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Code switching is the simultaneous use of more than one language, or language variety, in conversation.

This phenomenon is widely observed in ELT classrooms, where the students usually switch between their mother tongue and the foreign language that they learn.

Code switching is defined as the concurrent use of more than one language, or language variety, in conversation, which means that there is a rapid succession of several languages in a single speech event. On the other hand, code mixing refers to all cases where lexical items and grammatical features of two languages appear in a single sentence.

Intersentential switching which occurs outside the sentence or the clause level (i.e. at sentence or clause boundaries). It is sometimes called "extrasentential" switching. Intra-sentential switching which occurs within a sentence or a clause. Tag-switching is the switching of either a tag phrase or a word, or both, from language-B to language-A (common intra-sentential switches). Intra-word switching occurs within a word, itself, such as at a morpheme boundary.

PLACE: The University of Applied Sciences "Marko Marulic" in Knin PARTICIPANTS: 31 students of ECONOMICS SCOPE & LIMITATIONS: The CS in this research means switching between English and Croatian at intrasentential and intersentential level The data were collected inside the classroom, which means that the study did not consider other settings. The findings of this research might help to explain the CS phenomenon occuring in the ELT classrooms, but they also can provide useful data to the SLA and ESP research in general.

Chad Nilep: code switching research as a part of sociocultural linguistics George Barker's description of occurance of this phenomenon among the Mexican Americans in Tucson, Arizona. Uriel Weinreich's Languages in Contact- tried to give a broader picture of code switching among billinguals and multilinguals John J. Gumperz- six conversational code switching functions: quotation marking, addressee specification, interjection, reiteration, message qualification and "personalization versus objectivization Carol Myers-Scotton introduced the Markedness Model and the Matrix Language- Frame Theory.

Krishna Bista from Troy University in Alabama, The Factors of Code Switching in University Classroom: code switching as a useful strategy in classroom interaction Iliana Reyes (The University of Arizona) suggests that CS should be understood as a tool for cognitive development and a skill children use to achieve communicative goals. Unchalee Chaiwichian. Thai-English code switching of students in the Mini- English Program (MEP)

Olcay Sert: The Functions of Code Switching in ELT Classroom Anastassia Zabrodskaja from Tallinn University: RussianEstonian Code Switching in the University. Virginia Unamuno, Multilingual switch in peer classroom interaction: "The case of the English tasks is a peculiar one. The childrens lack of competence in this language explains why they sometimes need to resort to other languages in order to clarify the specific tasks goals and fulfill them. As these children share at least two other languages, the repertoire available becomes complex."

PARTICIPANTS: 31 second-year-students of Economics at the University of Applied Sciences "Marko Marulic" in Knin who : learn Business English as an L2. differ in sex, age, social and linguistic background have the same native language (Croatian) come from different countries, Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina. Most of them have been learning English as an L2 since the primary schoool.

class observation: taking notes,making audio recordings the questionairre a short discussion about the Croatian commercial enterprise "Konzum: On being asked about the reasons for which she bought groceries in "Konzum", one of the students answered: "I think their prices are good for my budet. A few students talked about buying some things in "Konzum" in order to prepare a birthday party for their friend. One of them said:" I saw Mary and Ivana in "Konzum". They bought a present for Julijana." Then she made a short pause and said: "Sad smo mi nakon nekoliko sati kod nje doma."

This excerpt has been taken from the recording of the conversational exercise on the topic of JOB INTERVIEW: 2 S:~ Well, Because er...(0.2) I think I'm the RIGHT person for that job.~ I have all (er...)(0.6) potrebne qualifies and skills. 4 S:Well I think I'm HIGHLY QUALIFIED for this job as I:: have a degree from:: (.) >touristic management< and I'm er...I have a very good reference from my(.) previously boss and er... (0.2) yeah, well I'm er...<uhhuh>(1.0) >well<...that's all. 16 S: (0.4) .I did all finantional report for all two complete..(0.2) all by MYSELF... it was so good so my boss er...(0.4) he didn't object on that er...(0.2)he was saHow do Kako se kae zadovoljan? 17 T: Satisfied. 18 S: Satisfiedthat's righter(0.2) with that and it was quite a lot of things to do..soI-I did that all by myself and as I said that is my er(0.2) like sometning that I'm really proud of.

19 T: OK. What computer programs are you familiar with? 20 S: Er..(0.4)you mean Microsoft Office or? Well er...(0.2)I think I'm pretty good with er..(0.2)all this >packages< er...(0.2) in Microsoft Office PackagesYou know EXCEL and WORD and er...(0.4) POWERPOINT, also <Correl> Draw but it's not actually Microsoft Office but I also know how to use <Correl> Draw as well and er(0.2) a Powerpoint... ta jo...well, that's...(0.2) yeah...(.)that's all.


lines 2, and 20 -examples of CODE-MIXING -the line 16- a realistic example of CODE-SWITCHING - filling-in the gaps of not knowing the English words. -the pauses that the learner makes while talking, including the use of "er..." and "well..." -the learner's insecurity and lack of self-confidence while speaking English. -might also serve as an evidence of deficiency in learning English

In conclusion to this section, we should also say that the results have shown that: a)People who graduated from High School in most cases have bigger proficiency in English than the people who graduated from Vocational Schools. b)Younger people are more fluent in English than the older. c)The main reason for code switching from English to Croatian is language deficiency, or poor foreknowledge, in L2. This results consider only this particular group of students, but some of them can be indicative in general sense.

In addition, the results have also shown that there is an unbreakable connection among CODE SWITCHING, SITUATIONAL CONTEXT and SOCIAL AND LINGUISTICAL BACKGROUND of the L2 learner, which can be observed from the Figure 4 below. Code switching depends on the situational context and linguistical background and can be a useful language strategy if used in a proper way.

5.1 BIBLIOGRAPHY Auer, Peter. (1998) Code-switching in conversation: language, interaction and identity, ed. Peter Auer, pp. 22, 226, Routledge Bista, Krishna, The Factors of Code Switching among Billingual Students, ESP World, Issue 29, Volume 9, 2010 Bista, Krishna. (2008). The Factors of Code Switching in University Classroom: A Survey. Troy University, Troy, Alabama. Bokamba, Eyamba G. (1989). "Are there syntactic constraints on codemixing?". World Englishes 8 (3): 27792. Chaiwichian ,Unchalee, Thai-English code switching of students in the Mini- English Program (MEP), Thesis (M.A.) -- School of English Suranaree University of Technology, 2007 Clyne, Michael (2000). "Constraints on code-switching: how universal are they?". In Li Wei. The Bilingualism Reader. Routledge. Gumperz, J. John: Introduction to Part IV, Rethinking linguistic relativity/ Edited by John J. Gumperz and Stephen C. Levinson- Studies in the social and cultural foundations of language, no 17, p 366, Cambridge University Press, 1996

Jefferson, Gail: Glossary of transcription symbols with an Introduction. In G. H. Lerner (Ed.) Conversation Analysis: Studies from the first generation, John Benjamins Publishing, Philadelphia, 2004. Johnson, Keith and Helen Johnson (eds). Encyclopedic Dictionary of Applied Linguistics. Blackwell Publishing, 1999. Blackwell Reference Online. 07 January 2011 <> Myers-Scotton, Carol (1989). "Codeswitching with English: types of switching, types of communities". World Englishes 8 (3): 333346 Myers-Scotton, Carol. (1993) Common and Uncommon Ground: Social and Structural Factors in Codeswitching. Language in Society, Vol. 22, No. 4 (Dec., 1993), pp. 475-503. Cambridge University Press Myers-Scotton, Carol. (1998) Codes and Consequences: Choosing Linguistic Varieties., pp. 18-38 ,Oxford University Press US Mysken, Peter : Billingual Speech: A typology of Code Mixing, Cambridge University Press, London, 2000. Nilep, Chad, Code Switching in Sociocultural Linguistics, 2006, Colorado Research in Linguistics. Vol. 19. Boulder: University of Colorado. Reyes, Iliana: Functions of Code Switching in Schoolchildren's Conversations, Bilingual Research Journal, v28 n1 p77-98, National Association for Bilingual Education, Washington, 2004 Sert, Olcay, The Functions of Code Switching in ELT Classroom, The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. XI, No. 8, August 2005; Unamuno, Virginia, Multilingual switch in peer classroom interaction, Linguistics and Education 19, 2008. Zabrodskaja, Anastassia, Russian-Estonian Code Switching in the University, Arizona Working papers in SLA and Teaching, 14, 123-139 (2007), The University of Arizona/ College Of Humanities

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