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Protocols and Standards

Your IT Partner

Objectives
Identify a MAC address Understand Networking Protocol Understand Standards and the OSI Reference Model Identify seven layers of the OSI Model and their functions Differentiate between network protocols Identify the OSI layers at which network components work Explain the protocols within TCP/IP Define function of TCP/UDP ports Identify well-known ports

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Objectives contd..

Identify the purpose of certain network services Identify IP Addressing Explain the purpose of subnetting, subnet mask and default gateways Differentiate between Public and Private Networks Explain the basic characteristics of certain WAN technologies Define the function of remote access protocols and services Explain security protocols Explain Kerberos Authentication for Microsoft Windows Server 2003

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MAC Address
MAC (Media Access Control) address is used to uniquely identify a node of a network. A MAC address is also known as an Ethernet address, hardware address, physical address. MAC addresses can be hard-coded into circuitry or stored in read-only memory (ROM), and they can be configured using vendor-supplied software.

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WINDOWS 2003 Server


Click on the Start Button Click on All Programs Next, click on Accessories, and then on Command Prompt Once a small black window appears, type in ipconfig/all Locate the number to the right of Physical Address. This is your MAC address

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WINDOWS 2003 Server contd..

Physical (MAC) address displayed under Windows 2003 Server

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Networking Protocol
In real world, if one wants to communicate successfully with another person a certain protocol must be followed, i.e. same language should be used and while one person speaks the other has to listen and vice versa. This is the analogy of protocol followed by one computer to communicate with another. A protocol may be defined as a set of rules governing the exchange of data between two entities.

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Standards
It has long been accepted in the communications industry that standards are required to govern the physical, electrical, and procedural characteristics of communication equipment. A standard is a prescribed set of rules, conditions, or requirements concerning definition of terms; classification of components; specification of materials, performance, or operations; delineation of procedures; or measurement of quantity and quality in describing materials, products, systems, services or practices.

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The OSI Reference Model


ISO (International Standards Organization) has promoted the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model. The purpose of this International Standard Reference Model is to provide a common basis for the coordination of development of standards for the purpose of systems interconnection, while allowing existing standards to be placed into perspective within the overall Reference Model. Standard provides a conceptual and functional framework.

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The OSI Layers


The OSI model categorizes the various processes needed in a communications session into seven distinct functional layers. The seven layers of OSI Model are as follows: Physical Data Link Network Transport Session Presentation Application

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The OSI Layers contd..

Physical Layer
The physical layer is concerned with transmission of unstructured bit stream over physical link. It deals with the mechanical, electrical and procedural characteristics to establish, maintain and deactivate the physical link. This is bottom layer of OSI model and is responsible for the transmission of bit stream from one node to another. Similarly, it passes to the Data Link Layer any data received from the physical medium.

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The OSI Layers contd..

Data Link Layer


The data link layer provides reliable transfer of data across the physical link. The Data Link layer is responsible for detecting and correcting any errors resulting in frames not reaching the destination or becoming damaged and unusable during the transmit. The Data Link Layer takes the help of Layer 1 below and provides the service to the Network Layer (Layer 3). It provides end-to-end validity of the data being transmitted.

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The OSI Layers contd..

Network Layer
The network layer provides upper layers with independence from the data transmission and switching technologies used to connect systems. It establishes network connection and is responsible for establishing the route to be used between the originating and destination nodes. The Network Layer is responsible for establishing the connection to the node identified in the packet.

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The OSI Layers contd..

Transport Layer
The transport layer provides reliable, transparent transfer of data between end points and provides end-to-end error recovery and flow control. It provides reliable virtual circuit for upper layers and sequencing of packets. At the receiving node, these fragments need to be assembled into the proper sequence. The Transport layer provides these services and ensures the reliability of the packet.

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The OSI Layers contd..

Session Layer
The session layer provides the control structure for communication between applications. It establishes, manages and terminates connections (sessions) between cooperating applications.

Presentation Layer
The presentation layer performs generally useful transformations on data to provide a standardized application interface and to provide common communications services; for example: encryption, text compression, reformatting, code conversion etc.

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The OSI Layers contd..

Application Layer
The application layer provides services to the users of the OSI environment; for example: transaction server, file transfer protocol, network management. It is the top layer in OSI model and provides the interface between applications and the network.

Popular Protocols
Some of the most popular protocols are TCP/IP, IPX/SPX, NETBEUI and AppleTalk.

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Popular Protocols contd..

TCP/IP
The IP component provides routing from the department to the enterprise network, then to regional networks and finally to the global Internet. While IP (Internet Protocol) takes care of handling the actual delivery of data, TCP takes care of individual units of data (called packets). This design allows the construction of very large networks with less central management.

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Popular Protocols contd..

IPX/SPX
IPX (Internetwork Packet Exchange) and SPX (Sequenced Packet Exchange) are protocols developed by Novell and are used in NetWare based Networks. They are based on protocols used in Xerox's XNS network architecture.

IPX is a connection less protocol that works at network layer of OSI Model.

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Popular Protocols contd..

NetBEUI
NetBIOS Extended User Interface also known as NetBEUI. NetBEUI was mainly extended as a basic protocol to support NETBIOS, the windows standard for workstation naming, communication and sharing. NetBEUI is used for workgroup-size local area networks (LANs) with up to 200 stations. NetBEUI was the primary protocol for LAN Manager and Windows for Workgroups.

It defines a framing mechanism at the transport layer and implements the LLC2 protocol of the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) reference model for networking.

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Popular Protocols contd..

AppleTalk
AppleTalk enables users to share folders and printers for access by other network users. AppleTalk is a legacy technology that has been largely replaced by Apple Open Transport, which supports AppleTalk, TCP/IP, and other popular network protocols. AppleTalk is a workgroup-level networking technology that supports up to 254 network nodes per physical network. AppleTalk is a suite of networking protocols that work together to provide file and print sharing services to Macintosh networks.

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How TCP/IP protocol works


When the application needs to send a large junk of data, it is the responsibility of the TCP layer to fragment this into smaller, manageable packets. It is the responsibility of the TCP to ensure that the packets of data are fragmented and transmitted. IP takes care of routing the data packets so that it reaches its destination. These packets may traverse through different parts and reach the destination in different order.

The TCP at the receiving end assembles it in the proper order and passes it to the application level at the destination.

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Layers of TCP/IP
TCP/IP consists of five layers, which include: Access layer Internet layer Transport layer Application Layer

Application Layer
The Application layer provides the ability to access the services of the other layers and defines the protocols that used to exchange data. There are many Application layer protocols and new protocols are still evolving.

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Application Layer contd.. FTP: FTP (File Transfer Protocol) permits files to be transferred from one computer to another using a TCP connection. FTP uses port 20 or 21. TELNET: Telnet is the TCP/IP protocol for remote logon. TELNET uses port 23.

SMTP: SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol) provides the basis for a network electronic mail facility.
HTTP: HTTP (Hypertext transfer protocol) facilitates the viewing of multimedia files from the World Wide Web.

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Application Layer contd.. TFTP: TFTP is used for reading and writing files. It does not support directory service of user authorization. S-HTTP: Secure HTTP (S-HTTP) provides secure communication mechanisms between an HTTP clientserver pair in order to enable spontaneous commercial transactions for a wide range of applications. SNMP: SNMP (Simple Network Management Protocol) is a simple protocol that gives the architecture specification and defines messages related to network management. POP3: The Post Office Protocol version 3 (POP3) is intended to permit a workstation to dynamically access a maildrop on a server host.

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Application Layer contd.. IMAP4: The Internet Message Access Protocol, Version 4rev1 (IMAP4) allows a client to access and manipulate electronic mail messages on a server. NTP: The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a time synchronization system for computer clocks through the Internet network.

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Transport Layer
This layer provides service to the Application Layer. The Transport layer is responsible for providing the Application layer with session and datagram communication services. TCP The TCP is responsible for verifying the correct delivery of data from client to server.

TCP adds support to detect errors or lost data and to trigger retransmission until the data is correctly and completely received.

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Transport Layer contd..

UDP UDP (User Datagram Protocol) like TCP facilitates the transmission of data streams (e.g. a complete email message) between applications running on different hosts. Unlike TCP, UDP does not divide its data packets nor does it provide sequencing of packets.

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Internet layer
This layer is primarily responsible for addressing and routing packets between hosts.

IP is a connectionless, unreliable datagram protocol primarily responsible for addressing and routing packets between hosts IP
Internet Protocol is implemented in each endpoint computer and in every gateway. IP running in a host computer accepts data in segments from TCP and sends them out across the internet.

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Network Components
Basic network components are:

Cables Network Adapter Cards Hubs Switching Hubs

Cables: The two most popular types of network cabling are twisted-pair (also known as 10BaseT) and thin coax (also known as 10Base2). Network Adapter Card: A network computer is connected to the network cabling with a network interface card, (also called a "NIC", "nick", or network adapter).

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Network Components contd.. Hub: The central connecting device is called a hub. A hub is a box that is used to gather groups of PCs together at a central location with 10BaseT cabling. Switching Hub: The Switching hub, sometimes called a "Switch" is a more advanced unit over the basic hub.

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Data Link Layer


The data link layer is the second last layer in the stack.

The two major protocols utilized by Data Link layer are: ARP (Address Resolution Protocol) and RARP (Reverse Address resolution Protocol). Data Link Layer is composed of Network hardware and device drivers. The common technologies used in LAN are Ethernet and Token Ring. ARP: ARP is a protocol used for converting an IP address to the actual address of the computer that is recognized in the local network.

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Data Link Layer contd.. RARP: RARP converts physical network addresses into IP addresses. SLIP and PPP are two protocols that allow two computers to communicate using a serial interface.

Physical Layer
The Physical Layer is the lower-most layer in TCP/IP protocol.
This layer deals with the Hardware part, through which data is being transmitted. It specifies compatibility standards and signal voltages.

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TCP/UDP Ports
Ports are used in TCP or UDP communications to name the ends of logical connections that transfer data. These are used to provide access to a host computer. In TCP/IP networking, a port is a mechanism that allows a computer to simultaneously support multiple communication sessions with computers and programs on the network. A port directs the request to a particular service that can be found at that IP address.

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Network Services
BOOTP
BOOTP (Bootstrap Protocol) is an Internet protocol that enables a diskless workstation to discover its own IP address.

DHCP
The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) provides Internet hosts with configuration parameters.

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DNS
The Domain Name Service (DNS) protocol searches for resources using a database distributed among different name servers.

NAT
NAT (Network Address Translation) is an Internet standard that enables a local area network (LAN) to use one set of IP addresses for internal traffic and a second set of addresses for external traffic.

ICS
ICS (Internet connection sharing) is a method used for connecting multiple computers in a LAN to the Internet through a single connection and a single IP address.

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WINS
WINS (Windows Internet Naming Service), a system, which determines the IP address associated with a particular network computer.

SNMP
The Internet community developed SNMP (Simple Network Message Protocol) to allow diverse network objects to participate in global network management architecture.

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IP Addressing Architecture
IP address is a logical address assigned to a specific node.
A unique IP address is required for each host and network component that communicates using TCP/IP. An IP address uniquely identifies a node or host on an IP network.

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Subnetting
The process of partitioning a single TCP/IP network into a number of separate networks called subnets.
Subnetting was introduced to overcome some of the problems that parts of the Internet were beginning to experience with the two-level addressing hierarchy:

Subnet Mask
A subnet mask is a 32-bit number that is used to partition IP addresses into a network ID and a host ID. Subnet masks are represented as four-octet dotteddecimal numbers, just as IP addresses are, except that the most common values for an octet in a subnet mask are 0 and 255.

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Default Gateway
To send a packet to a destination subnet a host on a network consults its internal routing table to determine which router to forward the packet to in order to have it reach the destination subnet. If the routing table does not contain any routing information about the destination subnet, the packet is forwarded to the default gateway. The host assumes that the default gateway knows what to do with any packets that the host itself does not know how to forward.

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Public Vs Private Networks


A home or a small office, which has a computer network that has Internet Connection Sharing (ICS) enabled, has two network connections one public and one private. The public network connection is the connection to the Internet. The private side of the network is the computers that are connected together and communicate with each other.

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WAN Technologies Switching Techniques


For transmission of data, voice and images beyond a local area, communication is normally achieved by transmitting data from source to destination through a network of intermediate switching nodes.

Their purpose is to provide a switching facility that will move the data from one node to another until the data reaches their destination. The most common switching techniquesare: circuit switching, message switching and packet switching.

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Circuit Switching
Circuit switching is the dominant technology for voice as well as data communication today. Circuit switching implies that there is a dedicated communication path between two end-stations.

Packet Switching
Instead of transmitting the complete data end-to-end, data is transmitted in short packets. A typical upper limit on packet length is 1 kilobyte. Each packet contains a portion of the users data plus some control information.

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ISDN
ISDN (Integrated Services Digital Network) is an international communications standard for sending voice, video, and data over digital telephone lines or normal telephone wires. ISDN supports data transfer rates of 64 Kbps (64,000 bits per second).

FDDI
FDDI (Fibre Distributed Data Interface) is a highperformance optic token ring LAN running at 100 Mbps over distances up to 200 km with up to 1000 stations connected.

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ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode)


ATM is a high speed, broadband transmission data communication technology based on packet switching. It is used by telephone companies, long distance carriers, and campus-wide backbone networks to carry integrated data, voice, and video information. It can work with either permanent virtual circuits (PVCs) or switched virtual circuits (SVCs), depending on your wide area network (WAN) traffic needs. The two main benefits of ATM are its high transmission speeds and its flexible bandwidth-on-demand capability.

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Frame Relay
Frame relay is a packet switching protocol for connecting devices on a Wide Area Network. It is a recently introduced service to transfer bits at a reasonable speed and low cost.

Sonet/SDH
SONET is a Fibre optic WAN technology used to deliver voice, data, and video. SONET networks are often used by telecommunication providers to provide the underlying transport mechanism for Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), networking.

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T-Carrier
It is a series of digital communication services provided by telephone companies for high-speed permanent voice and data connections.

E-carrier
E-carrier services are generally available wherever the parallel T-carrier services are not.

E-carrier services can be used for wide area network (WAN) connections, for high-speed Internet connections, for private videoconferencing services, and for public frame relay services.

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Optical Carrier (OC-x)


Optical Carrier (OC-x) is a set of signaling rates designed for transmission over Synchronous Optical Network (SONET). The term optical carrier indicates that SONET runs over Fibre-optic cabling.

Remote access protocols and services


RAS
RAS allows users to gain access to files and print services on the LAN from a remote location.

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RAS contd.. Microsoft allows remote node remote access functionality on both its Windows NT/2000 platform, which allows remote users to connect to a Windows NT/2000based network. In a mixed environment of Windows NT and Windows 2000 RAS and RRAS servers, there are some limitations on these tools .

Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP)


Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) is an industry standard datalink layer protocol for wide area network (WAN) transmission that was developed in the early 1990s.

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Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP)


Tunneling is a technology for sending frames from one network to another. It enables network traffic to be encapsulated and routed over an unsecured public network such as the Internet. Point-to-Point Tunneling Protocol (PPTP) allows the creation of virtual private networks (VPNs), which tunnel TCP/IP traffic through the Internet. PPTP is an extension of PPP and is based on PPP negotiation, authentication, and encryption schemes.

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Independent Computing Architecture (ICA)


Independent Computing Architecture (ICA) is a generalpurpose presentation services protocol for Microsoft Windows operating system platforms. ICA allows the user interface of an application to run with minimal consumption of resources on a client device while the actual application logic executes on an ICA-enabled server.

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Security Protocols
Internet Protocol Security (IPSec)
IPSec is a protocol for negotiating and controlling the security of transmissions over a TCP/IP internetwork. IPSec defines standards for data encryption and data integrity at the level of Internet Protocol (IP) datagrams and can be used to encrypt transmission of data and ensure that the data originated from the sender and was not modified in transit.

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Layer 2 Tunneling Protocol (L2TP)


L2TP is an Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) standard tunneling protocol, which is used to encapsulate Point-to-Point Protocol (PPP) frames for transmission over TCP/IP, X.25, frame relay, or Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM) networks. L2TP supports several of the authentication options supported by PPP. These include Password Authentication Protocol (PAP), Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (CHAP), and Microsoft Challenge Handshake Authentication Protocol (MS-CHAP).

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Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)


Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a handshaking protocol for communication over the Internet that provides secure authentication and data encryption.

Kerberos Version 5 Authentication Protocol


The Kerberos version 5 provides a means of verifying the identities of principals on an open, potentially insecure network. It discusses how the RFC standard Kerberos version 5 authentication protocol is used in Windows Server 2003.

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Kerberos Authentication Tools and Settings


Domain.msc: Active Directory Domains and Trusts Dsa.msc: Active Directory Users and Computers Eventvwr.msc: Event Viewer Kerbtray.exe: Kerberos Tray Klist.exe: Kerberos List Ksetup.exe: Kerberos Setup

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Kerberos Authentication Tools and Settings contd..

Ktpass.exe: Kerberos Keytab Setup Netdom.exe: Windows Domain Manager Netmon.exe: Network Monitor Setspn.exe: Manipulate Service Principal Names for Accounts

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