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Green: The new color in Information Technology

Introduction
Green Use Green Disposal Green Design Green Manufacturing

Profiling Energy Usage For Efficient Consumption


What is Energy Usage Profile (EUP)? A simple Experiment A Simple Fluorescent bulb (60W) 1 Hour consumption: 0.06 kWh Cost $0.0897 per kWh $0.0054 per hour $47.15 for a year CO2 expulsion 23 lbs for 1 kWh 1208 lbs for a year

EUP for Hardware

Server consumption

- 383.75W in Idle - 454.39W in Stress $301.54 per year 7731.8 lbs of CO2

EUP for Applications

A three server application 354W consumption in idle $226.67 annual cost Example Simple write operation

EUP for Operating Systems

Virtualization helps to reclaim about 20% of the peak energy consumption Optimization is the key Disable unneeded services Screen savers Minimize disk activity Fixed virtual disk size

Approaches to GREEN COMPUTING


Algorithmic Efficiency Power Management Video Card Display Materials Recycling Telecommuting

Green Technologies
Power saving by link status
Wi-Fi Scheduler

Smart Fan

Green Web Surfing


Greener Google Browsing: Blackle.com Being Green with Yahoo! Greener FireFox Surfing

Other Green Surfing Efforts

To summarize
Green computing is a novel and an innovative trend in the world of computing which has minimum or no impact on the environment.
Green computing has introduced a range of equipments and technologies which help in limiting the impact on the environment. Use of EUPs help in different aspects of the computing world help in recognizing the areas for improvement.

Green Computing
Why
computer energy is often wasteful
leaving the computer on when not in use (CPU and fan consume power, screen savers consume power)

printing is often wasteful


how many of you print out your emails or meeting agendas printing out partial drafts for a paperless society, we tend to use more paper today than before computer-prevalence

pollution
manufacturing techniques packaging disposal of computers and components

toxicity
as we will see, there are toxic chemicals used in the manufacturing of computers and components which can enter the food chain and water!

Energy Use of PCs


CPU uses 120 Watts CRT uses 150 Watts
8 hours of usage, 5 days a week = 562 KWatts
if the computer is left on all the time without proper power saver modes, this can lead to 1,600 KWatts

for a large institution, say a university of 40,000 students and faculty, the power bill for just computers can come to $2 million / year

Energy use comes from


electrical current to run the CPU, motherboard, memory running the fan and spinning the disk(s) monitor (CRTs consume more power than any other computer component) printers

Reducing Energy Consumption


Turn off the computer when not in use, even if just for an hour Turn off the monitor when not in use (as opposed to running a screen saver) Use power saver mode
in power saver mode, the top item is not necessary, but screen savers use as much electricity as any normal processing, and the screen saver is not necessary on a flat panel display

Use hardware/software with the Energy Star label


Energy Star is a seal of approval by the Energy Star organization of the government (the EPA)

Dont print unless necessary and you are ready Use LCDs instead of CRTs as they are more power efficient

Manufacturing
Microchip fabrication has over 400 distinct steps which involve 4 general phases

Throughout, the process requires a great deal of ultra-pure water and the chips are bathed in chemical solvents
the resources used are shown below

Chemical Elements Used: Lead


used in soldering of printed circuit boards and other components
also used in glass for CRTs

It is estimated that between 1997 and 2004, 1.2 billion tons of lead was used in computer components The problem:
lead can cause damage to the central and peripheral nervous systems, blood system, kidneys, endocrine system and cause negative effects on child brain development lead accumulates in the environment and has toxic effects on plants, animals and microorganisms electronics contribute 40% of the total amount of lead found in landfills and can make its way from landfills into the water supplies

Chemical Elements Used: Mercury


Mercury is used in
batteries, switches, housing, printed circuit boards mercury is found in medical equipment, data transmission equipment, telecommunications equipment and cell phones as well if is estimated that 22% of the yearly use of mercury is in electrical and electronic equipment
although a small amount of mercury is used, it is used in nearly all computer construction amounting to 400,000 pounds of mercury used between 1997 and 2004

The problem
mercury spreads out in water transforming into methylated mercury which easily accumulates in living organisms it enters the food chain through fish that swim in polluted waters methylated mercury can cause chronic brain damage

Cadmium is used in resistors for chips, infrared detectors and in semiconductors (plus older CRTs)
estimated that between 1997 and 2004, 2 million pounds of cadmium was used in computer components

Other Chemical Elements

The problem:
cadmium is classified as toxic, these compounds accumulate in the human body, particularly the kidneys cadmium is absorbed through respiration and also food intake cadmium has a half life of 30 years so that cadmium can poison a human body slowly through the humans life

Hexavalent Chromium (Chromium VI) is used to treat steel plates (an anti-corrosive) and it is estimated that between 1997 and 2004, 1.2 million pounds were used in computer components
if youve seen Erin Brokovich, you know that this can lead to cancer and a number of other medical problems

Plastics
Plastics are found throughout the computer, largely from casings but also internally to hold components together
4 billion pounds of plastic were used to build computers and components between 1997 and 2004

One specific form of plastics used is polyvinyl chloride (PVC) which is used in cabling and housings
PVC is difficult to recycle and the production and burning of PVC generates dioxins and furans

The plastics in computers are often treated with flame retardant chemicals, particularly brominated flame retardant
these chemicals can act as endocrine disrupters and increase risk of several forms of cancer they have been found entering the food chain

Chemical Elements Found in Computers and Components


Elements in bulk: lead, tin, copper, silicon, carbon, iron and aluminum Elements in small amounts: cadmium and mercury Elements in trace amounts:
germanium, gallium, barium, nickel, tantalum, indium, vanadium, terbium, beryllium, gold, europium, titanium, ruthenium, cobalt, palladium, manganese, silver, antimony, bismuth, selenium, niobium, yttrium, rhodium, platinum, arsenic, lithium, boron, americium

List of examples of devices containing these elements


almost all electronics contain lead & tin (as solder) and copper (as wire & PCB tracks), though the use of lead-free solder is now spreading rapidly lead: solder, CRT monitors (Lead in glass), Lead-acid battery

List Continued
List of examples of devices containing these elements
tin: solder copper: copper wire, printed circuit board tracks aluminum: nearly all electronic goods using more than a few watts of power iron: steel chassis, cases & fixings silicon: glass, transistors, ICs, Printed circuit boards. nickel & cadmium: nickel-cadmium rechargeable batteries lithium: lithium-ion battery zinc: plating for steel parts gold: connector plating, primarily in computer equipment mercury: fluorescent tubes (numerous applications), tilt switches (pinball games, mechanical doorbells) sulphur: lead-acid battery carbon: steel, plastics, resistors

Disposal
Consider that the average computer lifespan is about 2 years (cell phones < 2 years)
10 years ago, the lifespan of a computer was 5 years between 1997 and 2004, it is estimated that 315 million computers became obsolete (and were discarded, donated, or recycled)

183 million computers were sold in 2004 (674 million cell phones!) New users in China (178 million by 2010) and India (80 million by 2010) will require the creation of new computers Disposal of these devices constituted 20-50 million tons per year (about 5% of the total waste of the planet)
this waste is called e-waste where are we going to put all of it?

Land Fills

Europe has outlawed using landfills for computer components


the US and Europe export a lot of e-waste to Asian landfills (especially China even though China has outlawed the importing of e-waste) in addition, incineration of computer components leads to air pollution and airborne toxins

Other Solutions
Reuse: donate your computer components to people who may not have or have lesser quality computers
inner city schools, churches, libraries, third world countries
this however leads to the older computers being dumped but there is probably no way around this as eventually the older computers would be discarded anyway

Refurbish: rather than discarding your computer when the next generation is released, just get a new CPU and memory chips upgrade rather than replace
while you will still be discarded some components, you will retain most of the computer system (e.g., monitor, the system unit housing, cables)

Are there adequate incentives to do either of the above? Do computer companies encourage refurbishing/upgrading?

One More Solution: Recycling


If companies can recycle the plastics and other components, this can greatly reduce waste and toxins
however, the hazardous materials in e-waste can harm the recycle workers if they are not properly protected
in undeveloped countries, a lot of the recycling chores are left up to unprotected children!

Developed countries now have facilities for recycling ewaste


however, in Europe, the plastics are discarded instead of recycled because the flame retardant chemicals are too toxic to work with

To resolve these problems, the computer manufacturers must start using recyclable chemicals

How Do the Companies Rate?


8: Nokia - regained its top position for eliminating the worst chemicals from many products
still needs to report on its recycling rate percentage

7.3: Dell - still among the top but loses points for not having models free of the worst chemicals
strong support for global take back

7.3: Lenovo - dropping down the rank for not having a clear global take back program
still missing out on products free of the worst chemicals on the market

7: Sony Ericsson - among the top with clear timeline to have products free of the worst chemicals by 2008
need better chemicals take back reporting program

Continued
6.7: Samsung - strong position for having a good chemical policy, but still lack products that are free from the worst chemicals
its take back system is not yet global and need improvement

6.7: Motorola - some products on the market are free from the worst chemicals but loses points for not providing clear timelines for eliminating these chemicals in all products
score points on reporting the recycling rate

6: Toshiba - good improvement particularly on waste and take back criteria


moved forward for providing some models without the worst chemicals and for timelines for complete phase out

6: Fujitsu-Siemens - some models free of worst chemicals, but loses point for a weak take back and recycling program

5.7: Acer - standing still with improved chemical policies but no models free of the worst chemicals
needs to improve on take back program

Continued

5.3: Apple - top mover with concrete timelines to eliminate the worst chemicals
loses points for not have a green product on the market and for a weak take back program

5.3: HP - a free-faller, dropping down for failing to provide clear timelines for eliminating the worst chemicals
it looses points for weak definition of take back policies

5: Panasonic - moving up for making available products free of the worst chemicals
loses point for poor take back program

4: Sony - at the bottom of the rank for losing penalty point for inconsistent take back policies
some models without the worst chemicals

1. Develop a sustainable green computing plan

Five Steps to Green Computing

Plan should include recycling policies, recommendations for disposal of used equipments, government regulations and recommendations for purchasing green computer equipments Green computing best practices and policies should cover power usage, reduction of paper consumption as well as recommendations for new equipments and recycling of old machines

2. Recycle
Discard used or unwanted electronic equipments in a environmentally responsible manner. Never discard a computer in a landfill. Recycle them through manufacturer's programs such as HPs Planet partners recycling service or recycling facilities in your community. Or donate still working computers to a non profit agency.

3. Make environmentally sound purchasing decisions


Purchase Electronic Product Environmental Assessment Tool registered products. EPEAT is a procurement tool promoted by non profit green electronics council to:
Help institutional purchasers evaluate, compare and select desktops, notebooks and monitors based on environmental attributes Recognize manufacturers efforts to reduce the environmental impact of products by reducing or eliminating environmentally sensitive materials, designing for longevity and reducing packaging materials.

Five Steps to Green Computing

4. Reduce Paper Consumption


Many easier ways to reduce paper consumption: E-mail, Electronic achieving , use the track changes feature in electronic documents, rather than red line corrections on paper. When you do print your documents, make sure to use both sides of the paper, recycle regularly, use smaller fonts and margins and selectively print required pages.

5. Conserve Energy
Turn off your computer when you know that you wont use it for an extended period of time. Turn on power management features during shorter periods of inactivity.

Five Steps to Green Computing


Power management allows monitors and computers to enter low power states when sitting idle. By simply hitting the keyboard or moving the mouse, the computer or monitor awakens from its low power sleep mode in seconds. Power management tactics can save energy and help protect the environment. Green computing represents a responsible way to address the issue of global warming. By adopting green computing practices, business leaders can contribute positively to environmental stewardship and protect the environment while also reducing energy and paper costs.

Conclusions

Green IT
IT is a major power consumer A significant percentage of the power is wasted Opportunities exist to dramtically improve IT energy efficiency IT can be a very beneficial part of the Green movement