wishes & demands of parental figures

rational thoughtful attitude wide perspective, organize, use accurate information to protect the Child To help the Child grow, prosper, become wise,


Adult Ego State

Thoughts, feelings, attitudes, behavioral patterns based on objective analysis of information (data, facts) Make decisions based on logic, computations, probabilities, etc. (not emotion)

Ego States:

We Are

Child Adult Parent in our Transactions. Biological conditions are irrelevant to these ego states. We shift from one ego state to another in transactions.

Shift in Ego States

Parent- Why dont you prepare a time-table? Child- What is the point when one cannot follow it? Becomes an Adult.

Transactional Analysis
Transactional analysis - Transactions between people are seen as having 3 levels: Complementary both people are operating from the same ego state Crossed the other person reacts from an unexpected ego state Ulterior two ego states within the same person but one disguises the other

Types of Transactions

Complementary Transactions: Appropriate and Expected Transactions indicating healthy human relationships. Communication takes place when transactions are complementary. A stimulus invites a response; this response becomes a stimulus inviting further response and so on.

Types of Transactions (Con..)

Crossed Transaction: This causes most difficulties in social situations. May be, you should improve your teaching. You always find fault with me whatever I do Parent-Child interaction.

Dealing with Difficult Customers

Keep adult ego state in control of yourself. Dont take it personally. Move cautiously, stay cool, remember complementary transactions and strokes. Do not need to take continued abuse. If handled well (e.g. didnt embarrass customer, allowed them to take something out on you), can turn out to be positive later.

Advantages of TA:


interpersonal communication Simple to learn Applicable in Motivation Helps in Organizational Development Can be used at home as well as in office